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GTR Home > Tests > Common Variable Immune Deficiency and Related Disorders, Panel Massive Sequencing (NGS) 41 Genes

Indication

This is a clinical test intended for Help: Diagnosis

Clinical summary

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\n\nThe features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.\n\nSome people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.\n\nCowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.\n\nAlmost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.\n\nCowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

Clinical features

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Imported from Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO)

  • Angioid streaks
  • Colonic diverticula
  • Goiter
  • Gynecomastia
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Palmoplantar keratosis
  • Kyphosis
  • Meningioma
  • Micrognathia
  • Narrow mouth
  • Intellectual disability, mild
  • Myopia
  • Ovarian cyst
  • Scoliosis
  • Seizure
  • Skin tags
  • Thyroiditis
  • Furrowed tongue
  • Varicocele
  • Cataract
  • Thyroid adenoma
  • Fibroadenoma of the breast
  • Hypoplasia of the maxilla
  • High palate
  • Abnormality of the cardiovascular system
  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder
  • Breast carcinoma
  • Hearing impairment
  • Subcutaneous lipoma
  • Hydrocele testis
  • Progressive macrocephaly
  • Pectus excavatum
  • Hamartomatous polyposis
  • Intellectual disability
  • Intention tremor
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Conditions tested

Target population

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Not provided

Clinical validity

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Not provided

Clinical utility

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Not provided

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