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Taxonomy browser (Bacteria)


Taxonomy ID: 2 (for references in articles please use NCBI:txid2)
current name
Bacteria Woese et al. 2024 in [Göker M & Oren A (2024)]
homotypic synonym:
"Bacteria" Woese et al. 1990 in [Woese CR et al. (1990)]
Genbank common name: eubacteria
NCBI BLAST name: bacteria
Rank: superkingdom
Genetic code: Translation table 11 (Bacterial, Archaeal and Plant Plastid)
Other names:
heterotypic synonym
"Bacteria" Cavalier-Smith 1987, effective name 1) in [Cavalier-Smith T (1987)]
heterotypic synonym
"Bacteriobiota" Luketa 2012, effective name 2) in [Luketa S (2012)]
blast name
Lineage( full )
cellular organisms
   Entrez records   
Database name Subtree links Direct links
Nucleotide 103,805,885 24
Protein 1,029,428,144 36,515
Structure 72,622 1
Genome 37,515 1
Popset 72,762 12,481
Conserved Domains 22,616 10,120
GEO Datasets 135,315 2,250
PubMed Central 1,365,032 -
Gene 25,421,538 -
SRA Experiments 2,948,916 1,981
GEO Profiles 904,754 -
Protein Clusters 942,125 11,385
Identical Protein Groups 596,587,578 36,498
BioProject 161,450 730
BioSample 4,352,251 1,852
Assembly 2,176,622 -
Genetic Testing Registry 7 -
PubChem BioAssay 148,181 814
Taxonomy 564,063 1


Comments and References:

Göker M & Oren A (2024), PubMed: abstract
Göker, M., and Oren, A. "Valid publication of names of two domains and seven kingdoms of prokaryotes." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2024) 74(1):006242.
Woese CR et al. (1990), doi: 10.1073/pnas.87.12.4576, PubMed: abstract
Woese, C.R., Kandler, O., and Wheelis, M.L. "Towards a natural system of organisms: proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA (1990) 87(12):4576-4579.
Cavalier-Smith T (1987), PubMed: abstract
Cavalier-Smith, T. "The origin of eukaryotic and archaebacterial cells." Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. (1987) 503(1):17-54.
Luketa S (2012)
Luketa, S. "New views on the megaclassification of life." Protistology (2012) 7(4):218-237.
When Carl Woese first set forth the three-domain classification of life, he proposed the names "Archaebacteria" and "Eubacteria" for the two prokaryotic domains. These were replaced with the names "Archaea" and "Bacteria" in Woese et al. (1990). The taxonomic name "Bacteria" refers only to the eubacteria. The informal name "bacteria" is occasionally used loosely in the literature to refer to all of the prokayrotes, and care should be taken to interpret it's meaning in any particular context.
Achenbach-Richter L et al. (1987)
Achenbach-Richter, L., Gupta, R., Stetter, K.O., and Woese, C.R. "Were the original eubacteria thermophiles?" Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (1987) 9:34-39.
Christensen H et al. (2000)
Christensen, H., Angen, O., Mutters, R., Olsen, J.E., and Bisgaard, M. "DNA-DNA hybridization determined in micro-wells using covalent attachment of DNA." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2000) 50:1095-1102.
Christensen H et al. (2001)
Christensen, H., Bisgaard, M., Frederiksen, W., Mutters, R., Kuhnert, P., and Olsen, J.E. "Is characterization of a single isolate sufficient for valid publication of a new genus or species? Proposal to modify recommendation 30b of the Bacteriological Code (1990 Revision)." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2001) 51:2221-2225.
Clayton RA et al. (1995)
Clayton, R.A., Sutton, G., Hinkle, P.S. Jr, Bult, C., and Fields, C. "Intraspecific variation in small-subunit rRNA sequences in GenBank: why single sequences may not adequately represent prokaryotic taxa." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1995) 45:595-599.
Dalevi D et al. (2001)
Dalevi, D., Hugenholtz, P., and Blackall, L.L. "A multiple-outgroup approach to resolving division-level phylogenetic relationships using 16S rDNA data." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2001) 51:385-391.
Euzeby JP (1997b)
Euzeby, J.P. "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:590-592.
Göker M et al. (2022), doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.005754
Göker, M., Moore, E.R.B., Oren, A., and Trujillo, M.E. "Status of the SeqCode in the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2022) 72(12):005754.
Gurtler V & Mayall BC (2001)
Gurtler, V., and Mayall, B.C. "Genomic approaches to typing, taxonomy and evolution of bacterial isolates." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2001) 51:3-16
Haeckel EH (1894)
Haeckel, E.H.: Systematische Phylogenie der Protisten und Planzen. (1894) I.G. Reimer, Berlin. p. 40.
Hansmann S & Martin W (2000)
Hansmann, S., and Martin, W. "Phylogeny of 33 ribosomal and six other proteins encoded in an ancient gene cluster that is conserved across prokaryotic genomes: influence of excluding poorly alignable sites from analysis." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2000) 50:1655-1663.
Keswani J & Whitman WB (2001)
Keswani, J., and Whitman, W.B. "Relationship of 16S rRNA sequence similarity to DNA hybridization in prokaryotes." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2001) 51:667-678.
Moore LV et al. (1994b)
Moore, L.V., Bourne, D.M., and Moore, W.E. "Comparative distribution and taxonomic value of cellular fatty acids in thirty-three genera of anaerobic gram-negative bacilli." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1994) 44:338-347.
Murray RG & Schleifer KH (1994)
Murray, R.G., and Schleifer, K.H. "Taxonomic notes: a proposal for recording the properties of putative taxa of procaryotes." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1994) 44(1):174-176.
Palys T et al. (1997)
Palys, T., Nakamura, L.K., and Cohan, F.M. "Discovery and classification of ecological diversity in the bacterial world: the role of DNA sequence data." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:1145-1156.
Stackebrandt E et al. (2002)
Stackebrandt, E., Frederiksen, W., Garrity, G.M., Grimont, P.A., Kampfer, P., Maiden, M.C., Nesme, X., Rossello-Mora, R., Swings, J., Truper, H.G., Vauterin, L., Ward, A.C., and Whitman, W.B. "Report of the ad hoc committee for the re-evaluation of the species definition in bacteriology." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2002) 52:1043-1047.
Sutcliffe IC et al. (2020), other link:
Sutcliffe, I.C., Dijkshoorn, L., Whitman, W.B., Executive Board OBOTI. "Minutes of the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes online discussion on the proposed use of gene sequences as type for naming of prokaryotes, and outcome of vote." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2020) 70(7):4416-4417.
Tindall BJ (1999b)
Tindall, B.J. "Proposals to update and make changes to the Bacteriological Code." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) 49:1309-1312. [No abstract available.]
Tindall BJ (1999c)
Tindall, B.J. "Misunderstanding the Bacteriological Code." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) 49:1313-1316.
Tindall BJ (1999d)
Tindall, B.J. "Proposal to change Rule 18a, Rule 18f and Rule 30 to limit the retroactive consequences of changes accepted by the ICSB." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) 49:1321-1322. [No abstract available.]
Tindall BJ (1999e)
Tindall, B.J. "Proposal to change the Rule governing the designation of type strains deposited under culture collection numbers allocated for patent purposes." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1999) 49:1317-1319. [No abstract available.]
Truper HG (1994)
Truper, H.G., "Taxonomic notes: Names for higher taxa and their impact on the Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1994) 368-369. [No PubMed record available.]
Viale AM et al. (1994)
Viale, A.M., Arakaki, A.K., Soncini, F.C., and Ferreyra, R.G. "Evolutionary relationships among eubacterial groups as inferred from GroEL (chaperonin) sequence comparisons." Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1994) 44:527-533.
Winker S & Woese CR (1991)
Winker, S., and Woese, C.R. "A definition of the domains Archaea, Bacteria and Eucarya in terms of small subunit ribosomal RNA characteristics." Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (1991) 14:305-310.
Woese CR & Fox GE (1977)
Woese, C.R., and Fox, G.E. "Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms." Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U S A (1977) 74:5088-5090.
Woese CR et al. (1985)
Woese, C.R., Stackebrandt, E., Macke, T.J., and Fox, G.E. "A phylogenetic definition of the major eubacterial taxa." Syst. Appl. Microbiol. (1985) 6:143-151.
Xu HX et al. (2000)
Xu, H.X., Kawamura, Y., Li, N., Zhao, L., Li, T.M., Li, Z.Y., Shu, S., and Ezaki, T. "A rapid method for determining the G+C content of bacterial chromosomes by monitoring fluorescence intensity during DNA denaturation in a capillary tube." Int. J. Syst.Evol. Microbiol. (2000) 50:1463-1469.
Young JM (2000)
Young, J.M. "Suggestions for avoiding on-going confusion from the Bacteriological Code." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2000) 50:1687-1689. [No abstract available.]
Young JM (2001)
Young, J.M. "Implications of alternative classifications and horizontal gene transfer for bacterial taxonomy." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2001) 51:945-953.

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Disclaimer: The NCBI taxonomy database is not an authoritative source for nomenclature or classification - please consult the relevant scientific literature for the most reliable information.

Reference: How to cite this resource - Schoch CL, et al. NCBI Taxonomy: a comprehensive update on curation, resources and tools. Database (Oxford). 2020: baaa062. PubMed: 32761142 PMC: PMC7408187.

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