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GTR Home > Conditions/Phenotypes > Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 36


Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-36 (DEE36) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of seizures at a mean age of 6.5 months. Most patients present with infantile spasms associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, although some patients may respond to benzodiazepines or a ketogenic diet. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development with poor motor function, severe intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and limited eye contact. More variable features include feeding difficulties sometimes requiring tube feeding, ocular defects including cortical visual impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and scoliosis or osteopenia. The vast majority of patients reported have been females, although rare affected males with a similar phenotype have been described. Most patients show normal N-glycosylation on transferrin isoelectric focusing, but some show abnormal N-glycosylation consistent with CDG type I (summary by Ng et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

Available tests

49 tests are in the database for this condition.

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Genes See tests for all associated and related genes

  • Also known as: CDG1S, CXorf45, DEE36, EIEE36, GLT28D1, MDS031, TDRD13, YGL047W, ALG13
    Summary: ALG13 UDP-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase subunit

Clinical features


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