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Antley-Bixler syndrome

A rare syndromic craniosynostosis characterized by craniosynostosis with midface hypoplasia, radiohumeral synostosis, femoral bowing and joint contractures. [from ORDO]


Blau syndrome

Blau syndrome is characterized by the triad of granulomatous arthritis, uveitis, and dermatitis. First described in 1985, it was considered to be distinct from sarcoidosis due to the early age of onset and autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Published reports of sporadic cases of children with 'early-onset sarcoidosis' (EOS) with granulomatous involvement of different organs, primarily affecting joints, eyes, and skin, were suspected to represent the same disorder because the patients' characteristics were nearly identical. Subsequently, identical NOD2 mutations were identified in patients with Blau syndrome as well as in patients diagnosed with EOS, confirming earlier suspicions that they represented the same disease (summary by Borzutzky et al., 2010). Unlike older children diagnosed with sarcoidosis, these patients have no apparent pulmonary involvement; however, the disease is progressive and may result in severe complications such as blindness and/or joint destruction (Shetty and Gedalia, 1998). [from OMIM]


Loeys-Dietz syndrome 1

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections), skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus, cervical spine malformation and/or instability), craniofacial features (widely spaced eyes, strabismus, bifid uvula / cleft palate, and craniosynostosis that can involve any sutures), and cutaneous findings (velvety and translucent skin, easy bruising, and dystrophic scars). Individuals with LDS are predisposed to widespread and aggressive arterial aneurysms and pregnancy-related complications including uterine rupture and death. Individuals with LDS can show a strong predisposition for allergic/inflammatory disease including asthma, eczema, and reactions to food or environmental allergens. There is also an increased incidence of gastrointestinal inflammation including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis or inflammatory bowel disease. Wide variation in the distribution and severity of clinical features can be seen in individuals with LDS, even among affected individuals within a family who have the same pathogenic variant. [from GeneReviews]


Inflammatory bowel disease 1

Crohn's disease is a complex, long-lasting (chronic) disorder that primarily affects the digestive system. This condition involves an abnormal immune response that causes excess inflammation. It most often affects the intestinal walls, particularly in the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and portions of the large intestine (the colon). However, inflammation can occur in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus. The inflamed tissues become thick and swollen, and the inner surfaces of the digestive system may develop open sores (ulcers).\n\nCrohn's disease most commonly appears in a person's late teens or twenties, although the disease can begin at any age. Signs and symptoms tend to flare up multiple times throughout life. The most common features of this condition are persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping, loss of appetite, weight loss, and fever. Some people with Crohn's disease have blood in the stool from inflamed tissues in the intestine; over time, chronic bleeding can lead to a low number of red blood cells (anemia). In some cases, Crohn's disease can also cause inflammation affecting the joints, eyes, or skin.\n\nIntestinal blockage is a common complication of Crohn's disease. Blockages are caused by swelling or a buildup of scar tissue in the intestinal walls. Some affected individuals also develop fistulae, which are abnormal connections between the intestine and other tissues. Fistulae occur when ulcers break through the intestinal wall and passages form between loops of the intestine or between the intestine and nearby structures (such as the bladder, vagina, or skin).\n\nCrohn's disease is one common form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Another type of IBD, ulcerative colitis, also causes chronic inflammation of the intestinal lining. Unlike Crohn's disease, which can affect any part of the digestive system, ulcerative colitis typically causes inflammation only in the colon. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]


Steinert myotonic dystrophy syndrome

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multisystem disorder that affects skeletal and smooth muscle as well as the eye, heart, endocrine system, and central nervous system. The clinical findings, which span a continuum from mild to severe, have been categorized into three somewhat overlapping phenotypes: mild, classic, and congenital. Mild DM1 is characterized by cataract and mild myotonia (sustained muscle contraction); life span is normal. Classic DM1 is characterized by muscle weakness and wasting, myotonia, cataract, and often cardiac conduction abnormalities; adults may become physically disabled and may have a shortened life span. Congenital DM1 is characterized by hypotonia and severe generalized weakness at birth, often with respiratory insufficiency and early death; intellectual disability is common. [from GeneReviews]


Thrombophilia due to thrombin defect

Prothrombin thrombophilia is characterized by venous thromboembolism (VTE) manifest most commonly in adults as deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) in the legs or pulmonary embolism. The clinical expression of prothrombin thrombophilia is variable; many individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the 20210G>A F2 variant never develop thrombosis, and while most heterozygotes who develop thrombotic complications remain asymptomatic until adulthood, some have recurrent thromboembolism before age 30 years. The relative risk for DVT in adults heterozygous for the 20210G>A variant is two- to fivefold increased; in children, the relative risk for thrombosis is three- to fourfold increased. Heterozygosity for 20210G>A has at most a modest effect on recurrence risk after a first episode. Although prothrombin thrombophilia may increase the risk for pregnancy loss, its association with preeclampsia and other complications of pregnancy such as intrauterine growth restriction and placental abruption remains controversial. Factors that predispose to thrombosis in prothrombin thrombophilia include: the number of 20210G>A alleles; presence of coexisting genetic abnormalities including factor V Leiden; and acquired thrombophilic disorders (e.g., antiphospholipid antibodies). Circumstantial risk factors for thrombosis include pregnancy and oral contraceptive use. Some evidence suggests that the risk for VTE in 20210G>A heterozygotes increases after air travel. [from GeneReviews]


Autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss 3A

Nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness, DFNA3 is characterized by pre- or postlingual mild-to-profound progressive high-frequency sensorineural hearing impairment. Affected individuals have no other associated medical findings. [from GeneReviews]


Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the death of motor neurons in the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord, resulting in fatal paralysis. ALS usually begins with asymmetric involvement of the muscles in middle adult life. Approximately 10% of ALS cases are familial (Siddique and Deng, 1996). ALS is sometimes referred to as 'Lou Gehrig disease' after the famous American baseball player who was diagnosed with the disorder. Rowland and Shneider (2001) and Kunst (2004) provided extensive reviews of ALS. Some forms of ALS occur with frontotemporal dementia (FTD); see 105500. Ranganathan et al. (2020) provided a detailed review of the genes involved in different forms of ALS with FTD, noting that common disease pathways involve disturbances in RNA processing, autophagy, the ubiquitin proteasome system, the unfolded protein response, and intracellular trafficking. The current understanding of ALS and FTD is that some forms of these disorders represent a spectrum of disease with converging mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Familial ALS is distinct from a form of ALS with dementia reported in cases on Guam (105500) (Espinosa et al., 1962; Husquinet and Franck, 1980), in which the histology is different and dementia and parkinsonism complicate the clinical picture. Genetic Heterogeneity of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis ALS is a genetically heterogeneous disorder, with several causative genes and mapped loci. ALS6 (608030) is caused by mutation in the FUS gene (137070) on chromosome 16p11; ALS8 (608627) is caused by mutation in the VAPB gene (605704) on chromosome 13; ALS9 (611895) is caused by mutation in the ANG gene (105850) on chromosome 14q11; ALS10 (612069) is caused by mutation in the TARDBP gene (605078) on 1p36; ALS11 (612577) is caused by mutation in the FIG4 gene (609390) on chromosome 6q21; ALS12 (613435) is caused by mutation in the OPTN gene (602432) on chromosome 10p13; ALS15 (300857) is caused by mutation in the UBQLN2 gene (300264) on chromosome Xp11; ALS18 (614808) is caused by mutation in the PFN1 gene (176610) on chromosome 17p13; ALS19 (615515) is caused by mutation in the ERBB4 gene (600543) on chromosome 2q34; ALS20 (615426) is caused by mutation in the HNRNPA1 gene (164017) on chromosome 12q13; ALS21 (606070) is caused by mutation in the MATR3 gene (164015) on chromosome 5q31; ALS22 (616208) is caused by mutation in the TUBA4A gene (191110) on chromosome 2q35; ALS23 (617839) is caused by mutation in the ANXA11 gene (602572) on chromosome 10q23; ALS26 (619133) is caused by mutation in the TIA1 gene (603518) on chromosome 2p13; ALS27 (620285) is caused by mutation in the SPTLC1 gene (605712) on chromosome 9q22; and ALS28 (620452) is caused by mutation in the LRP12 gene (618299) on chromosome 8q22. Loci associated with ALS have been found on chromosomes 18q21 (ALS3; 606640) and 20p13 (ALS7; 608031). Intermediate-length polyglutamine repeat expansions in the ATXN2 gene (601517) contribute to susceptibility to ALS (ALS13; 183090). Susceptibility to ALS24 (617892) is conferred by mutation in the NEK1 gene (604588) on chromosome 4q33, and susceptibility to ALS25 (617921) is conferred by mutation in the KIF5A gene (602821) on chromosome 12q13. Susceptibility to ALS has been associated with mutations in other genes, including deletions or insertions in the gene encoding the heavy neurofilament subunit (NEFH; 162230); deletions in the gene encoding peripherin (PRPH; 170710); and mutations in the dynactin gene (DCTN1; 601143). Some forms of ALS show juvenile onset. See juvenile-onset ALS2 (205100), caused by mutation in the alsin (606352) gene on 2q33; ALS4 (602433), caused by mutation in the senataxin gene (SETX; 608465) on 9q34; ALS5 (602099), caused by mutation in the SPG11 gene (610844) on 15q21; and ALS16 (614373), caused by mutation in the SIGMAR1 gene (601978) on 9p13. [from OMIM]


Thrombophilia due to activated protein C resistance

Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC) and an increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the most common VTE, with the legs being the most common site. Thrombosis in unusual locations is less common. Evidence suggests that heterozygosity for the Leiden variant has at most a modest effect on risk for recurrent thrombosis after initial treatment of a first VTE. It is unlikely that factor V Leiden thrombophilia (i.e., heterozygosity or homozygosity for the Leiden variant) is a major factor contributing to pregnancy loss and other adverse pregnancy outcomes (preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and placental abruption). The clinical expression of factor V Leiden thrombophilia is influenced by the following: The number of Leiden variants (heterozygotes have a slightly increased risk for venous thrombosis; homozygotes have a much greater thrombotic risk). Coexisting genetic thrombophilic disorders, which have a supra-additive effect on overall thrombotic risk. Acquired thrombophilic disorders: antiphospholipid antibody (APLA) syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, myeloproliferative disorders, and increased levels of clotting factors. Circumstantial risk factors including but not limited to pregnancy, central venous catheters, travel, combined oral contraceptive (COC) use and other combined contraceptives, oral hormone replacement therapy (HRT), selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), obesity, leg injury, and advancing age. [from GeneReviews]


Crouzon syndrome-acanthosis nigricans syndrome

Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans is considered to be a distinct disorder from classic Crouzon syndrome (123500), which is caused by mutation in the FGFR2 gene (176943). Cohen (1999) argued that this condition is separate from Crouzon syndrome for 2 main reasons: it is caused by a highly specific mutation of the FGFR3 gene, whereas multiple different FGFR2 mutations result in Crouzon syndrome, and the phenotypes are different. [from OMIM]


Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss 1A

Nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness (DFNB1) is characterized by congenital non-progressive mild-to-profound sensorineural hearing impairment. No other associated medical findings are present. [from GeneReviews]


Friedreich ataxia 1

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is characterized by slowly progressive ataxia with onset usually before age 25 years (mean age at onset: 10-15 yrs). FRDA is typically associated with dysarthria, muscle weakness, spasticity particularly in the lower limbs, scoliosis, bladder dysfunction, absent lower-limb reflexes, and loss of position and vibration sense. Approximately two thirds of individuals with FRDA have cardiomyopathy, up to 30% have diabetes mellitus, and approximately 25% have an "atypical" presentation with later onset or retained tendon reflexes. [from GeneReviews]


Waardenburg syndrome type 1

Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder comprising congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair, and skin along with dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of the inner canthi). The hearing loss in WS1, observed in approximately 60% of affected individuals, is congenital, typically non-progressive, either unilateral or bilateral, and sensorineural. Most commonly, hearing loss in WS1 is bilateral and profound (>100 dB). The majority of individuals with WS1 have either a white forelock or early graying of the scalp hair before age 30 years. The classic white forelock observed in approximately 45% of individuals is the most common hair pigmentation anomaly seen in WS1. Affected individuals may have complete heterochromia iridium, partial/segmental heterochromia, or hypoplastic or brilliant blue irides. Congenital leukoderma is frequently seen on the face, trunk, or limbs. [from GeneReviews]


GRN-related frontotemporal lobar degeneration with Tdp43 inclusions

The spectrum of GRN frontotemporal dementia (GRN-FTD) includes the behavioral variant (bvFTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA; further subcategorized as progressive nonfluent aphasia [PNFA] and semantic dementia [SD]), and movement disorders with extrapyramidal features such as parkinsonism and corticobasal syndrome (CBS). A broad range of clinical features both within and between families is observed. The age of onset ranges from 35 to 87 years. Behavioral disturbances are the most common early feature, followed by progressive aphasia. Impairment in executive function manifests as loss of judgment and insight. In early stages, PPA often manifests as deficits in naming, word finding, or word comprehension. In late stages, affected individuals often become mute and lose their ability to communicate. Early findings of parkinsonism include rigidity, bradykinesia or akinesia (slowing or absence of movements), limb dystonia, apraxia (loss of ability to carry out learned purposeful movements), and disequilibrium. Late motor findings may include myoclonus, dysarthria, and dysphagia. Most affected individuals eventually lose the ability to walk. Disease duration is three to 12 years. [from GeneReviews]


Aminoglycoside-induced deafness

Mitochondrial nonsyndromic hearing loss and deafness is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) of variable onset and severity. Pathogenic variants in MT-RNR1 can be associated with predisposition to aminoglycoside ototoxicity and/or late-onset SNHL. Hearing loss associated with aminoglycoside ototoxicity is bilateral and severe to profound, occurring within a few days to weeks after administration of any amount (even a single dose) of an aminoglycoside antibiotic such as gentamycin, tobramycin, amikacin, kanamycin, or streptomycin. Pathogenic variants in MT-TS1 are usually associated with childhood onset of SNHL that is generally nonsyndromic – although the MT-TS1 substitution m.7445A>G has been found in some families who also have palmoplantar keratoderma (scaling, hyperkeratosis, and honeycomb appearance of the skin of the palms, soles, and heels). [from GeneReviews]


Neural tube defects, folate-sensitive

Neural tube defects have a birth incidence of approximately 1 in 1,000 in American Caucasians and are the second most common type of birth defect after congenital heart defects. The most common NTDs are open spina bifida (myelomeningocele) and anencephaly (206500) (Detrait et al., 2005). Women with elevated plasma homocysteine, low folate, or low vitamin B12 (cobalamin) are at increased risk of having a child with a neural tube defect (O'Leary et al., 2005). Motulsky (1996) cited evidence from the Centers for Disease Control ( Anonymous, 1992) that folic acid given before and during the first 4 weeks of pregnancy can prevent 50% or more of neural tube defects. Botto et al. (1999) and Detrait et al. (2005) provided reviews of neural tube defects. De Marco et al. (2006) provided a detailed review of neurulation and the possible etiologies of neural tube defects. [from OMIM]


Familial scaphocephaly syndrome, McGillivray type

Familial scaphocephaly syndrome, McGillivray type is a rare newly described craniosynostosis (see this term) syndrome characterized by scaphocephaly, macrocephaly, severe maxillary retrusion, and mild intellectual disability. [from ORDO]


Muenke syndrome

Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination. [from GeneReviews]


Waardenburg syndrome type 2A

Waardenburg syndrome type 2 (WS2) is an autosomal dominant auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the ocular inner canthi, which is seen in some other forms of WS (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type 2 (WS2) is distinguished from type 1 by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type 3 (WS3; 148820) has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type 4 (WS4; 277580), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2 Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. WS2B (600193) has been mapped to chromosome 1p. WS2C (606662) has been mapped to chromosome 8p23. WS2E (611584) is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229) on chromosome 22q13. WS2F (619947) is caused by mutation in the KITLG gene (184745) on chromosome 12q21. A form of WS2, designated WS2D, was thought to be caused by deletion of the SNAI2 gene (602150.0001), but the deletion has been reclassified as a variant of unknown significance. [from OMIM]

Results: 1 to 20 of 55

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