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Hypopigmentation of the skin

MedGen UID:
102477
Concept ID:
C0162835
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Hypomelanoses; Hypomelanosis; Hypopigmentation
SNOMED CT: Hypopigmentation (89031001); Leukoderma (23006000); Hypopigmentation (23006000); Achromoderma (23006000); Hypomelanosis (23006000); Depigmentation (18655006); Hypomelanosis (18655006); Hypopigmentation of skin (23006000); Skin hypopigmented (23006000)
 
HPO: HP:0001010
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0019290
Orphanet: ORPHA79376

Definition

A reduction of skin color related to a decrease in melanin production and deposition. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVHypopigmentation of the skin

Conditions with this feature

Bloom syndrome
MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
Bloom syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, immune abnormalities, sensitivity to sunlight, insulin resistance, and a high risk for many cancers that occur at an early age. Despite their very small head circumference, most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability. Women may be fertile but often have early menopause, and men tend to be infertile, with only one confirmed case of paternity. Serious medical complications that are more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus as a result of insulin resistance, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites.
Chédiak-Higashi syndrome
MedGen UID:
3347
Concept ID:
C0007965
Disease or Syndrome
Chediak-Higashi syndrome (CHS) is characterized by partial oculocutaneous albinism, immunodeficiency, and a mild bleeding tendency. Approximately 85% of affected individuals develop the accelerated phase, or hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, a life-threatening, hyperinflammatory condition. All affected individuals including adolescents and adults with atypical CHS and children with classic CHS who have successfully undergone allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) develop neurologic findings during early adulthood.
Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Menkes kinky-hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
44030
Concept ID:
C0022716
Disease or Syndrome
Menkes disease (MNK) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by generalized copper deficiency. The clinical features result from the dysfunction of several copper-dependent enzymes.
Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Cutaneous porphyria
MedGen UID:
102408
Concept ID:
C0162530
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is characterized in most individuals by severe cutaneous photosensitivity with blistering and increased friability of the skin over light-exposed areas. Onset in most affected individuals occurs at birth or early infancy. The first manifestation is often pink-to-dark red discoloration of the urine. Hemolytic anemia is common and can range from mild to severe, with some affected individuals requiring chronic blood transfusions. Porphyrin deposition may lead to corneal ulcers and scarring, reddish-brown discoloration of the teeth (erythrodontia), and bone loss and/or expansion of the bone marrow. The phenotypic spectrum, however, is broad and ranges from nonimmune hydrops fetalis in utero to late-onset disease with only mild cutaneous manifestations in adulthood.
Angelman syndrome
MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and unique behavior with an apparent happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism
MedGen UID:
82810
Concept ID:
C0268495
Disease or Syndrome
Tyrosinase-positive oculocutaneous albinism (OCA, type II; OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which the biosynthesis of melanin pigment is reduced in skin, hair, and eyes. Although affected infants may appear at birth to have OCA type I, or complete absence of melanin pigment, most patients with OCA type II acquire small amounts of pigment with age. Individuals with OCA type II have the characteristic visual anomalies associated with albinism, including decreased acuity and nystagmus, which are usually less severe than in OCA type I (Lee et al., 1994; King et al., 2001). OCA type II has a highly variable phenotype. The hair of affected individuals may turn darker with age, and pigmented nevi or freckles may be seen. African and African American individuals may have yellow hair and blue-gray or hazel irides. One phenotypic variant, 'brown OCA,' has been described in African and African American populations and is characterized by light brown hair and skin color and gray to tan irides. The hair and irides may turn darker with time and the skin may tan with sun exposure; the ocular features of albinism are present in all variants (King et al., 2001). In addition, previous reports of so-called 'autosomal recessive ocular albinism,' (see, e.g., Witkop et al., 1978 and O'Donnell et al., 1978) with little or no obvious skin involvement, are now considered most likely to be part of the phenotypic spectrum of OCA1 or OCA2 (Lee et al., 1994; King et al., 2001).
Classic homocystinuria
MedGen UID:
199606
Concept ID:
C0751202
Disease or Syndrome
Homocystinuria caused by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) deficiency is characterized by involvement of the eye (ectopia lentis and/or severe myopia), skeletal system (excessive height, long limbs, scolioisis, and pectus excavatum), vascular system (thromboembolism), and CNS (developmental delay/intellectual disability). All four ? or only one ? of the systems can be involved; expressivity is variable for all of the clinical signs. It is not unusual for a previously asymptomatic individual to present in adult years with only a thromboembolic event that is often cerebrovascular. Two phenotypic variants are recognized, B6-responsive homocystinuria and B6-non-responsive homocystinuria. B6-responsive homocystinuria is usually milder than the non-responsive variant. Thromboembolism is the major cause of early death and morbidity. IQ in individuals with untreated homocystinuria ranges widely, from 10 to 138. In B6-responsive individuals the mean IQ is 79 versus 57 for those who are B6-non-responsive. Other features that may occur include: seizures, psychiatric problems, extrapyramidal signs (e.g., dystonia), hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, malar flush, livedo reticularis, and pancreatitis.
Sialic acid storage disease, severe infantile type
MedGen UID:
203367
Concept ID:
C1096902
Disease or Syndrome
Free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs) are a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. Historically, FSASD was divided into separate allelic disorders: Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD). The mildest type was Salla disease, characterized by normal appearance and absence of neurologic findings at birth, followed by slowly progressive neurologic deterioration resulting in mild-to-moderate psychomotor delays, spasticity, athetosis, and epileptic seizures. Salla disease was named for a municipality in Finnish Lapland where a specific founder variant is relatively prevalent. However, the term Salla has been used in the literature to refer to less severe FSASD. More severe FSASD is historically referred to as ISSD, and is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; death usually occurs in early childhood.
Primary immunodeficiency syndrome due to p14 deficiency
MedGen UID:
372135
Concept ID:
C1835829
Disease or Syndrome
Primary immunodeficiency syndrome due to p14 deficiency is characterised by short stature, hypopigmentation, coarse facies and frequent bronchopulmonary <i>Streptococcus pneumoniae</i> infections.
Oculocutaneous albinism type 1B
MedGen UID:
337712
Concept ID:
C1847024
Disease or Syndrome
Oculocutaneous albinism type I is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by absence of pigment in hair, skin, and eyes, and does not vary with race or age. Severe nystagmus, photophobia, and reduced visual acuity are common features. OCA type I is divided into 2 types: type IA, characterized by complete lack of tyrosinase activity due to production of an inactive enzyme, and type IB, characterized by reduced activity of tyrosinase. Although OCA caused by mutations in the TYR gene was classically known as 'tyrosinase-negative' OCA, Tripathi et al. (1992) noted that some patients with 'tyrosinase-positive' OCA may indeed have TYR mutations resulting in residual enzyme activity. These patients can be classified as having OCA1B.
Vici syndrome
MedGen UID:
340962
Concept ID:
C1855772
Disease or Syndrome
With the current widespread use of multigene panels and comprehensive genomic testing, it has become apparent that the phenotypic spectrum of EPG5-related disorder represents a continuum. At the most severe end of the spectrum is classic Vici syndrome (defined as a neurodevelopmental disorder with multisystem involvement characterized by the combination of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cataracts, hypopigmentation, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency, microcephaly, and failure to thrive); at the milder end of the spectrum are attenuated neurodevelopmental phenotypes with variable multisystem involvement. Median survival in classic Vici syndrome appears to be 24 months, with only 10% of children surviving longer than age five years; the most common causes of death are respiratory infections as a result of primary immunodeficiency and/or cardiac insufficiency resulting from progressive cardiac failure. No data are available on life span in individuals at the milder end of the spectrum.
Griscelli syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
347092
Concept ID:
C1859194
Disease or Syndrome
Griscelli syndrome type 1 (GS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that results in pigmentary dilution of the skin and hair, the presence of large clumps of pigment in hair shafts, and an accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. In addition to the characteristic silvery-gray appearance of hair and pigmentary defects of skin, GS1 is characterized by primary neurologic deficits that usually are apparent in early infancy and include hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and seizures. Immune impairment is not present (summary by Abd Elmaksoud et al., 2020). Bahadoran et al. (2003) characterized GS1 as comprising hypomelanosis and severe central nervous system dysfunction, corresponding to the 'dilute' phenotype in the mouse, and GS2 as comprising hypomelanosis and lymphohistiocytic hemophagocytosis, corresponding to the 'ashen' phenotype in mouse. Anikster et al. (2002), Menasche et al. (2002), Huizing et al. (2002), and Bahadoran et al. (2003, 2003) suggested that Elejalde neuroectodermal melanolysosomal syndrome (256710) in some patients and GS1 represent the same entity. Genetic Heterogeneity of Griscelli Syndrome Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2; 607624), characterized by hypomelanosis with immunologic impairment, is caused by mutation in the RAB27A gene (603868). Griscelli syndrome type 3 (GS3; 609227), characterized by hypomelanosis with no immunologic or neurologic manifestations, is caused by mutation in the melanophilin (MLPH; 606526) gene.
Neuroectodermal melanolysosomal disease
MedGen UID:
348553
Concept ID:
C1860157
Disease or Syndrome
Elejalde neuroectodermal melanolysosomal syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by silvery-gray hair and severe dysfunction of the central nervous system, present from infancy or early childhood and consisting of severe hypotonia, seizures, and impaired intellectual development. Skin may be hypopigmented with bronzing after sun exposure. Microscopy of hair reveals large granules of melanin unevenly distributed in the hair shaft. Abnormal melanocytes and melanosomes and abnormal inclusion bodies in fibroblasts may be present (Elejalde et al., 1979; Duran-McKinster et al., 1999). It has been proposed that, in at least some cases, Elejalde neuroectodermal melanolysosomal syndrome and Griscelli syndrome type 1 (GS1; 214450) represent the same entity; see below. GS1 is caused by mutation in the MYO5A gene (160777).
Odonto-tricho-ungual-digito-palmar syndrome
MedGen UID:
400891
Concept ID:
C1865998
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of neonatal teeth, trichodystrophy and malformations of the hands and feet. To date, it has been reported in 21 patients and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait.
Raindrop hypopigmentation
MedGen UID:
356767
Concept ID:
C1867393
Finding
Griscelli syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
357030
Concept ID:
C1868679
Disease or Syndrome
Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by pigmentary dilution of the skin and hair, the presence of large clumps of pigment in hair shafts, and an accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. Patients also have immunologic abnormalities with or without neurologic impairment (summary by Menasche et al., 2000). Some GS2 patients have been reported in whom central nervous system manifestations are the first presentation (Rajadhyax et al., 2007, Masri et al., 2008; Mishra et al., 2014; Lee et al., 2017). For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of Griscelli syndrome, see Griscelli syndrome type 1 (GS1; 214450).
Dilution, pigmentary
MedGen UID:
406294
Concept ID:
C1876214
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Xeroderma pigmentosum, group C
MedGen UID:
416702
Concept ID:
C2752147
Disease or Syndrome
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is characterized by: Acute sun sensitivity (severe sunburn with blistering, persistent erythema on minimal sun exposure) with marked freckle-like pigmentation of the face before age two years; Sunlight-induced ocular involvement (photophobia, severe keratitis, atrophy of the skin of the lids, ocular surface neoplasms); Greatly increased risk of sunlight-induced cutaneous neoplasms (basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma) within the first decade of life. Approximately 25% of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations (acquired microcephaly, diminished or absent deep tendon stretch reflexes, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, progressive cognitive impairment, and ataxia). The most common causes of death are skin cancer, neurologic degeneration, and internal cancer. The median age at death in persons with XP with neurodegeneration (29 years) was found to be younger than that in persons with XP without neurodegeneration (37 years).
Nephropathic cystinosis
MedGen UID:
419735
Concept ID:
C2931187
Disease or Syndrome
Cystinosis comprises three allelic phenotypes: Nephropathic cystinosis in untreated children is characterized by renal Fanconi syndrome, poor growth, hypophosphatemic/calcipenic rickets, impaired glomerular function resulting in complete glomerular failure, and accumulation of cystine in almost all cells, leading to cellular dysfunction with tissue and organ impairment. The typical untreated child has short stature, rickets, and photophobia. Failure to thrive is generally noticed after approximately age six months; signs of renal tubular Fanconi syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia, dehydration, and acidosis) appear as early as age six months; corneal crystals can be present before age one year and are always present after age 16 months. Prior to the use of renal transplantation and cystine-depleting therapy, the life span in nephropathic cystinosis was no longer than ten years. With these interventions, affected individuals can survive at least into the mid-forties or fifties with satisfactory quality of life. Intermediate cystinosis is characterized by all the typical manifestations of nephropathic cystinosis, but onset is at a later age. Renal glomerular failure occurs in all untreated affected individuals, usually between ages 15 and 25 years. The non-nephropathic (ocular) form of cystinosis is characterized clinically only by photophobia resulting from corneal cystine crystal accumulation.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
419514
Concept ID:
C2931875
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Cross syndrome
MedGen UID:
423639
Concept ID:
C2936910
Disease or Syndrome
Oculocerebral hypopigmentation syndrome, Cross type is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by cutaneous and ocular hypopigmentation, various ocular anomalies (e.g. corneal and lens opacity, spastic ectropium, and/or nystagmus), growth deficiency, intellectual deficit and other progressive neurologic anomalies such as spastic tetraplegia, hyperreflexia, and/or athetoid movements. The clinical picture varies among patients and may also include other anomalies such as urinary tract abnormalities, Dandy-Walker malformations, and/or bilateral inguinal hernia.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 9
MedGen UID:
481656
Concept ID:
C3280026
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7
MedGen UID:
767140
Concept ID:
C3554226
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7 is a severe neurologic condition characterized by delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, breathing abnormalities, and gonadal abnormalities (summary by Anderson et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
854708
Concept ID:
C3888001
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
854714
Concept ID:
C3888007
Disease or Syndrome
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1.
LIPE-related familial partial lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
863306
Concept ID:
C4014869
Disease or Syndrome
Familial partial lipodystrophy type 6 (FPLD6) is characterized by abnormal subcutaneous fat distribution, with variable excess accumulation of fat in the face, neck, shoulders, axillae, back, abdomen, and pubic region, and reduction in subcutaneous fat of the lower extremities. Progressive adult-onset myopathy is seen in some patients, and there is variable association with diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and hepatic steatosis (Zolotov et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), see 151660.
Al-Raqad syndrome
MedGen UID:
897610
Concept ID:
C4085595
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 6, generalized, with scarring and hair loss
MedGen UID:
934598
Concept ID:
C4310631
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634188
Concept ID:
C4551772
Disease or Syndrome
Linear nevus sebaceous syndrome
MedGen UID:
1646345
Concept ID:
C4552097
Disease or Syndrome
Schimmelpenning-Feuerstein-Mims syndrome, also known as linear sebaceous nevus syndrome, is characterized by sebaceous nevi, often on the face, associated with variable ipsilateral abnormalities of the central nervous system, ocular anomalies, and skeletal defects (summary by Happle, 1991 and Ernst et al., 2007). The linear sebaceous nevi follow the lines of Blaschko (Hornstein and Knickenberg, 1974; Bouwes Bavinck and van de Kamp, 1985). All cases are sporadic. The syndrome is believed to be caused by an autosomal dominant lethal mutation that survives by somatic mosaicism (Gorlin et al., 2001).
Hypopigmentation, organomegaly, and delayed myelination and development
MedGen UID:
1684826
Concept ID:
C5203300
Disease or Syndrome
Hypopigmentation, organomegaly, and delayed myelination and development (HOD) is characterized by hypopigmented skin and hair with normally pigmented irides; organomegaly including enlargement of liver, kidney, and spleen; and delayed myelination on brain MRI accompanied by developmental delay in both gross and fine motor skills. Biopsy findings from skin and other organs are consistent with a lysosomal storage disorder (Nicoli et al., 2019).
Mismatch repair cancer syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1748029
Concept ID:
C5399763
Disease or Syndrome
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, urinary tract, biliary tract, brain (usually glioblastoma), skin (sebaceous adenomas, sebaceous carcinomas, and keratoacanthomas), pancreas, and prostate. Cancer risks and age of onset vary depending on the associated gene. Several other cancer types have been reported to occur in individuals with Lynch syndrome (e.g., breast, sarcomas, adrenocortical carcinoma). However, the data are not sufficient to demonstrate that the risk of developing these cancers is increased in individuals with Lynch syndrome.
Oculocutaneous albinism type 8
MedGen UID:
1754121
Concept ID:
C5436929
Disease or Syndrome
Oculocutaneous albinism type VIII (OCA8) is characterized by mild hair and skin hypopigmentation, associated with ocular features including nystagmus, reduced visual acuity, iris transillumination, and hypopigmentation of the retina (Pennamen et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked, syndromic, with pigmentary mosaicism and coarse facies
MedGen UID:
1794140
Concept ID:
C5561930
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder with pigmentary mosaicism and coarse facies (MRXSPF) is characterized by a phenotypic triad of severe developmental delay, coarse facial dysmorphisms, and Blaschkoid pigmentary mosaicism. Additional clinical features may include epilepsy, orthopedic abnormalities, hypotonia, and growth abnormalities. The disorder affects both males and females (Villegas et al., 2019; Diaz et al., 2020).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
DEGCAGS syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794177
Concept ID:
C5561967
Disease or Syndrome
DEGCAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, and poor growth and feeding apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have variable systemic manifestations often with significant structural defects of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and/or skeletal systems. Additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, anemia or pancytopenia, and immunodeficiency with recurrent infections. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Bertoli-Avella et al., 2021).
Waardenburg syndrome, IIa 2F
MedGen UID:
1809587
Concept ID:
C5677013
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 2F (WS2F) is characterized by congenital or neonatal-onset sensorineural hearing loss and altered pigmentation of the iris, hair, and skin. Variable expressivity has been reported, even among patients with the same mutation (Ogawa et al., 2017; Vona et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of WS2, as well as a brief description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome (WS1, 193500; WS3, 148820; and WS4, 277580), see WS2A (193510).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 78
MedGen UID:
1840905
Concept ID:
C5830269
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-78 (MRT78) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development that is usually mild, but shows variable severity. Affected individuals have microcephaly and mild short stature. Additional features may include ocular abnormalities and mild skeletal defects (Haag et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Aquaron R, Lasseaux E, Kelekele J, Bonello-Palot N, Badens C, Arveiler B, Tshilolo L
Eur J Med Genet 2022 Oct;65(10):104594. Epub 2022 Aug 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2022.104594. PMID: 35964929
Felici M, Gentile P, De Angelis B, Puccio L, Puglisi A, Felici A, Delogu P, Cervelli V
J Cosmet Laser Ther 2014 Apr;16(2):89-95. Epub 2013 Dec 14 doi: 10.3109/14764172.2013.864199. PMID: 24215421

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Matthews BG, Thomson CE, Harding MP, McKinley JC, Ware RS
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2024 Feb 9;2(2):CD014687. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD014687.pub2. PMID: 38334217Free PMC Article
Liu S, Kuht HJ, Moon EH, Maconachie GDE, Thomas MG
Surv Ophthalmol 2021 Mar-Apr;66(2):362-377. Epub 2020 Oct 29 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2020.10.007. PMID: 33129801
Pavone P, Praticò AD, Ruggieri M, Falsaperla R
Neurol Sci 2015 Jul;36(7):1173-80. Epub 2015 Jan 14 doi: 10.1007/s10072-014-2049-1. PMID: 25586695
Felici M, Gentile P, De Angelis B, Puccio L, Puglisi A, Felici A, Delogu P, Cervelli V
J Cosmet Laser Ther 2014 Apr;16(2):89-95. Epub 2013 Dec 14 doi: 10.3109/14764172.2013.864199. PMID: 24215421
Grønskov K, Ek J, Brondum-Nielsen K
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Nov 2;2:43. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-43. PMID: 17980020Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Cho RY, Peñaherrera MS, Du Souich C, Huang L, Mwenifumbo J, Nelson TN, Elliott AM, Adam S; CAUSES Study, Eydoux P, Yang GX, Chijiwa C, Van Allen MI, Friedman JM, Robinson WP, Lehman A
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Mar;182(3):498-503. Epub 2019 Dec 16 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61451. PMID: 31840929
Mauri L, Manfredini E, Del Longo A, Veniani E, Scarcello M, Terrana R, Radaelli AE, Calò D, Mingoia G, Rossetti A, Marsico G, Mazza M, Gesu GP, Cristina Patrosso M, Penco S, Piozzi E, Primignani P
J Hum Genet 2017 Feb;62(2):277-290. Epub 2016 Oct 13 doi: 10.1038/jhg.2016.123. PMID: 27734839
Grønskov K, Ek J, Brondum-Nielsen K
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Nov 2;2:43. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-43. PMID: 17980020Free PMC Article
Ward DM, Shiflett SL, Kaplan J
Curr Mol Med 2002 Aug;2(5):469-77. doi: 10.2174/1566524023362339. PMID: 12125812
Oetting WS
Curr Opin Pediatr 1999 Dec;11(6):565-71. doi: 10.1097/00008480-199912000-00016. PMID: 10590917

Therapy

Matthews BG, Thomson CE, Harding MP, McKinley JC, Ware RS
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2024 Feb 9;2(2):CD014687. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD014687.pub2. PMID: 38334217Free PMC Article
Kok WL, Chen Q, Lee SSJ, Chua SH, Ng SK
J Dermatolog Treat 2017 Dec;28(8):762-763. Epub 2017 May 16 doi: 10.1080/09546634.2017.1328099. PMID: 28481685
Felici M, Gentile P, De Angelis B, Puccio L, Puglisi A, Felici A, Delogu P, Cervelli V
J Cosmet Laser Ther 2014 Apr;16(2):89-95. Epub 2013 Dec 14 doi: 10.3109/14764172.2013.864199. PMID: 24215421
Aleem A
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2009;2(2):358-61. doi: 10.1016/s1658-3876(09)50026-x. PMID: 20118061
Kanerva L, Niemi KM, Lassus A
J Cutan Pathol 1981 Jun;8(3):199-213. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0560.1981.tb00999.x. PMID: 7309935

Prognosis

Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Liu T, Bai D, Yang X, Li W, Wei A
J Dermatol 2019 Nov;46(11):1027-1030. Epub 2019 Sep 4 doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.15065. PMID: 31486119
Herath HMMTB, Keragala BSDP, Pahalagamage SP, Janappriya GHCC, Kulatunga A, Gunasekera CN
J Med Case Rep 2018 Mar 24;12(1):83. doi: 10.1186/s13256-018-1618-y. PMID: 29571300Free PMC Article
Rimoldi V, Straniero L, Asselta R, Mauri L, Manfredini E, Penco S, Gesu GP, Del Longo A, Piozzi E, Soldà G, Primignani P
Gene 2014 Mar 1;537(1):79-84. Epub 2013 Dec 18 doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2013.11.102. PMID: 24361966
Carmona-Rivera C, Golas G, Hess RA, Cardillo ND, Martin EH, O'Brien K, Tsilou E, Gochuico BR, White JG, Huizing M, Gahl WA
J Invest Dermatol 2011 Dec;131(12):2394-400. Epub 2011 Aug 11 doi: 10.1038/jid.2011.228. PMID: 21833017Free PMC Article
Aleem A
Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2009;2(2):358-61. doi: 10.1016/s1658-3876(09)50026-x. PMID: 20118061

Clinical prediction guides

Matthews BG, Thomson CE, Harding MP, McKinley JC, Ware RS
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2024 Feb 9;2(2):CD014687. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD014687.pub2. PMID: 38334217Free PMC Article
Cho RY, Peñaherrera MS, Du Souich C, Huang L, Mwenifumbo J, Nelson TN, Elliott AM, Adam S; CAUSES Study, Eydoux P, Yang GX, Chijiwa C, Van Allen MI, Friedman JM, Robinson WP, Lehman A
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Mar;182(3):498-503. Epub 2019 Dec 16 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61451. PMID: 31840929
Zhang Y, Zhang Y, Liu T, Bai D, Yang X, Li W, Wei A
J Dermatol 2019 Nov;46(11):1027-1030. Epub 2019 Sep 4 doi: 10.1111/1346-8138.15065. PMID: 31486119
Léger S, Balguerie X, Goldenberg A, Drouin-Garraud V, Cabot A, Amstutz-Montadert I, Young P, Joly P, Bodereau V, Holder-Espinasse M, Jamieson RV, Krause A, Chen H, Baumann C, Nunes L, Dollfus H, Goossens M, Pingault V
Eur J Hum Genet 2012 May;20(5):584-7. Epub 2012 Jan 18 doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2011.234. PMID: 22258527Free PMC Article
Kanerva L, Niemi KM, Lassus A
J Cutan Pathol 1981 Jun;8(3):199-213. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0560.1981.tb00999.x. PMID: 7309935

Recent systematic reviews

Matthews BG, Thomson CE, Harding MP, McKinley JC, Ware RS
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2024 Feb 9;2(2):CD014687. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD014687.pub2. PMID: 38334217Free PMC Article

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