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Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation

MedGen UID:
115990
Concept ID:
C0235480
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Atrial Fibrillation, Paroxysmal; Atrial Fibrillations, Paroxysmal; Fibrillation, Paroxysmal Atrial; Fibrillations, Paroxysmal Atrial; Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation; Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillations
SNOMED CT: AF - Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (282825002); PAF - Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (282825002); Intermittent atrial fibrillation (282825002); Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (282825002)
 
HPO: HP:0004757

Definition

Episodes of atrial fibrillation that typically last for several hours up to one day and terminate spontaneously. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVParoxysmal atrial fibrillation

Conditions with this feature

Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern
MedGen UID:
12162
Concept ID:
C0043202
Disease or Syndrome
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is a condition characterized by abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that cause a disruption of the heart's normal rhythm (arrhythmia).\n\nThe heartbeat is controlled by electrical signals that move through the heart in a highly coordinated way. A specialized cluster of cells called the atrioventricular node conducts electrical impulses from the heart's upper chambers (the atria) to the lower chambers (the ventricles). Impulses move through the atrioventricular node during each heartbeat, stimulating the ventricles to contract slightly later than the atria.\n\nPeople with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome are born with an extra connection in the heart, called an accessory pathway, that allows electrical signals to bypass the atrioventricular node and move from the atria to the ventricles faster than usual. The accessory pathway may also transmit electrical impulses abnormally from the ventricles back to the atria. This extra connection can disrupt the coordinated movement of electrical signals through the heart, leading to an abnormally fast heartbeat (tachycardia) and other changes in heart rhythm. Resulting symptoms include dizziness, a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), shortness of breath, and fainting (syncope). In rare cases, arrhythmias associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden death. The most common arrhythmia associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is called paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia.\n\nComplications of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can occur at any age, although some individuals born with an accessory pathway in the heart never experience any health problems associated with the condition.\n\nWolff-Parkinson-White syndrome often occurs with other structural abnormalities of the heart or underlying heart disease. The most common heart defect associated with the condition is Ebstein anomaly, which affects the valve that allows blood to flow from the right atrium to the right ventricle (the tricuspid valve). Additionally, the heart rhythm problems associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome can be a component of several other genetic syndromes, including hypokalemic periodic paralysis (a condition that causes episodes of extreme muscle weakness), Pompe disease (a disorder characterized by the storage of excess glycogen), Danon disease (a condition that weakens the heart and skeletal muscles and causes intellectual disability), and tuberous sclerosis complex (a condition that results in the growth of noncancerous tumors in many parts of the body).
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 1
MedGen UID:
351513
Concept ID:
C1631597
Disease or Syndrome
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease.
Sick sinus syndrome 2, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
320273
Concept ID:
C1834144
Disease or Syndrome
Sick sinus syndrome (also known as sinus node dysfunction) is a group of related heart conditions that can affect how the heart beats. "Sick sinus" refers to the sino-atrial (SA) node, which is an area of specialized cells in the heart that functions as a natural pacemaker. The SA node generates electrical impulses that start each heartbeat. These signals travel from the SA node to the rest of the heart, signaling the heart (cardiac) muscle to contract and pump blood. In people with sick sinus syndrome, the SA node does not function normally. In some cases, it does not produce the right signals to trigger a regular heartbeat. In others, abnormalities disrupt the electrical impulses and prevent them from reaching the rest of the heart.\n\nSick sinus syndrome occurs most commonly in older adults, although it can be diagnosed in people of any age. The condition increases the risk of several life-threatening problems involving the heart and blood vessels. These include a heart rhythm abnormality called atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cardiac arrest, and stroke.\n\nSick sinus syndrome tends to cause the heartbeat to be too slow (bradycardia), although occasionally the heartbeat is too fast (tachycardia). In some cases, the heartbeat rapidly switches from being too fast to being too slow, a condition known as tachycardia-bradycardia syndrome. Symptoms related to abnormal heartbeats can include dizziness, light-headedness, fainting (syncope), a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), and confusion or memory problems. During exercise, many affected individuals experience chest pain, difficulty breathing, or excessive tiredness (fatigue). Once symptoms of sick sinus syndrome appear, they usually worsen with time. However, some people with the condition never experience any related health problems.
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 3
MedGen UID:
373232
Concept ID:
C1837014
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583.
Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome
MedGen UID:
354734
Concept ID:
C1862387
Disease or Syndrome
Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome is an extremely rare conduction disorder characterized by a short PR interval (less than or equal to 120 ms) with normal QRS complex on electrocardiogram associated with the occurrence of episodes of atrial tachyarrythmias (e.g. atrial fibrillation, atrial tachycardia).
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 4
MedGen UID:
400041
Concept ID:
C1862394
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583.
Short QT syndrome type 3
MedGen UID:
400662
Concept ID:
C1865018
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome is a cardiac channelopathy associated with a predisposition to atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Patients have a structurally normal heart, but electrocardiography (ECG) exhibits abbreviated QTc (Bazett's corrected QT) intervals of less than 360 ms (summary by Moreno et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short QT syndrome, see SQT1 (609620).
Short QT syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
355891
Concept ID:
C1865020
Disease or Syndrome
Short QT syndrome (SQT) is a cardiac channelopathy associated with a predisposition to atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Patients have a structurally normal heart, but electrocardiography (ECG) exhibits abbreviated QTc (Bazett's corrected QT) intervals of less than 360 ms (summary by Moreno et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Short QT Syndrome Short QT syndrome-2 (SQT2; 609621) is caused by mutation in the KCNQ1 gene (607542). SQT3 (609622) is caused by mutation in the KCNJ2 gene (600681). SQT7 (620231) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A3 gene (106195).
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 7
MedGen UID:
393658
Concept ID:
C2677106
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 12
MedGen UID:
393755
Concept ID:
C2677491
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CSRP3 gene.
Congenital muscular dystrophy due to LMNA mutation
MedGen UID:
413043
Concept ID:
C2750785
Disease or Syndrome
LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy (L-CMD) is a condition that primarily affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). It is part of a group of genetic conditions called congenital muscular dystrophies, which cause weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and muscle wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life.\n\nIn people with L-CMD, muscle weakness becomes apparent in infancy or early childhood and can worsen quickly. The most severely affected infants develop few motor skills, and they are never able to hold up their heads, roll over, or sit. Less severely affected children may learn to sit, stand, and walk before muscle weakness becomes apparent. First the neck muscles weaken, causing the head to fall forward (dropped-head syndrome). As other skeletal muscles become weaker, these children may ultimately lose the ability to sit, stand, and walk unassisted.\n\nOther features of L-CMD often include spinal rigidity and abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis and lordosis); joint deformities (contractures) that restrict movement, particularly in the hips and legs; and an inward-turning foot. People with L-CMD also have an increased risk of heart rhythm abnormalities (arrhythmias).\n\nOver time, muscle weakness causes most infants and children with L-CMD to have trouble eating and breathing. The breathing problems result from restrictive respiratory insufficiency, which occurs when muscles in the chest are weakened and the ribcage becomes increasingly rigid. This problem can be life-threatening, and many affected children require support with a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation).
Brugada syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
413472
Concept ID:
C2751088
Disease or Syndrome
Brugada syndrome is characterized by cardiac conduction abnormalities (ST segment abnormalities in leads V1-V3 on EKG and a high risk for ventricular arrhythmias) that can result in sudden death. Brugada syndrome presents primarily during adulthood, although age at diagnosis may range from infancy to late adulthood. The mean age of sudden death is approximately 40 years. Clinical presentations may also include sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS; death of a child during the first year of life without an identifiable cause) and sudden unexpected nocturnal death syndrome (SUNDS), a typical presentation in individuals from Southeast Asia. Other conduction defects can include first-degree AV block, intraventricular conduction delay, right bundle branch block, and sick sinus syndrome.
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 18
MedGen UID:
462615
Concept ID:
C3151265
Disease or Syndrome
Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PLN gene.
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 9
MedGen UID:
462781
Concept ID:
C3151431
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583.
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 10
MedGen UID:
462814
Concept ID:
C3151464
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583.
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 12
MedGen UID:
481325
Concept ID:
C3279695
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial fibrillation, see ATFB1 (608583).
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 13
MedGen UID:
815641
Concept ID:
C3809311
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial fibrillation, see ATFB1 (608583).
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 14
MedGen UID:
815642
Concept ID:
C3809312
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial fibrillation, see ATFB1 (608583).
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 18
MedGen UID:
934603
Concept ID:
C4310636
Disease or Syndrome
Familial atrial fibrillation is an inherited abnormality of the heart's normal rhythm. Atrial fibrillation is characterized by episodes of uncoordinated electrical activity (fibrillation) in the heart's upper chambers (the atria), which cause a fast and irregular heartbeat. If untreated, this abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) can lead to dizziness, chest pain, a sensation of fluttering or pounding in the chest (palpitations), shortness of breath, or fainting (syncope). Atrial fibrillation also increases the risk of stroke and sudden death. Complications of atrial fibrillation can occur at any age, although some people with this heart condition never experience any health problems associated with the disorder.
Atrial standstill 1
MedGen UID:
1646392
Concept ID:
C4551959
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial standstill (AS) is a rare condition characterized by the absence of electrical and mechanical activity in the atria. On surface ECG, AS is distinguished by bradycardia, junctional (usually narrow complex) escape rhythm, and absence of the P wave. Nearly 50% of patients with AS experience syncope. AS can be persistent or transient, and diffuse or partial (summary by Fazelifar et al., 2005).
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1684682
Concept ID:
C5231388
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-1 (OPDM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult-onset ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy, and pharyngeal involvement, resulting in dysphagia and dysarthria. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with rimmed vacuoles. There are variable manifestations of the disorder regarding muscle involvement and severity (summary by Ishiura et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculopharyngodistal Myopathy See also OPDM2 (618940), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the GIPC1 gene (605072) on chromosome 19p13; OPDM3 (619473), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene (618025) on chromosome 1q21; and OPDM4 (619790), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the RILPL1 gene (614092) on chromosome 12q24. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD; 164300) is a similar disorder with overlapping features. It is caused by a similar heterozygous trinucleotide repeat expansion in the PABPN1 gene (602279) (summary by Durmus et al., 2011).
Sick sinus syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1794159
Concept ID:
C5561949
Disease or Syndrome
Sick sinus syndrome-4 (SSS4) is characterized by early and progressive sinus node and atrioventricular conduction dysfunction. Patients show bradycardia and chronotropic incompetence, and may experience syncope. Atrioventricular conduction block ranges from mild to severe, and some patients also have intermittent atrial fibrillation. Many require implantation of a pacemaker, but sudden cardiac death has not been reported (Stallmeyer et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sick sinus syndrome, see SSS1 (608567).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

McCusker RJ, Wheelwright J, Smith TJ, Myler CS, Sinz E
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Reddy VY, Gerstenfeld EP, Natale A, Whang W, Cuoco FA, Patel C, Mountantonakis SE, Gibson DN, Harding JD, Ellis CR, Ellenbogen KA, DeLurgio DB, Osorio J, Achyutha AB, Schneider CW, Mugglin AS, Albrecht EM, Stein KM, Lehmann JW, Mansour M; ADVENT Investigators
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Kuck KH, Brugada J, Fürnkranz A, Metzner A, Ouyang F, Chun KR, Elvan A, Arentz T, Bestehorn K, Pocock SJ, Albenque JP, Tondo C; FIRE AND ICE Investigators
N Engl J Med 2016 Jun 9;374(23):2235-45. Epub 2016 Apr 4 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1602014. PMID: 27042964

Diagnosis

Siegler JE, Thau L, Hester T, Yeager T, Vigilante N, Kamen S, Heslin M, Shannon R, Zhang L, Butler M, Higham C, Oak S, Wolfe J, Patel P, Patel P, Thon JM
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Therapy

Reddy VY, Gerstenfeld EP, Natale A, Whang W, Cuoco FA, Patel C, Mountantonakis SE, Gibson DN, Harding JD, Ellis CR, Ellenbogen KA, DeLurgio DB, Osorio J, Achyutha AB, Schneider CW, Mugglin AS, Albrecht EM, Stein KM, Lehmann JW, Mansour M; ADVENT Investigators
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Reddy VY, Dukkipati SR, Neuzil P, Anic A, Petru J, Funasako M, Cochet H, Minami K, Breskovic T, Sikiric I, Sediva L, Chovanec M, Koruth J, Jais P
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Prognosis

Sánchez Quirós B, Ruiz López N, López Herrero R, Bartolomé Bartolomé C
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Clinical prediction guides

Zhao L, Li S, Zhang C, Tian J, Lu A, Bai R, An J, Greiser A, Huang J, Ma X
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Recent systematic reviews

Bawazeer GA, Alkofide HA, Alsharafi AA, Babakr NO, Altorkistani AM, Kashour TS, Miligkos M, AlFaleh KM, Al-Ansary LA
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