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Recurrent sinusitis

MedGen UID:
107919
Concept ID:
C0581354
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Sinusitis, recurrent
SNOMED CT: Recurrent sinusitis (195788001)
 
HPO: HP:0011108

Definition

A recurrent form of sinusitis. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

DiGeorge syndrome
MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS.
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome
MedGen UID:
21921
Concept ID:
C0043194
Disease or Syndrome
The WAS-related disorders, which include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN), are a spectrum of disorders of hematopoietic cells, with predominant defects of platelets and lymphocytes caused by pathogenic variants in WAS. WAS-related disorders usually present in infancy. Affected males have thrombocytopenia with intermittent mucosal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, and intermittent or chronic petechiae and purpura; eczema; and recurrent bacterial and viral infections, particularly of the ear. At least 40% of those who survive the early complications develop one or more autoimmune conditions including hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, immune-mediated neutropenia, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and immune-mediated damage to the kidneys and liver. Individuals with a WAS-related disorder, particularly those who have been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are at increased risk of developing lymphomas, which often occur in unusual, extranodal locations including the brain, lung, or gastrointestinal tract. Males with XLT have thrombocytopenia with small platelets; other complications of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, including eczema and immune dysfunction, are usually mild or absent. Males with XLN have congenital neutropenia, myeloid dysplasia, and lymphoid cell abnormalities.
X-linked agammaglobulinemia
MedGen UID:
65123
Concept ID:
C0221026
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections in affected males in the first two years of life. Recurrent otitis is the most common infection prior to diagnosis. Conjunctivitis, sinopulmonary infections, diarrhea, and skin infections are also frequently seen. Approximately 60% of individuals with XLA are recognized as having immunodeficiency when they develop a severe, life-threatening infection such as pneumonia, empyema, meningitis, sepsis, cellulitis, or septic arthritis. S pneumoniae and H influenzae are the most common organisms found prior to diagnosis and may continue to cause sinusitis and otitis after diagnosis and the initiation of gammaglobulin substitution therapy. Severe, difficult-to-treat enteroviral infections (often manifest as dermatomyositis or chronic meningoencephalitis) can be prevented by this treatment. The prognosis for individuals with XLA has improved markedly in the last 25 years as a result of earlier diagnosis, the development of preparations of gammaglobulin that allow normal concentrations of serum IgG to be achieved, and more liberal use of antibiotics.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic type, 1
MedGen UID:
78660
Concept ID:
C0268335
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scarring, and generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). The skin is soft and doughy to the touch, and hyperextensible, extending easily and snapping back after release (unlike lax, redundant skin, as in cutis laxa). The skin is fragile, as manifested by splitting of the dermis following relatively minor trauma, especially over pressure points (knees, elbows) and areas prone to trauma (shins, forehead, chin). Wound healing is poor, and stretching of scars after apparently successful primary wound healing is characteristic. Complications of joint hypermobility, such as dislocations of the shoulder, patella, digits, hip, radius, and clavicle, usually resolve spontaneously or are easily managed by the affected individual. Other features include hypotonia with delayed motor development, fatigue and muscle cramps, and easy bruising. Mitral valve prolapse can occur infrequently, but tends to be of little clinical consequence. Aortic root dilatation has been reported, appears to be more common in young individuals, and rarely progresses.
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classic type, 2
MedGen UID:
120628
Concept ID:
C0268336
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (cEDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by skin hyperextensibility, atrophic scarring, and generalized joint hypermobility (GJH). The skin is soft and doughy to the touch, and hyperextensible, extending easily and snapping back after release (unlike lax, redundant skin, as in cutis laxa). The skin is fragile, as manifested by splitting of the dermis following relatively minor trauma, especially over pressure points (knees, elbows) and areas prone to trauma (shins, forehead, chin). Wound healing is poor, and stretching of scars after apparently successful primary wound healing is characteristic. Complications of joint hypermobility, such as dislocations of the shoulder, patella, digits, hip, radius, and clavicle, usually resolve spontaneously or are easily managed by the affected individual. Other features include hypotonia with delayed motor development, fatigue and muscle cramps, and easy bruising. Mitral valve prolapse can occur infrequently, but tends to be of little clinical consequence. Aortic root dilatation has been reported, appears to be more common in young individuals, and rarely progresses.
Emanuel syndrome
MedGen UID:
323030
Concept ID:
C1836929
Disease or Syndrome
Emanuel syndrome is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, hypotonia, severe developmental delays, ear anomalies, preauricular tags or pits, cleft or high-arched palate, congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and genital abnormalities in males.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 5
MedGen UID:
324840
Concept ID:
C1837615
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-5 (CILD5) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early onset of a progressive decline in lung function due to an inability to clear mucus and particles from the airways. Affected individuals have recurrent infections of the sinuses, ears, airways, and lungs. Sperm motility is also decreased. Individuals with CILD5 do not have situs inversus (summary by Olbrich et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 3
MedGen UID:
325210
Concept ID:
C1837618
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD; CILD) is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from loss of normal ciliary function. Kartagener (pronounced KART-agayner) syndrome is characterized by the combination of primary ciliary dyskinesia and situs inversus, and occurs in approximately half of patients with ciliary dyskinesia. Since normal nodal ciliary movement in the embryo is required for normal visceral asymmetry, absence of normal ciliary movement results in a lack of definitive patterning; thus, random chance alone appears to determine whether the viscera take up the normal or reversed left-right position during embryogenesis. This explains why approximately 50% of patients, even within the same family, have situs inversus (summary by Afzelius, 1976; El Zein et al., 2003). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia and the Kartagener syndrome, see CILD1 (244400).
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation
MedGen UID:
375009
Concept ID:
C1842763
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation (SPENCDI) is an immunoosseous dysplasia combining the typical metaphyseal and vertebral bone lesions of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) with immune dysfunction and neurologic involvement. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by radiolucent and irregular spondylar and metaphyseal lesions that represent islands of chondroid tissue within bone. The vertebral bodies show dorsally accentuated platyspondyly with disturbance of ossification. Clinical abnormalities such as short stature, rhizomelic micromelia, increased lumbar lordosis, barrel chest, facial anomalies, and clumsy movements may be present (Menger et al., 1989). Central nervous system involvement includes spasticity, mental retardation, and cerebral calcifications, and immune dysregulation ranges from autoimmunity to immunodeficiency. Neurologic and autoimmune manifestations have been observed in different combinations within a single family, suggesting that this disorder may be defined by specific radiographic features but has remarkably pleiotropic manifestations (Renella et al., 2006). Briggs et al. (2016) also noted variability in skeletal, neurologic, and immune phenotypes, which was sometimes marked between members of the same family. Classification of the Enchondromatoses In their classification of the enchondromatoses, Spranger et al. (1978) called Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome types I and II enchondromatosis, respectively; metachondromatosis (156250), type III; and spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD), also called spondyloenchondromatosis, type IV; enchondromatosis with irregular vertebral lesions, type V; and generalized enchondromatosis, type VI. Halal and Azouz (1991) added 3 tentative categories to the 6 in the classification of Spranger et al. (1978). Pansuriya et al. (2010) suggested a new classification of enchondromatosis (multiple enchondromas).
Immunodeficiency 61
MedGen UID:
337462
Concept ID:
C1845903
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-61 (IMD61) is an X-linked recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by onset of recurrent infections in early childhood due to impaired antibody production. Affected individuals have normal numbers of circulating B and T cells, but B cells have an intrinsic defect in antibody production (summary by Keller et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description of X-linked agammaglobulinemia, see 300755.
Poikiloderma with neutropenia
MedGen UID:
388129
Concept ID:
C1858723
Disease or Syndrome
Poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) is characterized by an inflammatory eczematous rash (ages 6-12 months) followed by post-inflammatory poikiloderma (age >2 years) and chronic noncyclic neutropenia typically associated with recurrent sinopulmonary infections in the first two years of life and (often) bronchiectasis. There is increased risk for myelodysplastic syndrome and, rarely, acute myelogenous leukemia. Other ectodermal findings include nail dystrophy and palmar/plantar hyperkeratosis. Most affected individuals also have reactive airway disease and some have short stature, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, midfacial retrusion, calcinosis cutis, and non-healing skin ulcers.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 6
MedGen UID:
370930
Concept ID:
C1970506
Disease or Syndrome
Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 11
MedGen UID:
390741
Concept ID:
C2675229
Disease or Syndrome
Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 10
MedGen UID:
382707
Concept ID:
C2675867
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 9
MedGen UID:
390990
Concept ID:
C2676235
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from loss of normal ciliary function. Kartagener (pronounced KART-agayner) syndrome is characterized by the combination of primary ciliary dyskinesia and situs inversus, and occurs in approximately half of patients with ciliary dyskinesia. Since normal nodal ciliary movement in the embryo is required for normal visceral asymmetry, absence of normal ciliary movement results in a lack of definitive patterning; thus, random chance alone appears to determine whether the viscera take up the normal or reversed left-right position during embryogenesis. This explains why approximately 50% of patients, even within the same family, have situs inversus (Afzelius, 1976; El Zein et al., 2003). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia and Kartagener syndrome, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 13
MedGen UID:
413399
Concept ID:
C2750790
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.\n\nIn the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.\n\nSome individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.\n\nApproximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.\n\nPrimary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.\n\nAnother feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.\n\nRarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain.
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis 5
MedGen UID:
416514
Concept ID:
C2751293
Disease or Syndrome
Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis-5 with or without microvillus inclusion disease (FHL5) is an autosomal recessive hyperinflammatory disorder characterized clinically by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, coagulation abnormalities, and other laboratory findings. Some patients have neurologic symptoms due to inflammatory CNS disease. There is uncontrolled and ineffective proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes, NK cells, and macrophages that infiltrate multiple organs, including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and the CNS. The phenotype is variable: some patients may present in early infancy with severe diarrhea, prior to the onset of typical FHL features, whereas others present later in childhood and have a more protracted course without diarrhea. The early-onset diarrhea is due to enteropathy reminiscent of microvillus inclusion disease (see MVID, 251850). The enteropathy, which often necessitates parenteral feeding, may be the most life-threatening issue even after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). More variable features include sensorineural hearing loss and hypogammaglobulinemia. Treatment with immunosuppressive drugs and chemotherapy can ameliorate signs and symptoms of FHL in some patients, but the only curative therapy for FHL is HSCT. HSCT is not curative for enteropathy associated with the disorder, despite hematologic and immunologic reconstitution (summary by Meeths et al., 2010; Pagel et al., 2012; Stepensky et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL, HLH), see 267700.
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 1
MedGen UID:
460728
Concept ID:
C3149378
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by antibody deficiency, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections, and an inability to mount an antibody response to antigen. The defect results from a failure of B-cell differentiation and impaired secretion of immunoglobulins; the numbers of circulating B cells are usually in the normal range, but can be low. Most individuals with CVID have onset of infections after age 10 years. CVID represents the most common form of primary immunodeficiency disorders and is the most common form of primary antibody deficiency. Approximately 10 to 20% of patients with a diagnosis of CVID have a family history of the disorder (reviews by Chapel et al., 2008, Conley et al., 2009, and Yong et al., 2009). Genetic Heterogeneity of Common Variable Immunodeficiency Common variable immunodeficiency is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also CVID2 (240500), caused by mutation in the TACI gene (TNFRSF13B; 604907); CVID3 (613493), caused by mutation in the CD19 gene (107265); CVID4 (613494), caused by mutation in the BAFFR gene (TNFRSF13C; 606269); CVID5 (613495), caused by mutation in the CD20 gene (112210); CVID6 (613496), caused by mutation in the CD81 gene (186845); CVID7 (614699), caused by mutation in the CD21 gene (CR2; 120650); CVID8 (614700), caused by mutation in the LRBA gene (606453); CVID10 (615577), caused by mutation in the NFKB2 gene (164012); CVID11 (615767), caused by mutation in the IL21 gene (605384); CVID12 (616576), caused by mutation in the NFKB1 gene (164011); CVID13 (616873), caused by mutation in the IKZF1 gene (603023); CVID14 (617765), caused by mutation in the IRF2BP2 gene (615332); and CVID15 (620670), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SEC61A1 gene (609213). The disorder formerly designated CVID9 has been found to be a form of autoimmune lymphoproliferative disorder; see ALPS3 (615559).
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 2
MedGen UID:
461704
Concept ID:
C3150354
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 3
MedGen UID:
462088
Concept ID:
C3150738
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 4
MedGen UID:
462089
Concept ID:
C3150739
Disease or Syndrome
Granulomatous disease, chronic, autosomal recessive, cytochrome b-positive, type 3
MedGen UID:
462759
Concept ID:
C3151409
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder of phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils) resulting from impaired killing of bacteria and fungi. CGD is characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory responses resulting in granuloma formation and other inflammatory disorders such as colitis. Infections typically involve the lung (pneumonia), lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), liver (abscess), bone (osteomyelitis), and skin (abscesses or cellulitis). Granulomas typically involve the genitourinary system (bladder) and gastrointestinal tract (often the pylorus initially, and later the esophagus, jejunum, ileum, cecum, rectum, and perirectal area). Some males with X-linked CGD have McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome as the result of a contiguous gene deletion. While CGD may present anytime from infancy to late adulthood, the vast majority of affected individuals are diagnosed before age five years. Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy has greatly improved overall survival.
Autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia 1
MedGen UID:
463494
Concept ID:
C3152144
Disease or Syndrome
Agammaglobulinemia is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by profoundly low or absent serum antibodies and low or absent circulating B cells due to an early block of B-cell development. Affected individuals develop severe infections in the first years of life. The most common form of agammaglobulinemia is X-linked agammaglobulinemia (AGMX1, XLA; 300755), also known as Bruton disease, which is caused by mutation in the BTK gene (300300). AGMX1 accounts for anywhere from 85 to 95% of males who have the characteristic findings (Lopez Granados et al., 2002; Ferrari et al., 2007). Autosomal recessive inheritance of agammaglobulinemia, which has a similar phenotype to that of the X-linked form, has been observed in a small number of families, and accounts for up to 15% of patients with agammaglobulinemia (Ferrari et al., 2007). Conley (1999) gave a comprehensive review of autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Agammaglobulinemia Autosomal agammaglobulinemia is a genetically heterogeneous disorder: see also AGM2 (613500), caused by mutation in the IGLL1 gene (146770); AGM3 (613501), caused by mutation in the CD79A gene (112205); AGM4 (613502), caused by mutation in the BLNK gene (604515); AGM5 (613506), caused by disruption of the LRRC8 gene (608360); AGM6 (612692), caused by mutation in the CD79B gene (147245); AGM7 (615214), caused by mutation in the PIK3R1 gene (171833); AGM8 (616941), caused by mutation in the TCF3 gene (147141); AGM9 (619693), caused by mutation in the SLC39A7 gene (601416); and AGM10 (619707), caused by mutation in the SPI1 gene (165170).
X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, Epstein-Barr virus infection and neoplasia
MedGen UID:
477076
Concept ID:
C3275445
Disease or Syndrome
XMEN is an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency characterized by CD4 (186940) lymphopenia, severe chronic viral infections, and defective T-lymphocyte activation (Li et al., 2011). Affected individuals have chronic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and are susceptible to the development of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Magnesium supplementation may be therapeutic (summary by Li et al., 2014).
Complement component 4b deficiency
MedGen UID:
482271
Concept ID:
C3280641
Finding
Concentration of the complement component C4b in the blood circulation below the lower limit of normal.
Factor I deficiency
MedGen UID:
483045
Concept ID:
C3463916
Disease or Syndrome
C3 glomerulopathy (C3G) is a complex ultra-rare complement-mediated renal disease caused by uncontrolled activation of the complement alternative pathway (AP) in the fluid phase (as opposed to cell surface) that is rarely inherited in a simple mendelian fashion. C3G affects individuals of all ages, with a median age at diagnosis of 23 years. Individuals with C3G typically present with hematuria, proteinuria, hematuria and proteinuria, acute nephritic syndrome or nephrotic syndrome, and low levels of the complement component C3. Spontaneous remission of C3G is uncommon, and about half of affected individuals develop end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within ten years of diagnosis, occasionally developing the late comorbidity of impaired visual acuity.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 20
MedGen UID:
761920
Concept ID:
C3540844
Disease or Syndrome
CILD20 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by infantile onset of chronic sinopulmonary infections resulting from immotile cilia and defective clearance. Patients may also have situs inversus or cardiac anomalies. Electron microscopy of respiratory epithelial cells shows absence of the outer dynein arms. Unlike other forms of CILD, patients with CILD20 do not appear to be infertile. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 18
MedGen UID:
762331
Concept ID:
C3543825
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-18 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early infantile onset of recurrent sinopulmonary infections due to ciliary dysfunction and impaired airway clearance. Males are infertile and about half of patients have situs inversus. Electron microscopy of cilia shows a defect of the outer and inner dynein arms and impaired ciliary function (summary by Horani et al., 2012).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 19
MedGen UID:
762332
Concept ID:
C3543826
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-19 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by chronic sinopulmonary infections, asthenospermia, and immotile cilia. Respiratory epithelial cells and sperm flagella of affected individuals lack both the inner and outer dynein arms. About 50% of patients have situs inversus (summary by Kott et al., 2012). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Combined immunodeficiency due to LRBA deficiency
MedGen UID:
766426
Concept ID:
C3553512
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency-8 with autoimmunity is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. Affected individuals have early childhood onset of recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, and also develop variable autoimmune disorders, including idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and inflammatory bowel disease. The presentation and phenotype are highly variable, even within families (summary by Lopez-Herrera et al., 2012 and Alangari et al., 2012). Immunologic findings are also variable and may include decreased B cells, hypogammaglobulinemia, and deficiency of CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells (Charbonnier et al., 2015). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594).
Combined immunodeficiency due to STK4 deficiency
MedGen UID:
766857
Concept ID:
C3553943
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-110 (IMD110) is an autosomal recessive primary T-cell immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by progressive loss of naive T cells, recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, warts, and abscesses, and autoimmune manifestations. Patients are at risk for developing lymphoproliferative disorders or lymphoma, particularly associated with EBV. Some patients may show cardiac malformations, including atrial septal defect (Abdollahpour et al., 2012; Nehme et al., 2012).
Cryptosporidiosis-chronic cholangitis-liver disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
767601
Concept ID:
C3554687
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-56 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by B- and T-cell defects and variable dysfunction of NK cells. Patients tend to have normal numbers of lymphocytes, but show defective class-switched B cells, low IgG, defective antibody response, and defective T-cell responses to certain antigens (summary by Kotlarz et al., 2013).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 22
MedGen UID:
815873
Concept ID:
C3809543
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-22 (CILD22) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective structure and function of cilia or flagella. Ciliary dysfunction causes respiratory distress in term neonates, impaired mucociliary clearance, chronic cough, sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and male infertility. Defective motility of embryonic nodal cilia leads to situs abnormalities in about 50% of patients. CILD22 is characterized by defects of the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Zariwala et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 23
MedGen UID:
815878
Concept ID:
C3809548
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-23 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defective ciliary motility. Affected individuals have respiratory distress and recurrent upper and lower airway infections, and they often develop bronchiectasis. About 50% of patients have situs inversus or laterality defects. Ultrastructural analysis of respiratory cilia shows defects in the outer dynein arm (summary by Hjeij et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 24
MedGen UID:
815964
Concept ID:
C3809634
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-24 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defects of motile cilia. It is characterized clinically by sinopulmonary infection and subfertility; situs inversus is not observed. Ultrastructural examination of mutant cilia shows defects of the central microtubule complex and radial spokes (summary by Kott et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 25
MedGen UID:
815971
Concept ID:
C3809641
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-25 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have recurrent upper and lower airway disease, bronchiectasis, and decreased fertility. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Tarkar et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 26
MedGen UID:
816014
Concept ID:
C3809684
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-26 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower airway disease, and bronchiectasis. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Austin-Tse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 27
MedGen UID:
816031
Concept ID:
C3809701
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-27 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower airway disease, and bronchiectasis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner dynein arms and nexin links. Situs inversus has not been reported in these patients (summary by Austin-Tse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 28
MedGen UID:
816036
Concept ID:
C3809706
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-28 (CILD28) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have recurrent upper and lower airway disease, bronchiectasis, and decreased fertility. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in both the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Knowles et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Idiopathic CD4 lymphocytopenia
MedGen UID:
816098
Concept ID:
C3809768
Disease or Syndrome
Idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia (ICL) is a rare and heterogeneous syndrome defined by a reproducible reduction in the CD4 T-lymphocyte count (less than 300 cells per microliter or less than 20% of total T cells) in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. ICL predisposes to infections and malignancy (summary by Gorska and Alam, 2012).
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, type III caused by mutation in PRKCD
MedGen UID:
816258
Concept ID:
C3809928
Disease or Syndrome
Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type III is an autosomal recessive disorder of immune dysregulation. The phenotype is variable, but most patients have significant lymphadenopathy associated with variable autoimmune manifestations. Some patients may have recurrent infections. Lymphocyte accumulation results from a combination of impaired apoptosis and excessive proliferation (summary by Oliveira, 2013). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ALPS, see 601859.
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 10
MedGen UID:
816321
Concept ID:
C3809991
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency-10 (CVID10) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency characterized by childhood-onset of recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia, and decreased numbers of memory and marginal zone B cells. Some patients may develop autoimmune features and have circulating autoantibodies. An unusual feature is central adrenal insufficiency (summary by Chen et al., 2013). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594).
Autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency with defective spontaneous natural killer cell cytotoxicity
MedGen UID:
816672
Concept ID:
C3810342
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-20 is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by functional deficiency of NK cells. Patient NK cells are defective in spontaneous cell cytotoxicity, but retain antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Patients typically present early in childhood with severe herpes viral infections, particularly Epstein Barr virus (EBV), and human papillomavirus (HPV) (summary by Grier et al., 2012).
Vasculitis due to ADA2 deficiency
MedGen UID:
854497
Concept ID:
C3887654
Disease or Syndrome
Adenosine deaminase 2 deficiency (DADA2) is a complex systemic autoinflammatory disorder in which vasculopathy/vasculitis, dysregulated immune function, and/or hematologic abnormalities may predominate. Inflammatory features include intermittent fevers, rash (often livedo racemosa/reticularis), and musculoskeletal involvement (myalgia/arthralgia, arthritis, myositis). Vasculitis, which usually begins before age ten years, may manifest as early-onset ischemic (lacunar) and/or hemorrhagic strokes, or as cutaneous or systemic polyarteritis nodosa. Hypertension and hepatosplenomegaly are often found. More severe involvement may lead to progressive central neurologic deficits (dysarthria, ataxia, cranial nerve palsies, cognitive impairment) or to ischemic injury to the kidney, intestine, and/or digits. Dysregulation of immune function can lead to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity of varying severity; lymphadenopathy may be present and some affected individuals have had lymphoproliferative disease. Hematologic disorders may begin early in life or in late adulthood, and can include lymphopenia, neutropenia, pure red cell aplasia, thrombocytopenia, or pancytopenia. Of note, both interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability (e.g., in age of onset, frequency and severity of manifestations) can be observed; also, individuals with biallelic ADA2 pathogenic variants may remain asymptomatic until adulthood or may never develop clinical manifestations of DADA2.
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 12
MedGen UID:
906018
Concept ID:
C4225277
Disease or Syndrome
Common variable immunodeficiency-12 with autoimmunity (CVID12) is an autosomal dominant complex immunologic disorder with multisystem involvement. CVID12 is mainly a primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections and associated with hypogammaglobulinemia. Notably, about half of patients develop autoimmune features, including cytopenia, as well as generalized inflammation and lymphoproliferation manifest as lymphadenopathy or hepatosplenomegaly. A smaller percentage of affected individuals (less than 20%) develop cancer, most commonly solid tumors, including lymphoma. Age at onset and disease severity are highly variable, even within the same family. There is also incomplete penetrance, such that mutation carriers may be asymptomatic, even if they have hypogammaglobulinemia. The gene involved, NFKB1, encodes a transcription factor that regulates the expression of target genes involved in the immune system, thus defining the phenotype as a disorder of immune dysregulation (summary by Fliegauf et al., 2015; Lorenzini et al., 2020). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of common variable immunodeficiency, see CVID1 (607594).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 34
MedGen UID:
934689
Concept ID:
C4310722
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-34 (CILD34) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by childhood onset of recurrent sinopulmonary infections due to impaired ciliary function. Affected males are infertile due to impaired sperm function and viability. Laterality defects have not been observed in this type of CILD (summary by El Khouri et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency 51
MedGen UID:
934770
Concept ID:
C4310803
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-51 (IMD51) is an autosomal recessive primary immune deficiency that is usually characterized by onset of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in the first years of life. Most patients also show recurrent Staphylococcal skin infections, and may show increased susceptibility to chronic bacterial respiratory infections. Patient cells show a lack of cellular responses to stimulation with certain IL17 isoforms, including IL17A (603149), IL17F (606496), IL17A/F, and IL17E (IL25; 605658) (summary by Levy et al., 2016).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 36, X-linked
MedGen UID:
1393107
Concept ID:
C4478372
Disease or Syndrome
CILD36 is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by chronic airway disease and recurrent sinopulmonary infections beginning in childhood and caused by defective ciliary function. Affected individuals also have infertility due to defective sperm flagella. About half of patients have laterality defects due to ciliary dysfunction at the embryonic node (summary by Paff et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency, common variable, 14
MedGen UID:
1614928
Concept ID:
C4540380
Disease or Syndrome
Combined immunodeficiency due to DOCK8 deficiency
MedGen UID:
1648410
Concept ID:
C4722305
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-2 with recurrent infections (HIES2) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by recurrent staphylococcal infections of the skin and respiratory tract, eczema, elevated serum immunoglobulin E, and hypereosinophilia. It is distinguished from autosomal dominant HIES1 (147060) by the lack of connective tissue and skeletal involvement (Renner et al., 2004). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see 147060. See also TYK2 deficiency (611521), a clinically distinct disease entity that includes characteristic features of both autosomal recessive HIES2 and mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD; 209950) (Minegishi et al., 2006).
Proteasome-associated autoinflammatory syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1648310
Concept ID:
C4746851
Disease or Syndrome
This autosomal recessive systemic autoinflammatory disorder is characterized by early childhood onset of annular erythematous plaques on the face and extremities with subsequent development of partial lipodystrophy and laboratory evidence of immune dysregulation. More variable features include recurrent fever, severe joint contractures, muscle weakness and atrophy, hepatosplenomegaly, basal ganglia calcifications, and microcytic anemia (summary by Agarwal et al., 2010; Kitamura et al., 2011; Arima et al., 2011). This disorder encompasses Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome (NKJO); joint contractures, muscular atrophy, microcytic anemia, and panniculitis-induced lipodystrophy (JMP syndrome); and chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature syndrome (CANDLE). Among Japanese patients, this disorder is best described as Nakajo-Nishimura syndrome, since both Nakajo (1939) and Nishimura et al. (1950) contributed to the original phenotypic descriptions. Genetic Heterogeneity of Proteasome-Associated Autoinflammatory Syndrome See also PRAAS2 (618048), caused by mutation in the POMP gene (613386) on chromosome 13q12; PRAAS3 (617591), caused by mutation in the PSMB4 gene (602177) on chromosome 1q21; PRAAS4 (619183), caused by mutation in the PSMG2 gene (609702) on chromosome 18p11; and PRAAS5 (619175), caused by mutation in the PSMB10 gene (176847) on chromosome 16q22.
Immunodeficiency 15a
MedGen UID:
1648385
Concept ID:
C4748694
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency 15A (IMD15A) is an autosomal dominant primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by relatively late onset of recurrent respiratory tract infections and lymphopenia, combined with immune activation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. One patient presented with inflammatory disease and possible ectodermal defect.
Hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome 3, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1648483
Concept ID:
C4748969
Disease or Syndrome
Hyper-IgE syndrome-3 with recurrent infections (HIES3) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder characterized by childhood onset of atopic dermatitis, skin infections particularly with Staphylococcus aureus, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, and increased serum IgE and IgG. Patients are susceptible to bacterial and fungal infections, including chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Immunologic workup shows impaired differentiation of CD4+ T cells into T-helper 17 cells, decreased memory B cells, and often decreased NK cells (summary by Beziat et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyper-IgE syndrome, see HIES1 (147060).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 41
MedGen UID:
1680404
Concept ID:
C5193103
Disease or Syndrome
Ciliary dyskinesia-41 (CILD41) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic sinusitis, otitis media, and bronchiectasis (Bustamante-Marin et al., 2019). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 42
MedGen UID:
1684665
Concept ID:
C5231464
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-42 (CILD42) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a defect in motile cilia and ciliary clearance resulting in the onset of respiratory insufficiency soon after birth, and associated with recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections with chronic progressive lung disease. Other more variable features may include infertility and mild hydrocephalus. Patients with this form of the disorder do not have situs abnormalities. The disorder is considered to be a type of ciliopathy known as 'reduced generation of multiple motile cilia' (RGMC) (summary by Boon et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, CILD1 (244400).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 44
MedGen UID:
1716408
Concept ID:
C5394063
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-44 (CILD44) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent sinopulmonary infections resulting from defective mucociliary clearance. Affected individuals have onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood, and the repetitive nature of the disorder results in bronchiectasis. Although respiratory epithelial cell motile cilia are shorter than normal and overall ciliary motion is decreased, nasal nitric oxide, radial ciliary structure, and ciliary beat frequency are normal. In addition, patients do not have situs inversus (summary by Chivukula et al., 2020). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Bone marrow failure syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1717739
Concept ID:
C5394274
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency 70
MedGen UID:
1740270
Concept ID:
C5436501
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-70 (IMD70) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by severe cutaneous warts on the hands, feet, and face, suggesting increased susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Affected individuals may also have recurrent bacterial infections, such as sinusitis, as well as feature of autoinflammation, such as colitis, celiac disease, and retinal vasculitis. Laboratory studies show decreased CD4+ T cells and decreased CD19+ B cells; hypogammaglobulinemia has also been observed (summary by Thaventhiran et al., 2020).
Immunodeficiency 73b with defective neutrophil chemotaxis and lymphopenia
MedGen UID:
1740566
Concept ID:
C5436549
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-73B with defective neutrophil chemotaxis (IMD73B) is an autosomal dominant immunologic disorder characterized by onset of recurrent infections in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals develop respiratory infections, cellulitis, and severe invasive infections or sepsis; organisms include bacteria such as Staphylococcus, as well as viruses, fungi, and mycobacterial species. Laboratory studies show variable abnormalities, including B- and T-cell lymphopenia, decreased immunoglobulin subsets, decreased TRECs and dysfunctional T cells, decreased NK cells, neutropenia, and impaired neutrophil chemotaxis. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is curative (summary by Hsu et al., 2019; review by Lougaris et al., 2020). In a review of autosomal forms of chronic granulomatous disease (see 306400 for genetic heterogeneity of CGD), Roos et al. (2021) noted that patients with RAC2 mutations may manifest CGD-like symptoms due to defects in neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity.
Immunodeficiency 14b, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1787468
Concept ID:
C5543301
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency-14B (IMD14B) is characterized by onset of recurrent infections in early childhood. Most patients have respiratory infections, but some may develop inflammatory bowel disease or osteomyelitis. Laboratory studies tend to show hypogammaglobulinemia and decreased levels of B cells. Although NK cell and T cell numbers are normal, there may be evidence of impaired immune-mediated cytotoxicity and defective T-cell function (summary by et al., 2018 and et al., 2019).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 46
MedGen UID:
1780196
Concept ID:
C5543646
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-46 (CILD46) is characterized by recurrent sinus and respiratory infections, with reduced pulmonary function and uncoordinated beating of respiratory cilia. No situs abnormalities have been observed (Edelbusch et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency 102
MedGen UID:
1812534
Concept ID:
C5676886
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-102 (IMD102) is an X-linked recessive immunologic disorder characterized by the onset of recurrent sinopulmonary, mucosal, and other infections in early childhood, usually accompanied by refractory autoimmune cytopenias. Affected individuals have bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, as well as hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and decreased NK cells. Laboratory studies show defective T-cell proliferation and function, likely due to signaling abnormalities. The disorder may also manifest as a hyperinflammatory state with immune dysregulation (Delmonte et al., 2021).
Agammaglobulinemia 10, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1806624
Concept ID:
C5676900
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant agammaglobulinemia-10 (AGM10) is characterized by early-childhood onset of recurrent viral and bacterial infections affecting various organ systems, particularly the sinopulmonary system. Laboratory studies show low or absent circulating B cells and hypo- or agammaglobulinemia. Affected individuals may have adverse reactions to certain vaccinations, such as the polio vaccine. Treatment with replacement Ig is effective; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has also been reported (summary by Le Coz et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal agammaglobulinemia, see AGM1 (601495).
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development 1
MedGen UID:
1808104
Concept ID:
C5677021
Disease or Syndrome
Craniofacial dysmorphism, skeletal anomalies, and impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (CFSMR1) is characterized by cranial involvement with macrocrania at birth, brachycephaly, anomalies of middle fossa structures including hypoplasia of corpus callosum, enlargement of septum pellucidum, and dilated lateral ventricles, as well as cortical atrophy and hypodensity of the gray matter. Facial dysmorphisms include flat face, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, synophrys, broad nasal bridge, cleft lip and cleft palate, and low-set posteriorly rotated ears. Patients also exhibit short neck and multiple costal and vertebral anomalies. The face is rather characteristic, and various authors have consistently reported affable/friendly personality, despite intellectual delay (summary by Alanay et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniofacial Dysmorphism, Skeletal Anomalies, and Impaired Intellectual Development Syndrome CFSMR2 (616994) is caused by mutation in the RAB5IF gene (619960) on chromosome 20q11.
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 48, without situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1823987
Concept ID:
C5774214
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-48 without situs inversus (CILD48) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent upper and lower respiratory infections due to impaired ciliary movement and clearance. Affected individuals often develop chronic lung disease. Since the defect involves the radial spokes and central pairs of microtubules in motile cilia, situs abnormalities do not occur (summary by Cho et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 49, without situs inversus
MedGen UID:
1824064
Concept ID:
C5774291
Disease or Syndrome
Primary ciliary dyskinesia-49 (CILD49) without situs inversus is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of recurrent respiratory infections, chronic cough, and bronchiectasis in early childhood due to defective ciliary clearance. Affected males also show infertility due to defective flagellar morphology and function. Nasal nitric oxide (NO) levels are normal and situs abnormalities are not observed (Sha et al., 2020; Biebach et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400).
Immunodeficiency 109 with lymphoproliferation
MedGen UID:
1840982
Concept ID:
C5830346
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-109 with EBV-induced lymphoproliferation (IMD109) is an autosomal recessive primary immune disorder characterized by onset of recurrent sinopulmonary infections in childhood. Affected individuals are susceptible to infection with EBV and develop EBV viremia and EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease or B-cell lymphoma. Immunologic work-up shows normal levels of T, B, and NK cells, with defective CD8+ T cell function after stimulation. Some patients may have hypogammaglobulinemia and poor antibody response to stimulation (Alosaimi et al., 2019).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Comarmond C, Cacoub P
Autoimmun Rev 2014 Nov;13(11):1121-5. Epub 2014 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.08.017. PMID: 25149391
Palikhe NS, Kim JH, Park HS
Yonsei Med J 2009 Dec 31;50(6):744-50. Epub 2009 Dec 18 doi: 10.3349/ymj.2009.50.6.744. PMID: 20046412Free PMC Article
Kaliner MA
Am J Rhinol 1997 Mar-Apr;11(2):123-32. doi: 10.2500/105065897782537250. PMID: 9129754

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Guan Y, Yang H, Yao X, Xu H, Liu H, Tang X, Hao C, Zhang X, Zhao S, Ge W, Ni X
Chest 2021 May;159(5):1768-1781. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.006. PMID: 33577779Free PMC Article
Shao Z, Bernstein JA
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2019 Nov 27;19(12):54. doi: 10.1007/s11882-019-0892-0. PMID: 31776689
Kwah JH, Peters AT
Allergy Asthma Proc 2019 Nov 1;40(6):380-384. doi: 10.2500/aap.2019.40.4252. PMID: 31690375
Berger M, Geng B, Cameron DW, Murphy LM, Schulman ES
Respir Med 2017 Nov;132:181-188. Epub 2017 Oct 21 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.10.016. PMID: 29229095
Duse M, Caminiti S, Zicari AM
Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2007 Nov;18 Suppl 18:71-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3038.2007.00639.x. PMID: 17767614

Diagnosis

Tseng FH, Newman M, Song CH
Adv Pediatr 2022 Aug;69(1):75-93. Epub 2022 Jun 21 doi: 10.1016/j.yapd.2022.03.012. PMID: 35985718
Guan Y, Yang H, Yao X, Xu H, Liu H, Tang X, Hao C, Zhang X, Zhao S, Ge W, Ni X
Chest 2021 May;159(5):1768-1781. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.006. PMID: 33577779Free PMC Article
Shao Z, Bernstein JA
Curr Allergy Asthma Rep 2019 Nov 27;19(12):54. doi: 10.1007/s11882-019-0892-0. PMID: 31776689
Comarmond C, Cacoub P
Autoimmun Rev 2014 Nov;13(11):1121-5. Epub 2014 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.08.017. PMID: 25149391
Pagnoux C, Wolter NE
Swiss Med Wkly 2012;142:w13541. Epub 2012 Mar 19 doi: 10.4414/smw.2012.13541. PMID: 22430874

Therapy

Kwah JH, Peters AT
Allergy Asthma Proc 2019 Nov 1;40(6):380-384. doi: 10.2500/aap.2019.40.4252. PMID: 31690375
Berger M, Geng B, Cameron DW, Murphy LM, Schulman ES
Respir Med 2017 Nov;132:181-188. Epub 2017 Oct 21 doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2017.10.016. PMID: 29229095
Comarmond C, Cacoub P
Autoimmun Rev 2014 Nov;13(11):1121-5. Epub 2014 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.08.017. PMID: 25149391
Pagnoux C, Wolter NE
Swiss Med Wkly 2012;142:w13541. Epub 2012 Mar 19 doi: 10.4414/smw.2012.13541. PMID: 22430874
Lazarczyk DA, Goldstein NS, Gordon SC
Dig Dis Sci 2001 Apr;46(4):925-6. doi: 10.1023/a:1010741510046. PMID: 11330435

Prognosis

Kwah JH, Peters AT
Allergy Asthma Proc 2019 Nov 1;40(6):380-384. doi: 10.2500/aap.2019.40.4252. PMID: 31690375
Comarmond C, Cacoub P
Autoimmun Rev 2014 Nov;13(11):1121-5. Epub 2014 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.08.017. PMID: 25149391
Georgy MS, Peters AT
Allergy Asthma Proc 2012 May-Jun;33 Suppl 1:22-23. doi: 10.2500/aap.2012.33.3537. PMID: 22794680
Pagnoux C, Wolter NE
Swiss Med Wkly 2012;142:w13541. Epub 2012 Mar 19 doi: 10.4414/smw.2012.13541. PMID: 22430874
Campbell JM, Graham M, Gray HC, Bower C, Blaiss MS, Jones SM
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2006 Feb;96(2):286-90. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61237-9. PMID: 16498849

Clinical prediction guides

Makary CA, Behnke J, Peppers B, Ramadan HH
Laryngoscope 2022 Apr;132(4):732-736. Epub 2021 Jun 19 doi: 10.1002/lary.29694. PMID: 34146351
Guan Y, Yang H, Yao X, Xu H, Liu H, Tang X, Hao C, Zhang X, Zhao S, Ge W, Ni X
Chest 2021 May;159(5):1768-1781. Epub 2021 Feb 10 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2021.02.006. PMID: 33577779Free PMC Article
Kim SJ, Park JS, Kim HT, Lee CH, Park YH, Bae JH
Clin Oral Implants Res 2016 Nov;27(11):e100-e104. Epub 2015 Feb 12 doi: 10.1111/clr.12570. PMID: 25675967
Comarmond C, Cacoub P
Autoimmun Rev 2014 Nov;13(11):1121-5. Epub 2014 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.08.017. PMID: 25149391
Georgy MS, Peters AT
Allergy Asthma Proc 2012 May-Jun;33 Suppl 1:22-23. doi: 10.2500/aap.2012.33.3537. PMID: 22794680

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