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Congenital myopathy 4B, autosomal recessive

Congenital myopathy-4B (CMYP4B) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by the onset of muscle weakness in infancy or early childhood. The severity and pattern of muscle weakness varies, but most affected individuals show congenital contractures, delayed motor development, hypotonia, generalized muscle weakness, and weakness of the proximal limb muscles and neck muscles, resulting in difficulty walking or inability to walk. Affected individuals have respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness, which may be life-threatening. Other common features include myopathic facies, chest deformities, distal joint laxity, and scoliosis. Variable histologic findings on skeletal muscle biopsy are observed, including nemaline rods, type 1 fiber predomination, and centralized nuclei (Tan et al., 1999; Lehtokari et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). [from OMIM]


Cerebral creatine deficiency syndrome

The creatine deficiency disorders (CDDs), inborn errors of creatine metabolism and transport, comprise three disorders: the creatine biosynthesis disorders guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency and L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) deficiency; and creatine transporter (CRTR) deficiency. Developmental delay and cognitive dysfunction or intellectual disability and speech-language disorder are common to all three CDDs. Onset of clinical manifestations of GAMT deficiency (reported in ~130 individuals) is between ages three months and two years; in addition to developmental delays, the majority of individuals have epilepsy and develop a behavior disorder (e.g., hyperactivity, autism, or self-injurious behavior), and about 30% have movement disorder. AGAT deficiency has been reported in 16 individuals; none have had epilepsy or movement disorders. Clinical findings of CRTR deficiency in affected males (reported in ~130 individuals) in addition to developmental delays include epilepsy (variable seizure types and may be intractable) and behavior disorders (e.g., attention deficit and/or hyperactivity, autistic features, impulsivity, social anxiety), hypotonia, and (less commonly) a movement disorder. Poor weight gain with constipation and prolonged QTc on EKG have been reported. While mild-to-moderate intellectual disability is commonly observed up to age four years, the majority of adult males with CRTR deficiency have been reported to have severe intellectual disability. Females heterozygous for CRTR deficiency are typically either asymptomatic or have mild intellectual disability, although a more severe phenotype resembling the male phenotype has been reported. [from GeneReviews]


Mitochondrial complex II deficiency, nuclear type 1

Mitochondrial complex II deficiency is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have multisystem involvement of the brain, heart, and muscle with onset in infancy, whereas others have only isolated cardiac or muscle involvement. Measurement of complex II activity in muscle is the most reliable means of diagnosis; however, there is no clear correlation between residual complex II activity and severity or clinical outcome. In some cases, treatment with riboflavin may have clinical benefit (summary by Jain-Ghai et al., 2013). Complex II, also known as succinate dehydrogenase, is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex II Deficiency See MC2DN2 (619166), caused by mutation in the SDHAF1 gene (612848) on chromosome 19q13; MC2DN3 (619167), caused by mutation in the SDHD gene (602690) on chromosome 11q23; and MC2DN4 (619224), caused by mutation in the SDHB gene (185470) on chromosome 1p36. Fullerton et al. (2020) reviewed the genetic basis of isolated mitochondrial complex II deficiency. [from OMIM]


Autosomal recessive axonal neuropathy with neuromyotonia

NMAN is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset in the first or second decade of a peripheral axonal neuropathy predominantly affecting motor more than sensory nerves. The axonal neuropathy is reminiscent of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (see, e.g., CMT2A1, 118210) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy (see, e.g., HMND1, 182960). Individuals with NMAN also have delayed muscle relaxation and action myotonia associated with neuromyotonic discharges on needle EMG resulting from hyperexcitability of the peripheral nerves (summary by Zimon et al., 2012). [from OMIM]


Encephalopathy due to mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission defect

A rare mitochondrial disease with characteristics of a variable phenotype comprising delayed psychomotor development or neurodevelopmental regression, hypotonia, seizures, microcephaly, optic atrophy, pyramidal signs, and peripheral neuropathy among others. Age of onset and disease severity is also variable with some cases taking a fatal course in early infancy. Serum lactate levels may be elevated. Reported brain imaging findings include abnormal signals in the basal ganglia, cerebral and/or cerebellar atrophy and white matter abnormalities. [from SNOMEDCT_US]


Lethal tight skin contracture syndrome

Restrictive dermopathy is a rare, lethal genodermatosis with characteristic manifestations that are easily recognizable at birth: thin, tightly adherent translucent skin with erosions at flexure sites, superficial vessels, typical facial dysmorphism, and generalized joint ankylosis. Prenatal signs can include intrauterine growth retardation, reduced fetal movements, polyhydramnios, and premature rupture of the membranes. Most infants die within the first week of life (summary by Smigiel et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Restrictive Dermopathy See also RSMD2 (619793), caused by mutation in the LMNA gene (150330) on chromosome 1q22. [from OMIM]


Parkes Weber syndrome

Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM) syndrome is characterized by the presence of multiple small (1-2 cm in diameter) capillary malformations mostly localized on the face and limbs. Some affected individuals also have associated arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and/or arteriovenous fistulas (AFVs), fast-flow vascular anomalies that typically arise in the skin, muscle, bone, spine, and brain; life-threatening complications of these lesions can include bleeding, congestive heart failure, and/or neurologic consequences. Symptoms from intracranial AVMs/AVFs appear to occur early in life. Several individuals have Parkes Weber syndrome (multiple micro-AVFs associated with a cutaneous capillary stain and excessive soft-tissue and skeletal growth of an affected limb). [from GeneReviews]


Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. [from GeneReviews]



An increased concentration of ammonia in the blood. [from HPO]


Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 2

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSAN2) is characterized by progressively reduced sensation to pain, temperature, and touch. Onset can be at birth and is often before puberty. The sensory deficit is predominantly distal with the lower limbs more severely affected than the upper limbs. Over time sensory function becomes severely reduced. Unnoticed injuries and neuropathic skin promote ulcerations and infections that result in spontaneous amputation of digits or the need for surgical amputation. Osteomyelitis is common. Painless fractures can complicate the disease. Autonomic disturbances are variable and can include hyperhidrosis, tonic pupils, and urinary incontinence in those with more advanced disease. [from GeneReviews]



A group of genetic disorders associated with mutation(s) in genes that are constituents of the RAS signaling pathway. These disorders are characterized by distinct facial features, developmental delays, cardiac defects, growth delays, and feeding problems. Representative examples include: neurofibromatosis type 1, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome, Costello syndrome, multiple lentigines syndrome, and Noonan syndrome. [from NCI]


Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive

Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, enlarged epiphyses, disproportionate shortness of the limbs, abnormalities in vertebral bodies, and typical facial features (summary by Harel et al., 2005). [from OMIM]


Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 6A

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-6A (CLN6A) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with a variable age at onset in the first years of life after normal early development. Affected individuals have progressive decline of neurologic function, including visual deterioration in most, cognitive impairment, loss of motor function, and seizures. As with all CLNs, CLN6A is characterized pathologically by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment patterns observed most often in CLN6A comprises mixed combinations of 'curvilinear' and 'fingerprint' profiles (summary by Sharp et al., 2003; Mole et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730). [from OMIM]


Leber hereditary optic neuropathy, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive Leber hereditary optic neuropathy-1 (LHONAR1) is characterized by bilateral synchronous or asynchronous vision loss with variable recovery of visual acuity. The visual field defect is typically in the central visual field. The disorder shows incomplete penetrance and male predominance (Stenton et al., 2021). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Hereditary Optic Neuropathy See also LHONAR2 (620529), caused by mutation in the NDUFS2 gene (602985) on chromosome 1q23. [from OMIM]


Visceral myopathy 1

ACTG2 visceral myopathy is a disorder of smooth muscle dysfunction of the bladder and gastrointestinal system with phenotypic spectrum that ranges from mild to severe. Bladder involvement can range from neonatal megacystis and megaureter (with its most extreme form of prune belly syndrome) at the more severe end, to recurrent urinary tract infections and bladder dysfunction at the milder end. Intestinal involvement can range from malrotation, neonatal manifestations of microcolon, megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome, and chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction (CIPO) in neonates at the more severe end to intermittent abdominal distention and functional intestinal obstruction at the milder end. Affected infants (with or without evidence of intestinal malrotation) often present with feeding intolerance and findings of non-mechanical bowel obstruction that persist after successful surgical correction of malrotation. Individuals who develop manifestations of CIPO in later childhood or adulthood often experience episodic waxing and waning of bowel motility. They may undergo frequent abdominal surgeries (perhaps related to malrotation or adhesions causing mechanical obstruction) resulting in resection of dilated segments of bowel, often becoming dependent on total parenteral nutrition (TPN). [from GeneReviews]


Warburg micro syndrome

Warburg Micro syndrome-1 (WARBM1) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, microphthalmia, microcornea, congenital cataracts, optic atrophy, cortical dysplasia, in particular corpus callosum hypoplasia, severe mental retardation, spastic diplegia, and hypogonadism (summary by Morris-Rosendahl et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Warburg Micro Syndrome Warburg Micro syndrome-2 (WARBM2; 614225) is caused by mutation in the RAB3GAP2 gene (609275) on chromosome 1q41. WARBM3 (614222) is caused by mutation in the RAB18 gene (602207) on chromosome 10p12. WARBM4 (615663) is caused by mutation in the TBC1D20 gene (611663) on chromosome 20p13. Handley et al. (2013) provided an overview of the disease variants identified in the RAB3GAP1, RAB3GAP2, and RAB18 genes, noting that a total of 144 families with WARBM and 9 families with Martsolf syndrome had been studied. Mutations were identified in RAB3GAP1 in 41% of cases, in RAB3GAP2 in 7% of cases, and in RAB18 in 5% of cases. Although RAB18 had not been linked to RAB3 pathways, Handley et al. (2013) stated that mutations in all 3 genes cause an indistinguishable phenotype, making it likely that there is some functional overlap. [from OMIM]


Congenital pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1

PCH1 often has prenatal characteristics of polyhydramnios with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Neonates with PCH1 present with hypotonia, impaired swallowing with consequent feeding difficulties and progressive microcephaly which mostly develops postnatally. Subsequently a severe psychomotor deficit becomes apparent. The clinical course is severe. About 40 patients with PCH1 have been reported. To date recessive mutations have been noted in the EXOSC3 gene and in single cases recessive mutations have been found in the tRNA splicing endonuclease homolog 54 (TSEN54), mitochondrial arginyl-transfer RNA synthetase (RARS2), and in the vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) gene. PCH1 has an autosomal recessive transmission. [from SNOMEDCT_US]


Advanced maternal age


COACH syndrome 1

Any COACH syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the TMEM67 gene. [from MONDO]

Results: 1 to 20 of 917

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