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    RAC1 Rac family small GTPase 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5879, updated on 5-May-2024

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    RAC1provided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    Rac family small GTPase 1provided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9801
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000136238 MIM:602048; AllianceGenome:HGNC:9801
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    MIG5; MRD48; Rac-1; TC-25; p21-Rac1
    Summary
    The protein encoded by this gene is a GTPase which belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins. Members of this superfamily appear to regulate a diverse array of cellular events, including the control of cell growth, cytoskeletal reorganization, and the activation of protein kinases. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2009]
    Expression
    Ubiquitous expression in esophagus (RPKM 113.8), brain (RPKM 110.4) and 25 other tissues See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
    Try the new Gene table
    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See RAC1 in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    7p22.1
    Exon count:
    7
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 7 NC_000007.14 (6374527..6403967)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 7 NC_060931.1 (6493927..6523370)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 7 NC_000007.13 (6414158..6443598)

    Chromosome 7 - NC_000007.14Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene small integral membrane protein 10 like 3 Neighboring gene family with sequence similarity 220 member A Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:6387689-6388190 Neighboring gene H3K27ac hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:6388191-6388690 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:6407719-6408220 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:6408221-6408720 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17941 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17942 Neighboring gene ribosomal protein SA pseudogene 73 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25621 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25622 Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:6449304-6449840 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:6454955-6455531 Neighboring gene diacylglycerol lipase beta Neighboring gene H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr7:6464151-6464650 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25623 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak6358 silencer Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25624 Neighboring gene KDEL endoplasmic reticulum protein retention receptor 2 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25625 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25626 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17943 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17944

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    HIV-1 interactions

    Replication interactions

    Interaction Pubs
    HIV-1 VLP production/release from Jurkat T lymphocytes requires an intact RAC1-WASF2-BAIAP2-ARP3 pathway as demonstrated by siRNA knockdown experiments PubMed
    siRNA knockdown of RAC1 decreases virus production by Jurkat T lymphocytes (HIV VLP) by 50% as shown by immunoblotting as a result of 70% RAC1 knockdown efficiency; HIV VLP production is enhanced by RAC1 PubMed

    Protein interactions

    Protein Gene Interaction Pubs
    Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 env SLIT2N, an active fragment of SLIT2, inhibits M-tropic HIV-1 gp120-induced Src signaling and activation of its downstream targets Pyk2, CDC42, Rac1, and paxillin in immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120-induced Pyk2 activation mediated by intracellular Ca2+ release is required for HIV-1 gp120-mediated Rac-1 activation and membrane fusion PubMed
    env Inhibition of the RhoA/Rac1 signal cascade by guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors limits the HIV-1 gp120-dependent early phase of the viral life cycle PubMed
    env PLC-beta activation and intracellular Ca2+ release are required for HIV-1 gp120-mediated Rac-1 activation and membrane fusion via the G-alpha(q/11) family of G proteins PubMed
    env HIV-1 gp120 activates LIMK1/2 by increased levels of LIMK1/2 phosphorylation. Gp120-mediated LIMK activation is dependent on the Rack-PAK-LIMK pathway through phosphorylation of PAK2 and Rac1 PubMed
    Nef nef HIV-1 Nef interacts with Rac1 in a protein complex including DOCK2 and ELMO1 PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef enhances the expression of Rac1 in human podocyte PubMed
    nef Rac1 inhibits HIV-1 Nef-mediated CD80 and CD86 relocation from cell surface to the intracellular compartment PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef binds and activates Nef-associated kinase via interactions with the small GTPases CDC42 and Rac1, which are required for optimal levels of Nef-dependent viral replication in vivo PubMed
    nef HIV-1 Nef-mediated activation of Vav induces an increase of active Rac1 levels PubMed
    Pr55(Gag) gag HIV-1 Gag is required by the RAC1-WASF2-BAIAP2-ARP3 pathway for HIV VLP production/release from Jurkat T lymphocytes PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag is localized by RAC1 to the membrane of Jurkat T lymphocytes PubMed
    gag HIV-1 Gag activates RAC1 in Jurkat T cells and intracellular F-actin content is increased PubMed
    Tat tat Knocking down Nox2 by siRNA blocks HIV-1 Tat-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, increase of NADPH oxidase activity, and Rac1 activation PubMed
    tat Multivalent TatP activates Rac1 to slow molecular movement and induce internalization through macropinocytosis PubMed
    tat HIV-1 Tat activates the small GTPases Ras and Rac and the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK when expressed in human endothelial cells; this effect is mediated through the arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD) region of Tat PubMed
    tat In Jurkat cells expressing HIV-1 Tat, decreased expression levels are found for basic cytoskeletal proteins such as actin, beta-tubulin, annexin, cofilin, gelsolin, and Rac/Rho-GDI complex PubMed

    Go to the HIV-1, Human Interaction Database

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Clone Names

    • MGC111543

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables G protein activity IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    enables GTP binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables GTP binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables GTP binding IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables GTPase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables GTPase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables GTPase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor binding ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    enables enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein kinase binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables protein kinase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein-containing complex binding IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables thioesterase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in Rac protein signal transduction IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity pathway NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within actin cytoskeleton organization IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in actin filament organization IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in actin filament polymerization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in anatomical structure morphogenesis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cell adhesion TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cell chemotaxis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in cell migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cell motility IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cell projection assembly IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in cell-matrix adhesion NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in cortical cytoskeleton organization IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in engulfment of apoptotic cell IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in establishment or maintenance of cell polarity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in hepatocyte growth factor receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in inflammatory response IC
    Inferred by Curator
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in intracellular signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in lamellipodium assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in localization within membrane IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in motor neuron axon guidance IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of fibroblast migration IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of interleukin-23 production IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of receptor-mediated endocytosis TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in neuron migration ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in positive regulation of Rho protein signal transduction TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of endothelial cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of focal adhesion assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of lamellipodium assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of microtubule polymerization IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of neutrophil chemotaxis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of protein phosphorylation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of stress fiber assembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of stress fiber assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of actin cytoskeleton organization IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of cell migration IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of cell shape IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of cell size IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of cell size IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of hydrogen peroxide metabolic process TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of lamellipodium assembly IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of neutrophil migration IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of nitric oxide biosynthetic process ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in regulation of respiratory burst IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in regulation of stress fiber assembly IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in respiratory burst NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in response to wounding TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in ruffle assembly IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    acts_upstream_of_or_within ruffle organization IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in ruffle organization TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in semaphorin-plexin signaling pathway ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    involved_in small GTPase-mediated signal transduction IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor signaling pathway IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in substrate adhesion-dependent cell spreading IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    Component Evidence Code Pubs
    part_of NADPH oxidase complex NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    colocalizes_with actin filament IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cell cortex IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytoplasm IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein granule IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    is_active_in cytoplasmic vesicle IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    is_active_in cytoskeleton IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in cytosol ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in cytosol TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in dendritic spine IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in dendritic spine IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in endoplasmic reticulum membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in extracellular exosome HDA PubMed 
    located_in ficolin-1-rich granule membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in focal adhesion HDA PubMed 
    is_active_in glutamatergic synapse IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    is_active_in glutamatergic synapse IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in lamellipodium IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in melanosome IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    located_in membrane ISS
    Inferred from Sequence or Structural Similarity
    more info
     
    located_in nucleus IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    is_active_in plasma membrane IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    located_in plasma membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in plasma membrane NAS
    Non-traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in plasma membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    is_active_in postsynapse IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    is_active_in postsynapse IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in recycling endosome membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in ruffle membrane IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    located_in secretory granule membrane TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
     
    located_in trans-Golgi network IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1
    Names
    cell migration-inducing gene 5 protein
    ras-like protein TC25
    ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)
    NP_008839.2
    NP_061485.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_029431.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5033..34473
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_006908.5NP_008839.2  ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 isoform Rac1

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_008839.2

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (Rac1) has a 57 bp in-frame deletion of exon 3b in the coding region, as compared to the variant Rac1b.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC009412
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5348.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      O95501, P15154, P63000, Q3Y4D3, Q5JAA8, Q9BTB4
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A4D2P1, B1AH80
      Related
      ENSP00000258737.7, ENST00000348035.9
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd01871
      Location:3176
      Rac1_like; Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)-like consists of Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3
    2. NM_018890.4NP_061485.1  ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 isoform Rac1b

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_061485.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (Rac1b) includes the alternatively spliced 57 bp region (exon 3b) that is missing in transcript variant Rac1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AC009412
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5349.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      A4D2P0, B1AH80
      Related
      ENSP00000348461.4, ENST00000356142.4
      Conserved Domains (1) summary
      cd01871
      Location:3195
      Rac1_like; Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1)-like consists of Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000007.14 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      6374527..6403967
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060931.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      6493927..6523370
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Suppressed Reference Sequence(s)

    The following Reference Sequences have been suppressed. Explain

    1. NM_198829.1: Suppressed sequence

      Description
      NM_198829.1: This RefSeq was permanently suppressed because it is a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) candidate if the correct translation start site is annotated.