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Autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability

Autosomal dominant form of non-syndromic intellectual disability. [from MONDO]


Autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability

Autosomal recessive form of non-syndromic intellectual disability. [from MONDO]


Autosomal dominant Opitz G/BBB syndrome

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS. [from GeneReviews]


Isolated microphthalmia 3

Syndromic microphthalmia-16 (MCOPS16) is characterized by bilateral severe microphthalmia or anophthalmia with variable presence of midline defects, including cleft lip and palate, absence of frontal and/or sphenoidal sinuses, and absent pituitary gland. Some patients exhibit developmental delay and intellectual disability or autism (Voronina et al., 2004; Abouzeid et al., 2012; Chassaing et al., 2014; Brachet et al., 2019). For discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of syndromic microphthalmia, see MCOPS1 (309800). [from OMIM]


Epilepsy, X-linked 1, with variable learning disabilities and behavior disorders

X-linked epilepsy-1 with variable learning disabilities and behavior disorders (EPILX1) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of complex partial seizures in the first or second decades. The seizures are often triggered by showering or water-related hygiene activities, consistent with reflex bathing epilepsy. Additional spontaneous seizures and secondary generalization may also occur. Most patients have associated developmental defects, including learning disabilities, behavioral problems, or autistic features. The pathophysiology of the reflex seizures is thought to be hyperexcitability of the cortical or subcortical neuronal areas that respond to physiologic stimulus in an exaggerated manner, possibly due to aberrant synaptic maturation (summary by Nguyen et al., 2015; Sirsi et al., 2017; Accogli et al., 2021). [from OMIM]


Synpolydactyly type 1

Synpolydactyly (SPD), or syndactyly type II, is defined as a connection between the middle and ring fingers and fourth and fifth toes, variably associated with postaxial polydactyly in the same digits. Minor local anomalies and various metacarpal or metatarsal abnormalities may be present (summary by Merlob and Grunebaum, 1986). In some families with SPD, the foot anomalies are characterized by preaxial as well as postaxial polydactyly, and appear to be fully penetrant. The more severe features of classic SPD, involving 3/4 synpolydactyly in the hands and 4/5 synpolydactyly in the feet, also occur, but at reduced penetrance. This foot phenotype is not seen in patients with classic SPD due to HOXD13 polyalanine tract expansions (Goodman et al., 1998). Malik (2012) reviewed the syndactylies, noting that the extreme phenotypic heterogeneity observed in SPD families consists of approximately 18 clinical variants that can be 'lumped' into 3 categories: typical SPD features, minor variants, and unusual phenotypes. Genetic Heterogeneity of Synpolydactyly See also SPD2 (608180), caused by mutation in the fibulin-1 gene (FBLN1; 135820) on chromosome 22q13, and SPD3 (610234), which has been mapped to chromosome 14q11.2-q12. [from OMIM]



A distinct syndromic type of frontonasal malformation with characteristics of hypertelorism, wide nasal bridge, broad columella, widened philtrum, widely separated narrow nares, poor development of nasal tip, midline notch of the upper alveolus, columella base swellings and a low hairline. Additional features reported in some include upper eyelid ptosis and midline dermoid cysts of craniofacial structures and philtral pits or rugose folding behind the ears. [from SNOMEDCT_US]


Intellectual disability, X-linked 21

NR0B1-related adrenal hypoplasia congenita includes both X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-linked AHC) and Xp21 deletion (previously called complex glycerol kinase deficiency). X-linked AHC is characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Adrenal insufficiency is acute infantile onset (average age 3 weeks) in approximately 60% of affected males and childhood onset (ages 1-9 years) in approximately 40%. HH typically manifests in a male with adrenal insufficiency as delayed puberty (i.e., onset age >14 years) and less commonly as arrested puberty at about Tanner Stage 3. Rarely, X-linked AHC manifests initially in early adulthood as delayed-onset adrenal insufficiency, partial HH, and/or infertility. Heterozygous females very occasionally have manifestations of adrenal insufficiency or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Xp21 deletion includes deletion of NR0B1 (causing X-linked AHC) and GK (causing glycerol kinase deficiency), and in some cases deletion of DMD (causing Duchenne muscular dystrophy). Developmental delay has been reported in males with Xp21 deletion when the deletion extends proximally to include DMD or when larger deletions extend distally to include IL1RAPL1 and DMD. [from GeneReviews]


Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 6A

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-6A (CLN6A) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with a variable age at onset in the first years of life after normal early development. Affected individuals have progressive decline of neurologic function, including visual deterioration in most, cognitive impairment, loss of motor function, and seizures. As with all CLNs, CLN6A is characterized pathologically by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment patterns observed most often in CLN6A comprises mixed combinations of 'curvilinear' and 'fingerprint' profiles (summary by Sharp et al., 2003; Mole et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730). [from OMIM]


X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SH2D1A deficiency

X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) has two recognizable subtypes, XLP1 and XLP2. XLP1 is characterized predominantly by one of three commonly recognized phenotypes: Inappropriate immune response to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection leading to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) or severe mononucleosis. Dysgammaglobulinemia. Lymphoproliferative disease (malignant lymphoma). XLP2 is most often characterized by HLH (often associated with EBV), dysgammaglobulinemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. HLH resulting from EBV infection is associated with an unregulated and exaggerated immune response with widespread proliferation of cytotoxic T cells, EBV-infected B cells, and macrophages. Dysgammaglobulinemia is typically hypogammaglobulinemia of one or more immunoglobulin subclasses. The malignant lymphomas are typically B-cell lymphomas, non-Hodgkin type, often extranodal, and in particular involving the intestine. [from GeneReviews]


COACH syndrome 1

Any COACH syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the TMEM67 gene. [from MONDO]


46,XY gonadal dysgenesis-motor and sensory neuropathy syndrome

46,XY gonadal dysgenesis-motor and sensory neuropathy syndrome is a rare, genetic, developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder characterized by partial (unilateral testis, persistence of Müllerian duct structures) or complete (streak gonads only) gonadal dysgenesis, usually manifesting with primary amenorrhea in individuals with female phenotype but 46,XY karyotype, and sensorimotor dysmyelinating minifascicular polyneuropathy, which presents with numbness, weakness, exercise-induced muscle cramps, sensory disturbances and reduced/absent deep tendon reflexes. Germ cell tumors (seminoma, dysgerminoma, gonadoblastoma) may develop from the gonadal tissue. [from ORDO]


Kostmann syndrome

Severe congenital neutropenia-3 is an autosomal recessive bone marrow failure disorder characterized by low numbers of neutrophils, increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections, and increased risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia. In addition, patients with HAX1 mutations affecting both isoform A and B of the gene develop neurologic abnormalities (summary by Boztug et al., 2010). The Swedish physician Rolf Kostmann (1956) described an autosomal recessive hematologic disorder, termed infantile agranulocytosis, with severe neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count below 0.5 x 10(9)/l and early onset of severe bacterial infections. The disorder was later termed Kostmann syndrome (Skokowa et al., 2007). Lekstrom-Himes and Gallin (2000) discussed severe congenital neutropenia in a review of immunodeficiencies caused by defects in phagocytes. In addition to Kostmann agranulocytosis, recessively inherited neutropenic syndromes include congenital neutropenia with eosinophilia (257100), Chediak-Higashi syndrome (214500), and Fanconi pancytopenic syndrome (see 227650). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of severe congenital neutropenia, see SCN1 (202700). [from OMIM]



An acute infection of the respiratory tract that is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Based on currently available information, SARS-CoV-2 is thought to mainly spread from person to person through respiratory droplets. Typically, there is a two- to 14-day incubation period and infected persons can present with no symptoms or mild to severe fever, dry cough, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. Dysgeusia, anosmia, and gastrointestinal and flu-like symptoms have also been reported. Older adults and persons of any age who have serious underlying medical conditions may be of higher risk for severe illness, including secondary infections, respiratory failure, and multi-organ dysfunction. [from NCI]


Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 2

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-2 (DEE2) is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first months of life and severe global developmental delay resulting in impaired intellectual development and poor motor control. Other features include lack of speech development, subtle dysmorphic facial features, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, and stereotypic hand movements. There is some phenotypic overlap with Rett syndrome (312750), but DEE2 is considered to be a distinct entity (summary by Fehr et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]


Lissencephaly due to LIS1 mutation

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]


Citrullinemia type I

Citrullinemia type I (CTLN1) presents as a spectrum that includes a neonatal acute form (the "classic" form), a milder late-onset form (the "non-classic" form), a form in which women have onset of symptoms at pregnancy or post partum, and a form without symptoms or hyperammonemia. Distinction between the forms is based primarily on clinical findings, although emerging evidence suggests that measurement of residual argininosuccinate synthase enzyme activity may help to predict those who are likely to have a severe phenotype and those who are likely to have an attenuated phenotype. Infants with the acute neonatal form appear normal at birth. Shortly thereafter, they develop hyperammonemia and become progressively lethargic, feed poorly, often vomit, and may develop signs of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Without prompt intervention, hyperammonemia and the accumulation of other toxic metabolites (e.g., glutamine) result in increased ICP, increased neuromuscular tone, spasticity, ankle clonus, seizures, loss of consciousness, and death. Children with the severe form who are treated promptly may survive for an indeterminate period of time, but usually with significant neurologic deficits. Even with chronic protein restriction and scavenger therapy, long-term complications such as liver failure and other (rarely reported) organ system manifestations are possible. The late-onset form may be milder than that seen in the acute neonatal form, but commences later in life for reasons that are not completely understood. The episodes of hyperammonemia are similar to those seen in the acute neonatal form, but the initial neurologic findings may be more subtle because of the older age of the affected individuals. Women with onset of severe symptoms including acute hepatic decompensation during pregnancy or in the postpartum period have been reported. Furthermore, previously asymptomatic and non-pregnant individuals have been described who remained asymptomatic up to at least age ten years, with the possibility that they could remain asymptomatic lifelong. [from GeneReviews]


X-linked Alport syndrome

In Alport syndrome (AS) a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from progressive renal disease with extrarenal abnormalities to isolated hematuria with a non-progressive or very slowly progressive course is observed. Approximately two thirds of AS is X-linked (XLAS); approximately 15% is autosomal recessive (ARAS), and approximately 20% is autosomal dominant (ADAS). In the absence of treatment, renal disease progresses from microscopic hematuria (microhematuria) to proteinuria, progressive renal insufficiency, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in all males with XLAS, and in all males and females with ARAS. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is usually present by late childhood or early adolescence. Ocular findings include anterior lenticonus (which is virtually pathognomonic), maculopathy (whitish or yellowish flecks or granulations in the perimacular region), corneal endothelial vesicles (posterior polymorphous dystrophy), and recurrent corneal erosion. In individuals with ADAS, ESRD is frequently delayed until later adulthood, SNHL is relatively late in onset, and ocular involvement is rare. [from GeneReviews]

Results: 1 to 20 of 663

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