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Primary amenorrhea

MedGen UID:
115918
Concept ID:
C0232939
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonym: Amenorrhea, primary
SNOMED CT: Primary physiologic amenorrhea (8913004); Primary amenorrhea (156035004)
 
HPO: HP:0000786

Definition

Abnormally late or absent menarche in a female with normal secondary sexual characteristics. [from NCI]

Conditions with this feature

Prader-Willi syndrome
MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present.
Androgen resistance syndrome
MedGen UID:
21102
Concept ID:
C0039585
Disease or Syndrome
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is typically characterized by evidence of feminization (i.e., undermasculinization) of the external genitalia at birth, abnormal secondary sexual development in puberty, and infertility in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. AIS represents a spectrum of defects in androgen action and can be subdivided into three broad phenotypes: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), with typical female external genitalia. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) with predominantly female, predominantly male, or ambiguous external genitalia. Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) with typical male external genitalia.
Vanishing testis
MedGen UID:
78602
Concept ID:
C0266427
Disease or Syndrome
SRXY11 is characterized by a genital phenotype that may range from predominantly female to predominantly male, including marked sex ambiguity depending on the duration of normal testicular function prior to the loss of testicular tissue. Approximately half of patients present with micropenis and bilateral cryptorchidism, and half present with female-appearing or ambiguous external genitalia (da Silva et al., 2019; McElreavey et al., 2020). The testicular regression syndrome (TRS) was delineated by Sarto and Opitz (1973), who called it the XY gonadal dysgenesis syndrome. It is characterized primarily by the absence of gonads in an XY person. In most cases, uterus and fallopian tubes are absent but small tubular structures interpreted as mullerian or wolffian rudiments (or both) are present. The range of virilizing effects due to early testicular tissue extends from none in phenotypic females with only slightly hypoplastic normal external genitalia, well-formed but hypoplastic uterus, and well-formed tubes (De Marchi et al., 1981) to the anorchic phenotypic male (Edman et al., 1977). Most affected individuals lack a vagina but a urogenital sinus or pseudovaginal urethral outpouching is found. Partial labioscrotal fusion and clitoris enlargement are common, breast development is absent, and postpubertal eunuchoid habitus is the rule. Sometimes nongenital anomalies are present (summary by Rosenberg et al., 1984).
Deficiency of steroid 17-alpha-monooxygenase
MedGen UID:
82782
Concept ID:
C0268285
Disease or Syndrome
17 alpha(a)-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is a condition that affects the function of certain hormone-producing glands called the gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males) and the adrenal glands. The gonads direct sexual development before birth and during puberty and are important for reproduction. The adrenal glands, which are located on top of the kidneys, regulate the production of certain hormones, including those that control salt levels in the body. People with 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency have an imbalance of many of the hormones that are made in these glands. 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency is one of a group of disorders, known as congenital adrenal hyperplasias, that impair hormone production and disrupt sexual development and maturation.\n\nHormone imbalances lead to the characteristic signs and symptoms of 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, which include high blood pressure (hypertension), low levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia), and abnormal sexual development. The severity of the features varies. Two forms of the condition are recognized: complete 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, which is more severe, and partial 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, which is typically less so.\n\nMales and females are affected by disruptions to sexual development differently. Females (who have two X chromosomes) with 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency are born with normal external female genitalia; however, the internal reproductive organs, including the uterus and ovaries, may be underdeveloped. Women with complete 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency do not develop secondary sex characteristics, such as breasts and pubic hair, and do not menstruate (amenorrhea). Women with partial 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency may develop some secondary sex characteristics; menstruation is typically irregular or absent. Either form of the disorder results in an inability to conceive a baby (infertility).\n\nIn affected individuals who are chromosomally male (having an X and a Y chromosome), problems with sexual development lead to abnormalities of the external genitalia. The most severely affected are born with characteristically female external genitalia and are generally raised as females. However, because they do not have female internal reproductive organs, these individuals have amenorrhea and do not develop female secondary sex characteristics. These individuals have testes, but they are abnormally located in the abdomen (undescended). Sometimes, complete 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency leads to external genitalia that do not look clearly male or clearly female. Males with partial 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency may have a small penis (micropenis), the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias), or a scrotum divided into two lobes (bifid scrotum). Males with either complete or partial 17a-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency are also infertile.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 7 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
87440
Concept ID:
C0342384
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Rokitansky sequence
MedGen UID:
140915
Concept ID:
C0431648
Congenital Abnormality
Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (MRKH) is characterized by uterovaginal atresia in an otherwise phenotypically normal female with a normal 46,XX karyotype. Anomalies of the genital tract range from upper vaginal atresia to total mullerian agenesis with urinary tract abnormalities. It has an incidence of approximately 1 in 5,000 newborn girls (Cheroki et al., 2006). The abnormality of sexual development in MRKH syndrome is the same as that in the MURCS association (601076), in which cervicothoracic somite anomalies, unilateral renal agenesis, and conductive deafness are also seen. Mullerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism (158330) is caused by mutation in the WNT4 gene (603490). Familial cases of unilateral or bilateral renal agenesis in combination with mullerian anomalies have also been reported (see urogenital adysplasia, 191830).
Ovarian dysgenesis 1
MedGen UID:
215397
Concept ID:
C0949595
Congenital Abnormality
Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure is a heterogeneous disorder that, in the most severe forms, is a result of ovarian dysgenesis. Ovarian dysgenesis accounts for about half the cases of primary amenorrhea (Timmreck and Reindollar, 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ovarian Dysgenesis Even in its isolated form, 46,XX ovarian dysgenesis is etiologically heterogeneous. See ODG2 (300510), caused by mutation in the BMP15 gene (300247); ODG3 (614324), caused by mutation in the PSMC3IP gene (608665); ODG4 (616185), caused by mutation in the MCMDC1 gene (610098); ODG5 (617690), caused by mutation in the SOHLH1 gene (610224); ODG6 (618078), caused by mutation in the NUP107 gene (607617); ODG7 (618117), caused by mutation in the MRPS22 gene (605810); ODG8 (618187), caused by mutation in the ESR2 gene (601663); ODG9 (619665), caused by mutation in the SPIDR gene (615384); and ODG10 (619834), caused by mutation in the ZSWIM7 gene (614535). See also ovarian dysgenesis with sensorineural deafness, or Perrault syndrome (233400).
Frasier syndrome
MedGen UID:
215533
Concept ID:
C0950122
Disease or Syndrome
WT1 disorder is characterized by congenital/infantile or childhood onset of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), a progressive glomerulopathy that does not respond to standard steroid therapy. Additional common findings can include disorders of testicular development (with or without abnormalities of the external genitalia and/or müllerian structures) and Wilms tumor. Less common findings are congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and gonadoblastoma. While various combinations of renal and other findings associated with a WT1 pathogenic variant were designated as certain syndromes in the past, those designations are now recognized to be part of a phenotypic continuum and are no longer clinically helpful.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 2 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
289648
Concept ID:
C1563720
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Renal hypodysplasia/aplasia 1
MedGen UID:
301437
Concept ID:
C1619700
Congenital Abnormality
Renal hypodysplasia/aplasia belongs to a group of perinatally lethal renal diseases, including bilateral renal aplasia, unilateral renal agenesis with contralateral dysplasia (URA/RD), and severe obstructive uropathy. Renal aplasia falls at the most severe end of the spectrum of congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT; 610805), and usually results in death in utero or in the perinatal period. Families have been documented in which bilateral renal agenesis or aplasia coexists with unilateral renal aplasia, renal dysplasia, or renal aplasia with renal dysplasia, suggesting that these conditions may belong to a pathogenic continuum or phenotypic spectrum (summary by Joss et al., 2003; Humbert et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Renal Hypodysplasia/Aplasia See also RHDA2 (615721), caused by mutation in the FGF20 gene (605558) on chromosome 8p22; RHDA3 (617805), caused by mutation in the GREB1L gene (617782) on chromosome 18q11; and RHDA4 (619887), caused by mutation in the GFRA1 gene (601496) on chromosome 10q25.
PPARG-related familial partial lipodystrophy
MedGen UID:
328393
Concept ID:
C1720861
Disease or Syndrome
A rare familial partial lipodystrophy with characteristics of adult onset of distal lipoatrophy with gluteofemoral fat loss, as well as increased fat accumulation in the face and trunk and visceral adiposity. Additional manifestations include diabetes mellitus, atherogenic dyslipidemia, eyelid xanthelasma, arterial hypertension, cardiovascular disease, hepatic steatosis, acanthosis nigricans on axilla and neck, hirsutism, and muscular hypertrophy of the lower limbs. Caused by heterozygous mutation in the PPARG gene on chromosome 3p25.
Obesity due to prohormone convertase I deficiency
MedGen UID:
318777
Concept ID:
C1833053
Disease or Syndrome
Proprotein convertase-1/3 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal severe generalized malabsorptive diarrhea and failure to thrive. As the disease progresses, additional endocrine abnormalities develop, including diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, primary hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency, and hypothyroidism (summary by Wilschanski et al., 2014).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 1
MedGen UID:
371919
Concept ID:
C1834846
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Hypoparathyroidism, deafness, renal disease syndrome
MedGen UID:
374443
Concept ID:
C1840333
Disease or Syndrome
HDR syndrome (HDRS), also known as Barakat syndrome, is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by the triad of Hypoparathyroidism (H), nerve Deafness (D) and/or Renal disease (R). Variable clinical features include hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, polycystic ovaries, congenital heart disease, retinitis pigmentosa, and cognitive disability (Barakat et al., 2018).
Premature ovarian failure 2B
MedGen UID:
337159
Concept ID:
C1845105
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ovarian failure in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the POF1B gene.
Ovarian dysgenesis 2
MedGen UID:
336903
Concept ID:
C1845294
Disease or Syndrome
Hypergonadotropic ovarian failure is a heterogeneous disorder that, in the most severe forms, is a result of ovarian dysgenesis. Ovarian dysgenesis accounts for about half the cases of primary amenorrhea (Timmreck and Reindollar, 2003). Most cases are associated with major X chromosome abnormalities. Accordingly, genetic studies have identified several loci at Xq and Xp11.2-p.22.1 whose functions are relevant for ovarian development (Zinn et al., 1998; Simpson and Rajkovic, 1999; Marozzi et al., 2000).
46,XX disorder of sex development-skeletal anomalies syndrome
MedGen UID:
341514
Concept ID:
C1849696
Disease or Syndrome
A rare disorder of sex development characterized by primary amenorrhea and ambiguous external genitalia (enlarged clitoris with marked fusion of the labioscrotal folds) in association with skeletal anomalies (such as hypoplasia of the mandibular condyles and the maxilla, and ulnar dislocation of the radial heads), in the presence of a 46,XX karyotype and regular ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1972.
46,XY sex reversal 7
MedGen UID:
383876
Concept ID:
C1856273
Congenital Abnormality
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 12 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
347328
Concept ID:
C1856897
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Wolfram syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
347604
Concept ID:
C1858028
Disease or Syndrome
Wolfram syndrome-2 (WFS2) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by diabetes mellitus, high frequency sensorineural hearing loss, optic atrophy or neuropathy, and defective platelet aggregation resulting in peptic ulcer bleeding (summary by Mozzillo et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Wolfram syndrome, see WFS1 (222300).
Congenital cataracts-facial dysmorphism-neuropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
346973
Concept ID:
C1858726
Congenital Abnormality
CTDP1-related congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (CTDP1-CCFDN) is characterized by abnormalities of the eye (bilateral congenital cataracts, microcornea, microphthalmia, micropupils), mildly dysmorphic facial features apparent in late childhood, and a hypo-/demyelinating, symmetric, distal peripheral neuropathy. The neuropathy is predominantly motor at the onset and results in delays in early motor development, progressing to severe disability by the third decade of life. Secondary foot deformities and scoliosis are common. Sensory neuropathy develops after age ten years. Most affected individuals have a mild nonprogressive intellectual deficit and cerebellar involvement including ataxia, nystagmus, intention tremor, and dysmetria. All have short stature and most have subnormal weight. Adults have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Parainfectious rhabdomyolysis (profound muscle weakness, myoglobinuria, and excessively elevated serum concentration of creatine kinase usually following a viral infection) is a potentially life-threatening complication. To date all affected individuals and carriers identified have been from the Romani population.
Cerebellar ataxia-hypogonadism syndrome
MedGen UID:
349137
Concept ID:
C1859305
Disease or Syndrome
PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia).
Arrhinia with choanal atresia and microphthalmia syndrome
MedGen UID:
355084
Concept ID:
C1863878
Disease or Syndrome
Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome (BAMS) is characterized by severe hypoplasia of the nose and eyes, palatal abnormalities, deficient taste and smell, inguinal hernias, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with cryptorchidism, and normal intelligence (summary by Graham and Lee, 2006). Also see absence of nasal bones (161480).
Aromatase deficiency
MedGen UID:
743307
Concept ID:
C1960539
Disease or Syndrome
Aromatase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which individuals cannot synthesize endogenous estrogens. If a fetus lacks aromatase activity, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate produced by the fetal adrenal glands cannot be converted to estrogen by the placenta, and is converted to testosterone peripherally and results in virilization of both fetus and mother. Virilization manifests as pseudohermaphroditism in female infants, with hirsutism and acne in the mother; the maternal indicators resolve following delivery. Affected females are usually diagnosed at birth because of the pseudohermaphroditism. Cystic ovaries and delayed bone maturation can occur during childhood and adolescence in these girls, who present at puberty with primary amenorrhea, failure of breast development, virilization, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Affected males do not present with obvious defects at birth. Their clinical symptoms include tall stature, delayed skeletal maturation, delayed epiphyseal closure, bone pain, eunuchoid body proportions, and excess adiposity. Estrogen replacement therapy reverses the symptoms in males and females (summary by Jones et al., 2007).
Premature ovarian failure 5
MedGen UID:
409743
Concept ID:
C1969060
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ovarian failure in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NOBOX gene.
Mullerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism
MedGen UID:
390686
Concept ID:
C2675014
Disease or Syndrome
Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism is a condition that affects the reproductive system in females. This condition is caused by abnormal development of the Müllerian ducts, which are structures in the embryo that develop into the uterus, fallopian tubes, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina. Individuals with Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism typically have an underdeveloped or absent uterus and may also have abnormalities of other reproductive organs. Women with this condition have normal female external genitalia, and they develop breasts and pubic hair normally at puberty; however, they do not begin menstruation by age 16 (primary amenorrhea) and will likely never have a menstrual period. Affected women are unable to have children (infertile).\n\nWomen with Müllerian aplasia and hyperandrogenism have higher-than-normal levels of male sex hormones called androgens in their blood (hyperandrogenism), which can cause acne and excessive facial hair (facial hirsutism). Kidney abnormalities may be present in some affected individuals.
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 3
MedGen UID:
436541
Concept ID:
C2675861
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy, also known as Berardinelli-Seip syndrome, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by marked paucity of adipose tissue, extreme insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia, hepatic steatosis, and early onset of diabetes (Garg, 2004). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital generalized lipodystrophy, see CGL1 (608594).
Premature ovarian failure 6
MedGen UID:
394115
Concept ID:
C2676742
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ovarian failure in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FIGLA gene.
46,XY sex reversal 1
MedGen UID:
412662
Concept ID:
C2748896
Disease or Syndrome
Sex reversal in an individual with 46,XY karyotype caused by point mutations or deletions in the SRY gene, encoding sex-determining region Y protein.
Premature ovarian failure 7
MedGen UID:
414115
Concept ID:
C2751825
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ovarian failure in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NR5A1 gene.
Antley-Bixler syndrome with genital anomalies and disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
461449
Concept ID:
C3150099
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Ovarian dysgenesis 3
MedGen UID:
482101
Concept ID:
C3280471
Disease or Syndrome
Any 46 XX gonadal dysgenesis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PSMC3IP gene.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 14 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
761703
Concept ID:
C3540450
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 3 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
763392
Concept ID:
C3550478
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 4 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
765257
Concept ID:
C3552343
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 6 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
765488
Concept ID:
C3552574
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 8 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766755
Concept ID:
C3553841
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 10 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766757
Concept ID:
C3553843
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 11 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766758
Concept ID:
C3553844
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Seckel syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
766784
Concept ID:
C3553870
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephalic primordial dwarfism, Dauber type is a rare, genetic developmental defect during embryogenesis characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, severe microcephaly, severe developmental delay and intelletual disability, severe adult short stature and facial dysmorphism (incl. hypotelorism, small ears, prominent nose). Other reported features include skeletal anomalies (Madelung deformity, clinodactyly, mild lumbar scoliosis, bilateral hip dysplasia) and seizures. Absence of thelarche and menarche is also associated.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 15 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766891
Concept ID:
C3553977
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 16 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
766935
Concept ID:
C3554021
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Obesity due to congenital leptin deficiency
MedGen UID:
767138
Concept ID:
C3554224
Disease or Syndrome
Leptin deficiency or dysfunction (LEPD) is characterized by severe early-onset obesity, hyperphagia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction (Ozata et al., 1999).
Perrault syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
814744
Concept ID:
C3808414
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Perrault syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
815435
Concept ID:
C3809105
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Estrogen resistance syndrome
MedGen UID:
815580
Concept ID:
C3809250
Disease or Syndrome
Estrogen resistance (ESTRR) is characterized by absence of puberty with elevated estradiol and gonadotropic hormones, as well as markedly delayed bone maturation. Female patients show absent breast development, small uterus, and enlarged multicystic ovaries; male patients may show small testes (Bernard et al., 2017). Some patients exhibit continued growth into adulthood (Smith et al., 1994).
Premature ovarian failure 8
MedGen UID:
816697
Concept ID:
C3810367
Disease or Syndrome
Premature ovarian failure (POF), the endpoint of primary ovarian insufficiency, affects approximately 1% of women worldwide. Patients with POF present with at least a 6-month history of amenorrhea and elevated plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (more than 40 mIU per milliliter). The disorder can result from premature depletion of the follicle pool, follicular atresia, follicle growth arrest, or ovarian dysgenesis (see 233300). In approximately 10 to 15% of patients with POF, a genetic cause has been determined (summary by Caburet et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of premature ovarian failure, see POF1 (311360). Mutation in the STAG3 gene also causes male infertility; see spermatogenic failure-61 (SPGF61; 619672).
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 22 with or without anosmia
MedGen UID:
863425
Concept ID:
C4014988
Disease or Syndrome
Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt.
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism 1
MedGen UID:
863434
Concept ID:
C4014997
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly, short stature, and impaired glucose metabolism-1 (MSSGM1) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly associated with impaired intellectual development, short stature, and early-onset diabetes or abnormalities of glucose homeostasis (Igoillo-Esteve et al., 2013; Gillis et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Microcephaly, Short Stature, and Impaired Glucose Metabolism MSSGM2 (616817) is caused by mutation in the PPP1R15B gene (613257) on chromosome 1q32. Also see Wolcott-Rallison syndrome (226980), which is characterized by multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, microcephaly, short stature, and early-onset diabetes mellitus and is caused by mutation in the EIF2AK3 gene (604032) on chromosome 2p11.
Perrault syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
863744
Concept ID:
C4015307
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
46,XX ovarian dysgenesis-short stature syndrome
MedGen UID:
863846
Concept ID:
C4015409
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic disorder of sex development characterized by primary amenorrhea, short stature, delayed bone age, decreased levels of estradiol, elevated levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, absent or underdeveloped uterus and ovaries, delayed development of pubic and axillary hair and normal 46,XX karyotype.
Premature ovarian failure 10
MedGen UID:
898849
Concept ID:
C4225402
Disease or Syndrome
Premature ovarian failure-10 (POF10) represents a syndrome characterized by primary amenorrhea, hypergonadotropic ovarian insufficiency, and genomic instability in somatic cells. For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of premature ovarian failure, see POF1 (311360). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of age at natural menopause, see MENOQ1 (300488).
Acromesomelic dysplasia 3
MedGen UID:
904735
Concept ID:
C4225404
Disease or Syndrome
Premature ovarian failure 12
MedGen UID:
934749
Concept ID:
C4310782
Disease or Syndrome
Any primary ovarian failure in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SYCE1 gene.
Perrault syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1391447
Concept ID:
C4479656
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Mitochondrial myopathy-cerebellar ataxia-pigmentary retinopathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1620960
Concept ID:
C4540096
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial myopathy and ataxia (MMYAT) is an autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, congenital muscle involvement with histologic findings ranging from myopathic to dystrophic, and pigmentary retinopathy (summary by Donkervoort et al., 2019).
Ovarian dysgenesis 5
MedGen UID:
1627972
Concept ID:
C4540141
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1640257
Concept ID:
C4551721
Disease or Syndrome
Perrault syndrome is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in males and females and ovarian dysfunction in females. SNHL is bilateral and ranges from profound with prelingual (congenital) onset to moderate with early-childhood onset. When onset is in early childhood, hearing loss can be progressive. Ovarian dysfunction ranges from gonadal dysgenesis (absent or streak gonads) manifesting as primary amenorrhea to primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) defined as cessation of menses before age 40 years. Fertility in affected males is reported as normal (although the number of reported males is limited). Neurologic features described in some individuals with Perrault syndrome include learning difficulties and developmental delay, cerebellar ataxia, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy.
Premature ovarian failure 14
MedGen UID:
1646133
Concept ID:
C4693941
Disease or Syndrome
Premature ovarian failure-14 (POF14) is characterized by amenorrhea, hypoestrogenism, and elevated gonadotropin levels (Franca et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of premature ovarian failure, see POF1 (311360).
Ovarian dysgenesis 6
MedGen UID:
1648307
Concept ID:
C4748084
Disease or Syndrome
Ovarian dysgenesis-6 is characterized by absence of spontaneous pubertal development in females with elevated gonadotropin levels, small uterus, and absence of ovarian tissue on imaging studies. Males appear to be unaffected (Weinberg-Shukron et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ovarian dysgenesis, see ODG1 (233300).
Ovarian dysgenesis 7
MedGen UID:
1648458
Concept ID:
C4748263
Disease or Syndrome
Ovarian dysgenesis-7 (ODG7) is characterized by primary amenorrhea, delayed puberty, elevated gonadotropic hormones, and small uterus and ovaries. Ovarian histology shows fibrotic ovaries without follicles (Chen et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ovarian dysgenesis, see ODG1 (233300).
Ovarian dysgenesis 8
MedGen UID:
1648455
Concept ID:
C4748626
Disease or Syndrome
Ovarian dysgenesis-8 (ODG8) is characterized by complete lack of estrogen action, resulting in absent breast development, primary amenorrhea, and osteoporosis (Lang-Muritano et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ovarian dysgenesis, see ODG1 (233300).
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 25 with anosmia
MedGen UID:
1717461
Concept ID:
C5394246
Disease or Syndrome
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism-25 with anosmia (HH25) is characterized by delayed or absent puberty with low gonadotropic hormones in the setting of low testosterone or estradiol. Affected individuals also exhibit hyposmia or anosmia, with hypoplastic olfactory bulbs on MRI. Intrafamilial variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance has been observed (Messina et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia, see 147950.
46,XY gonadal dysgenesis-motor and sensory neuropathy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1727162
Concept ID:
C5436061
Disease or Syndrome
46,XY gonadal dysgenesis-motor and sensory neuropathy syndrome is a rare, genetic, developmental defect during embryogenesis disorder characterized by partial (unilateral testis, persistence of Müllerian duct structures) or complete (streak gonads only) gonadal dysgenesis, usually manifesting with primary amenorrhea in individuals with female phenotype but 46,XY karyotype, and sensorimotor dysmyelinating minifascicular polyneuropathy, which presents with numbness, weakness, exercise-induced muscle cramps, sensory disturbances and reduced/absent deep tendon reflexes. Germ cell tumors (seminoma, dysgerminoma, gonadoblastoma) may develop from the gonadal tissue.
BDV syndrome
MedGen UID:
1785671
Concept ID:
C5543403
Disease or Syndrome
BDV syndrome (BDVS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset profound obesity, hyperphagia, and moderately impaired intellectual development accompanied by infantile hypotonia and other endocrine disorders including hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hypothyroidism, and insulin resistance (summary by Bosch et al., 2021).
Neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease, multisystem, infantile-onset 2
MedGen UID:
1778117
Concept ID:
C5543623
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset multisystem neurologic, endocrine, and pancreatic disease-2 (IMNEPD2) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by cholestatic hepatitis, poor feeding associated with poor overall growth, and hypoglycemia apparent from infancy. Most, but not all, patients have variable global developmental delay. Additional common features include sensorineural deafness, retinal abnormalities with visual defects, and hypotonia. Some patients have endocrine abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, pancreatic dysfunction, hypothyroidism, and primary amenorrhea. Additional features may include hypertriglyceridemia, anemia, proteinuria, increased lactate, and recurrent infections. Brain imaging often shows dysmyelination, thin corpus callosum, cerebral atrophy, and white matter abnormalities. Although the clinical manifestations and severity of the disorder are highly variable, death in early childhood may occur (summary by Williams et al., 2019 and Zeiad et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of IMNEPD, see IMNEPD1 (616263).
Ovarian dysgenesis 9
MedGen UID:
1794256
Concept ID:
C5562046
Disease or Syndrome
Ovarian dysgenesis-9 (ODG9) is characterized by severe nonsyndromic primary ovarian insufficiency with primary amenorrhea, hypoplastic or absent ovaries, and delayed bone age. Patient cells show evidence of chromosomal instability (Smirin-Yosef et al., 2017; Heddar et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ovarian dysgenesis, see ODG1 (233300).
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 24 without anosmia
MedGen UID:
1806136
Concept ID:
C5574957
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be caused by an isolated defect in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH; 152760) release, action, or both. Other associated nonreproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss, occur with variable frequency. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been called 'Kallmann syndrome (KS),' whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed 'normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH)' (summary by Raivio et al., 2007). Because families have been found to segregate both KS and nIHH, the disorder is here referred to as 'hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia (HH).' For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia, see 147950.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 54
MedGen UID:
1812715
Concept ID:
C5676912
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-54 (COXPD54) is an autosomal recessive disorder with pleiotropic multisystem presentations resulting from a disruption in mitochondrial transcription and translation. The phenotype is highly variable. Many patients have early-onset sensorineural hearing loss, sometimes in isolation, and sometimes associated with global developmental delay or primary ovarian failure. Other features may include peripheral hypertonia, seizures, muscle weakness, behavioral abnormalities, and leukoencephalopathy on brain imaging. Serum lactate may or may not be elevated (summary by Hochberg et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Ovarian dysgenesis 10
MedGen UID:
1801078
Concept ID:
C5676966
Disease or Syndrome
Ovarian dysgenesis-10 (ODG10) is characterized by primary amenorrhea and absent puberty. The uterus is small and prepubertal, and ovaries are streak or not visualized on ultrasound (McGlacken-Byrne et al., 2022). Mutation in the ZSWIM7 gene also causes male infertility due to spermatogenic failure (SPGF71; 619831). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ovarian dysgenesis, see ODG1 (233300).
Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter 1
MedGen UID:
1830482
Concept ID:
C5779972
Disease or Syndrome
Any leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the EIF2B1 gene.
Premature ovarian failure 21
MedGen UID:
1841035
Concept ID:
C5830399
Disease or Syndrome
Premature ovarian failure-21 (POF21) is characterized by female infertility due to primary or secondary amenorrhea. Ovaries are small, atrophic, or nonvisualized on ultrasound (Tucker et al., 2019; Tucker et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of POF, see POF1 (311360).
Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter 4
MedGen UID:
1841042
Concept ID:
C5830406
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter-4 (VWM4) is a chronic and progressive autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy characterized by neurologic deterioration with cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, and relatively mild mental decline. Onset is usually in childhood; early development may be normal. Female patients may experience ovarian failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are diagnostic and show a diffuse abnormality of the cerebral white matter beginning in the presymptomatic stage, with increasing amounts of the abnormal white matter vanishing and being replaced by cerebrospinal fluid; autopsy confirms these findings (summary by van der Knaap et al., 2002, Fogli et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of VWM, see 603896.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Passos IMPE, Britto RL
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Mar;59(2):183-188. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2020.01.003. PMID: 32127135
Klein DA, Paradise SL, Reeder RM
Am Fam Physician 2019 Jul 1;100(1):39-48. PMID: 31259490
Klein DA, Poth MA
Am Fam Physician 2013 Jun 1;87(11):781-8. PMID: 23939500

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Tyutyusheva N, Mancini I, Baroncelli GI, D'Elios S, Peroni D, Meriggiola MC, Bertelloni S
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 27;22(3) doi: 10.3390/ijms22031264. PMID: 33514065Free PMC Article
Peña AS, Witchel SF, Hoeger KM, Oberfield SE, Vogiatzi MG, Misso M, Garad R, Dabadghao P, Teede H
BMC Med 2020 Mar 24;18(1):72. doi: 10.1186/s12916-020-01516-x. PMID: 32204714Free PMC Article
Klein DA, Paradise SL, Reeder RM
Am Fam Physician 2019 Jul 1;100(1):39-48. PMID: 31259490
Klein DA, Poth MA
Am Fam Physician 2013 Jun 1;87(11):781-8. PMID: 23939500
Morgan T
Am Fam Physician 2007 Aug 1;76(3):405-10. PMID: 17708142

Diagnosis

Seppä S, Kuiri-Hänninen T, Holopainen E, Voutilainen R
Eur J Endocrinol 2021 May 4;184(6):R225-R242. doi: 10.1530/EJE-20-1487. PMID: 33687345
Passos IMPE, Britto RL
Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol 2020 Mar;59(2):183-188. doi: 10.1016/j.tjog.2020.01.003. PMID: 32127135
Klein DA, Paradise SL, Reeder RM
Am Fam Physician 2019 Jul 1;100(1):39-48. PMID: 31259490
Klein DA, Poth MA
Am Fam Physician 2013 Jun 1;87(11):781-8. PMID: 23939500
Deligeoroglou E, Creatsas G
Endocr Dev 2012;22:160-170. Epub 2012 Jul 25 doi: 10.1159/000331697. PMID: 22846527

Therapy

Tyutyusheva N, Mancini I, Baroncelli GI, D'Elios S, Peroni D, Meriggiola MC, Bertelloni S
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 27;22(3) doi: 10.3390/ijms22031264. PMID: 33514065Free PMC Article
Herlin MK, Petersen MB, Brännström M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 Aug 20;15(1):214. doi: 10.1186/s13023-020-01491-9. PMID: 32819397Free PMC Article
Auchus RJ
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2017 Jan;165(Pt A):71-78. Epub 2016 Feb 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.02.002. PMID: 26862015Free PMC Article
Morgan T
Am Fam Physician 2007 Aug 1;76(3):405-10. PMID: 17708142
Mansfield MJ, Emans SJ
J Reprod Med 1984 Jun;29(6):399-410. PMID: 6379175

Prognosis

Chen M, Jiang H, Zhang C
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Feb 23;24(5) doi: 10.3390/ijms24054423. PMID: 36901862Free PMC Article
Ishizuka B
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:626924. Epub 2021 Feb 25 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.626924. PMID: 33716979Free PMC Article
Rossetti R, Ferrari I, Bonomi M, Persani L
Clin Genet 2017 Feb;91(2):183-198. Epub 2016 Dec 12 doi: 10.1111/cge.12921. PMID: 27861765
Mendoza N, Motos MA
Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jan;29(1):1-5. Epub 2012 Jul 20 doi: 10.3109/09513590.2012.705378. PMID: 22812659
Fenichel P
Endocr Dev 2012;22:138-159. Epub 2012 Jul 25 doi: 10.1159/000326686. PMID: 22846526

Clinical prediction guides

Sumapraja K, Pangastuti NP, Ikhsan M, Harzif AK, Maidarti M
Sci Rep 2023 Dec 13;13(1):22096. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-49570-8. PMID: 38086929Free PMC Article
Chen M, Jiang H, Zhang C
Int J Mol Sci 2023 Feb 23;24(5) doi: 10.3390/ijms24054423. PMID: 36901862Free PMC Article
Al-Jaroudi D, Hijazi A, Bashir M, Heena H, Tashkandi SA
J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2019 Aug;45(8):1497-1505. Epub 2019 Jun 26 doi: 10.1111/jog.14006. PMID: 31241244
Rossetti R, Ferrari I, Bonomi M, Persani L
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Gynecol Endocrinol 2013 Jan;29(1):1-5. Epub 2012 Jul 20 doi: 10.3109/09513590.2012.705378. PMID: 22812659

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