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    PLG plasminogen [ Homo sapiens (human) ]

    Gene ID: 5340, updated on 23-Nov-2023

    Summary

    Official Symbol
    PLGprovided by HGNC
    Official Full Name
    plasminogenprovided by HGNC
    Primary source
    HGNC:HGNC:9071
    See related
    Ensembl:ENSG00000122194 MIM:173350; AllianceGenome:HGNC:9071
    Gene type
    protein coding
    RefSeq status
    REVIEWED
    Organism
    Homo sapiens
    Lineage
    Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo
    Also known as
    HAE4
    Summary
    The plasminogen protein encoded by this gene is a serine protease that circulates in blood plasma as an inactive zymogen and is converted to the active protease, plasmin, by several plasminogen activators such as tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), kallikrein, and factor XII (Hageman factor). The conversion of plasminogen to plasmin involves the cleavage of the peptide bond between Arg-561 and Val-562. Plasmin cleavage also releases the angiostatin protein which inhibits angiogenesis. Plasmin degrades many blood plasma proteins, including fibrin-containing blood clots. As a serine protease, plasmin cleaves many products in addition to fibrin such as fibronectin, thrombospondin, laminin, and von Willebrand factor. Plasmin is inactivated by proteins such as alpha-2-macroglobulin and alpha-2-antiplasmin in addition to inhibitors of the various plasminogen activators. Plasminogen also interacts with plasminogen receptors which results in the retention of plasmin on cell surfaces and in plasmin-induced cell signaling. The localization of plasminogen on cell surfaces plays a role in the degradation of extracellular matrices, cell migration, inflamation, wound healing, oncogenesis, metastasis, myogenesis, muscle regeneration, neurite outgrowth, and fibrinolysis. This protein may also play a role in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which, in part, is caused by enhanced clot formation and the suppression of fibrinolysis. Compared to other mammals, the cluster of plasminogen-like genes to which this gene belongs has been rearranged in catarrhine primates. [provided by RefSeq, May 2020]
    Annotation information
    Note: This gene has been reviewed for its involvement in coronavirus biology, and is relevant for disease process.
    Expression
    Restricted expression toward liver (RPKM 588.1) See more
    Orthologs
    NEW
    Try the new Gene table
    Try the new Transcript table

    Genomic context

    See PLG in Genome Data Viewer
    Location:
    6q26
    Exon count:
    19
    Annotation release Status Assembly Chr Location
    RS_2023_10 current GRCh38.p14 (GCF_000001405.40) 6 NC_000006.12 (160702193..160754097)
    RS_2023_10 current T2T-CHM13v2.0 (GCF_009914755.1) 6 NC_060930.1 (162049910..162101977)
    105.20220307 previous assembly GRCh37.p13 (GCF_000001405.25) 6 NC_000006.11 (161123225..161175129)

    Chromosome 6 - NC_000006.12Genomic Context describing neighboring genes Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:160907332-160908531 Neighboring gene lipoprotein(a) like 2 (pseudogene) Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17759 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC124901454 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17760 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17761 Neighboring gene lipoprotein(a) Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161025992-161027191 Neighboring gene H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161106525-161107079 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17762 Neighboring gene CDK7 strongly-dependent group 2 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161158745-161159944 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25403 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17763 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid silent region 17764 Neighboring gene plasminogen-like protein B Neighboring gene NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161200290-161200791 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25404 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25405 Neighboring gene ATAC-STARR-seq lymphoblastoid active region 25406 Neighboring gene Neanderthal introgressed variant-containing enhancer experimental_91154 Neighboring gene BRD4-independent group 4 enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161262159-161263358 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC112267969 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161298543-161299475 Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG-H3K27ac-H3K4me1 hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161303800-161304432 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak6293 silencer Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak6294 silencer Neighboring gene OCT4-NANOG hESC enhancer GRCh37_chr6:161309865-161310670 Neighboring gene MPRA-validated peak6295 silencer Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC105378093 Neighboring gene uncharacterized LOC102724087

    Genomic regions, transcripts, and products

    Expression

    • Project title: HPA RNA-seq normal tissues
    • Description: RNA-seq was performed of tissue samples from 95 human individuals representing 27 different tissues in order to determine tissue-specificity of all protein-coding genes
    • BioProject: PRJEB4337
    • Publication: PMID 24309898
    • Analysis date: Wed Apr 4 07:08:55 2018

    Bibliography

    GeneRIFs: Gene References Into Functions

    What's a GeneRIF?

    Phenotypes

    Associated conditions

    Description Tests
    Angioedema, hereditary, 4
    MedGen: C5543503 OMIM: 619360 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs
    Plasminogen deficiency, type I
    MedGen: C1968804 OMIM: 217090 GeneReviews: Not available
    Compare labs

    EBI GWAS Catalog

    Description
    Genetic variants in PLG, LPA and SIGLEC 14 as well as smoking contribute to plasma plasminogen levels.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Genetic variants, plasma lipoprotein(a) levels, and risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among two prospective cohorts of type 2 diabetes.
    EBI GWAS Catalog
    Linkage and association of successful aging to the 6q25 region in large Amish kindreds.
    EBI GWAS Catalog

    Pathways from PubChem

    Interactions

    Products Interactant Other Gene Complex Source Pubs Description

    General gene information

    Markers

    Clone Names

    • DKFZp779M0222

    Gene Ontology Provided by GOA

    Function Evidence Code Pubs
    enables apolipoprotein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables endopeptidase activity IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables endopeptidase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables enzyme binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables kinase binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protease binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein antigen binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein domain specific binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables protein-folding chaperone binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables serine-type endopeptidase activity IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables serine-type endopeptidase activity IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables serine-type peptidase activity TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    enables signaling receptor binding IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    enables signaling receptor binding IPI
    Inferred from Physical Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    Process Evidence Code Pubs
    involved_in biological process involved in interaction with symbiont IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in blood coagulation IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in extracellular matrix disassembly IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in fibrinolysis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in labyrinthine layer blood vessel development IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in mononuclear cell migration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in muscle cell cellular homeostasis IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in myoblast differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in negative regulation of cell population proliferation TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell-cell adhesion mediated by cadherin TAS
    Traceable Author Statement
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of cell-substrate adhesion IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in negative regulation of fibrinolysis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of blood vessel endothelial cell migration IGI
    Inferred from Genetic Interaction
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in positive regulation of fibrinolysis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in proteolysis IBA
    Inferred from Biological aspect of Ancestor
    more info
     
    involved_in proteolysis IDA
    Inferred from Direct Assay
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in proteolysis IMP
    Inferred from Mutant Phenotype
    more info
    PubMed 
    involved_in tissue regeneration IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in tissue remodeling IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in trans-synaptic signaling by BDNF, modulating synaptic transmission IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     
    involved_in trophoblast giant cell differentiation IEA
    Inferred from Electronic Annotation
    more info
     

    General protein information

    Preferred Names
    plasminogen
    Names
    plasmin
    NP_000292.1
    NP_001161810.1

    NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq)

    NEW Try the new Transcript table

    RefSeqs maintained independently of Annotated Genomes

    These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain

    These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above.

    Genomic

    1. NG_016200.1 RefSeqGene

      Range
      5001..56862
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics), LRG_571

    mRNA and Protein(s)

    1. NM_000301.5NP_000292.1  plasminogen isoform 1 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_000292.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (1) represents the longer transcript and encodes the longer isoform (1).
      Source sequence(s)
      AL109933
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS5279.1
      UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
      P00747, Q15146, Q5TEH4, Q6PA00
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      B2R7F8
      Related
      ENSP00000308938.9, ENST00000308192.14
      Conserved Domains (4) summary
      smart00020
      Location:580803
      Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease
      smart00130
      Location:101183
      KR; Kringle domain
      cd00190
      Location:581804
      Tryp_SPc; Trypsin-like serine protease; Many of these are synthesized as inactive precursor zymogens that are cleaved during limited proteolysis to generate their active forms. Alignment contains also inactive enzymes that have substitutions of the catalytic triad ...
      cd01099
      Location:3897
      PAN_AP_HGF; Subfamily of PAN/APPLE-like domains; present in N-terminal (N) domains of plasminogen/hepatocyte growth factor proteins, and various proteins found in Bilateria, such as leech anti-platelet proteins. PAN/APPLE domains fulfill diverse biological functions ...
    2. NM_001168338.1NP_001161810.1  plasminogen isoform 2 precursor

      See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_001161810.1

      Status: REVIEWED

      Description
      Transcript Variant: This variant (2) differs in the 3' UTR and coding sequence compared to variant 1. The resulting isoform (2) is shorter at the C-terminus compared to isoform 1.
      Source sequence(s)
      AL109933, DR004070
      Consensus CDS
      CCDS55074.1
      UniProtKB/TrEMBL
      Q5TEH5
      Related
      ENSP00000355891.2, ENST00000366924.6
      Conserved Domains (2) summary
      cd01099
      Location:3897
      PAN_AP_HGF; Subfamily of PAN/APPLE-like domains; present in N-terminal (N) domains of plasminogen/hepatocyte growth factor proteins, and various proteins found in Bilateria, such as leech anti-platelet proteins. PAN/APPLE domains fulfill diverse biological functions ...
      cl00100
      Location:102136
      KR; Kringle domain; Kringle domains are believed to play a role in binding mediators, such as peptides, other proteins, membranes, or phospholipids. They are autonomous structural domains, found in a varying number of copies, in blood clotting and ...

    RefSeqs of Annotated Genomes: GCF_000001405.40-RS_2023_10

    The following sections contain reference sequences that belong to a specific genome build. Explain

    Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

    Genomic

    1. NC_000006.12 Reference GRCh38.p14 Primary Assembly

      Range
      160702193..160754097
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)

    Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

    Genomic

    1. NC_060930.1 Alternate T2T-CHM13v2.0

      Range
      162049910..162101977
      Download
      GenBank, FASTA, Sequence Viewer (Graphics)