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GTR Home > Conditions/Phenotypes > Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency disease


Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 1 (MC4DN1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurodegeneration and encephalopathy with loss of motor and cognitive skills between about 5 and 18 months of age after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, loss of the ability to sit or walk, poor communication, and poor eye contact. Other features may include oculomotor abnormalities, including slow saccades, strabismus, ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus, as well as deafness, apneic episodes, ataxia, tremor, and brisk tendon reflexes. Brain imaging shows bilateral symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Some patients may also have abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum. Laboratory studies usually show increased serum and CSF lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues. There is phenotypic variability, but death in childhood, often due to central respiratory failure, is common (summary by Tiranti et al., 1998; Tiranti et al., 1999; Teraoka et al., 1999; Poyau et al., 2000) Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficiency Most isolated COX deficiencies are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes; mutations in the mtDNA-encoded COX subunit genes are relatively rare (Shoubridge, 2001; Sacconi et al., 2003). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes, in addition to MC4DN1, include MC4DN2 (604377), caused by mutation in the SCO2 gene (604272); MC4DN3 (619046), caused by mutation in the COX10 gene (602125); MC4DN4 (619048), caused by mutation in the SCO1 gene (603664); MC4DN5 (220111), caused by mutation in the LRPPRC gene (607544); MC4DN6 (615119), caused by mutation in the COX15 gene (603646); MC4DN7 (619051), caused by mutation in the COX6B1 gene (124089); MC4DN8 (619052), caused by mutation in the TACO1 gene (612958); MC4DN9 (616500), caused by mutation in the COA5 gene (613920); MC4DN10 (619053), caused by mutation in the COX14 gene (614478); MC4DN11 (619054), caused by mutation in the COX20 gene (614698); MC4DN12 (619055), caused by mutation in the PET100 gene (614770); MC4DN13 (616501), caused by mutation in the COA6 gene (614772); MC4DN14 (619058), caused by mutation in the COA3 gene (614775); MC4DN15 (619059), caused by mutation in the COX8A gene (123870); MC4DN16 (619060), caused by mutation in the COX4I1 gene (123864); MC4DN17 (619061), caused by mutation in the APOPT1 gene (616003); MC4DN18 (619062), caused by mutation in the COX6A2 gene (602009); MC4DN19 (619063), caused by mutation in the PET117 gene (614771); MC4DN20 (619064), caused by mutation in the COX5A gene (603773); MC4DN21 (619065), caused by mutation in the COXFA4 gene (603883); MC4DN22 (619355), caused by mutation in the COX16 gene (618064); and MC4DN23 (620275), caused by mutation in the COX11 gene (603648). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency has been associated with mutations in several mitochondrial genes, including MTCO1 (516030), MTCO2 (516040), MTCO3 (516050), MTTS1 (590080), MTTL1 (590050), and MTTN (590010). [from OMIM]

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Genes See tests for all associated and related genes

  • Also known as: CMT4K, MC4DN1, SHY1, SURF1
    Summary: SURF1 cytochrome c oxidase assembly factor

  • Also known as: MTTN, TRNN
    Summary: mitochondrially encoded tRNA asparagine

  • Also known as: MTTS1, TRNS1
    Summary: mitochondrially encoded tRNA serine 1 (UCN)

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