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Weaver syndrome(WVS)

MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Overgrowth syndrome with accelerated skeletal maturation, unusual facies, and camptodactyly; Weaver Smith syndrome; WVS
SNOMED CT: Weaver syndrome (63119004)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Gene (location): EZH2 (7q36.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010193
OMIM®: 277590
Orphanet: ORPHA3447

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: EZH2-Related Overgrowth
EZH2-related overgrowth is a variable overgrowth syndrome characterized by tall stature, macrocephaly, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft, doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse, low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant, but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency, though a few have been reported. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Sharon Ocansey  |  Katrina Tatton-Brown   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From NCBI curation
EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 mutation have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with heterozygous EZH2 mutations is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Neuronal migration disorders have also been reported in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Malignancies (including neuroblastoma and hematologic malignancies) may occur with increased frequently; current data are insufficient to draw conclusions.
From OMIM
Weaver syndrome (WVS) comprises pre- and postnatal overgrowth, accelerated osseous maturation, characteristic craniofacial appearance, and developmental delay. Most cases are sporadic, although autosomal dominant inheritance has been reported. Although there is phenotypic overlap between Weaver syndrome and Sotos syndrome (117550), distinguishing features of Weaver syndrome include broad forehead and face, ocular hypertelorism, prominent wide philtrum, micrognathia, deep horizontal chin groove, and deep-set nails. In addition, carpal bone development is advanced over the rest of the hand in Weaver syndrome, whereas in Sotos syndrome carpal bone development is at or behind that of the rest of the hand (summary by Basel-Vanagaite, 2010). Sotos syndrome (117550), which shows considerable phenotypic overlap with Weaver syndrome, is caused by mutation in the NSD1 gene (601573) on chromosome 5q35. Other 'Weaver-like' syndromes include Cohen-Gibson syndrome (COGIS; 617561), caused by heterozygous mutation in the EED gene (605984) on chromosome 11q14; and Imagawa-Matsumoto syndrome (IMMAS; 618786), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SUZ12 gene (606245) on chromosome 17q11. The 'Weaver-like' syndrome reported by Stoll et al. (1985) in a mother and son may be a separate entity.  http://www.omim.org/entry/277590
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Weaver syndrome is a condition that involves tall stature with or without a large head size (macrocephaly), a variable degree of intellectual disability (usually mild), and characteristic facial features. These features can include a broad forehead; widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism); large, low-set ears; a dimpled chin, and a small lower jaw (micrognathia).

People with Weaver syndrome can also have joint deformities called contractures that restrict the movement of affected joints. The contractures may particularly affect the fingers and toes, resulting in permanently bent digits (camptodactyly). Other features of this disorder can include abnormal curvature of the spine (kyphoscoliosis); muscle tone that is either reduced (hypotonia) or increased (hypertonia); loose, saggy skin; and a soft-outpouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia). Some affected individuals have abnormalities in the folds (gyri) of the brain, which can be seen by medical imaging; the relationship between these brain abnormalities and the intellectual disability associated with Weaver syndrome is unclear.

Researchers suggest that people with Weaver syndrome may have an increased risk of developing cancer, in particular a slightly increased risk of developing a tumor called neuroblastoma in early childhood, but the small number of affected individuals makes it difficult to determine the exact risk.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/weaver-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Hydrocele testis
MedGen UID:
318568
Concept ID:
C1720771
Congenital Abnormality
Accumulation of clear fluid in the between the layers of membrane (tunica vaginalis) surrounding the testis.
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Coxa valga
MedGen UID:
116080
Concept ID:
C0239137
Finding
Coxa valga is a deformity of the hip in which the angle between the femoral shaft and the femoral neck is increased compared to age-adjusted values (about 150 degrees in newborns gradually reducing to 120-130 degrees in adults).
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Large hands
MedGen UID:
98097
Concept ID:
C0426870
Finding
Broad thumb
MedGen UID:
140880
Concept ID:
C0426891
Finding
Increased thumb width without increased dorso-ventral dimension.
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
An increase in height of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot that does not flatten on weight bearing (i.e., a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight).
Overlapping toe
MedGen UID:
182531
Concept ID:
C0920299
Anatomical Abnormality
Describes a foot digit resting on the dorsal surface of an adjacent digit when the foot is at rest. Initially clawing may be dynamic and only noticeable on walking. Over time the plantar plate tears, subluxation occurs at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ), and the deformity becomes permanent.
Radial deviation of finger
MedGen UID:
322852
Concept ID:
C1836189
Finding
Bending or curvature of a finger toward the radial side (i.e., towards the thumb). The deviation is at the metacarpal-phalangeal joint, and this finding is distinct from clinodactyly.
Limited knee extension
MedGen UID:
336755
Concept ID:
C1844690
Finding
Reduced ability to extend (straighten) the knee joint.
Short fourth metatarsal
MedGen UID:
336358
Concept ID:
C1848514
Finding
Short fourth metatarsal bone.
Wide distal femoral metaphysis
MedGen UID:
376560
Concept ID:
C1849309
Finding
Increased width of the distal part of the shaft (metaphysis) of the femur.
Calcaneovalgus deformity
MedGen UID:
395489
Concept ID:
C1860450
Anatomical Abnormality
This is a postural deformity in which the foot is positioned up against the tibia. The heel (calcaneus) is positioned downward (that is, the ankle is flexed upward), and the heel is turned outward (valgus).
Limited elbow extension
MedGen UID:
401158
Concept ID:
C1867103
Finding
Limited ability to straighten the arm at the elbow joint.
Flared humeral metaphysis
MedGen UID:
892657
Concept ID:
C4020912
Anatomical Abnormality
Flaring (increase of width with a splayed appearance) of the humeral metaphysis.
Toe clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
867400
Concept ID:
C4021770
Congenital Abnormality
Bending or curvature of a toe in the tibial direction (i.e., towards the big toe).
Metatarsus adductus
MedGen UID:
898667
Concept ID:
C4082169
Anatomical Abnormality
The metatarsals are deviated medially (tibially), that is, the bones in the front half of the foot bend or turn in toward the body.
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
1644094
Concept ID:
C4551485
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Overgrowth
MedGen UID:
376550
Concept ID:
C1849265
Finding
Excessive postnatal growth which may comprise increased weight, increased length, and/or increased head circumference.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Polyphagia
MedGen UID:
9369
Concept ID:
C0020505
Finding
A neurological anomaly with gross overeating associated with an abnormally strong desire or need to eat.
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Atypical behavior
MedGen UID:
535345
Concept ID:
C0233514
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Atypical behavior is an abnormality in a person's actions, which can be controlled or modulated by the will of the individual. While abnormal behaviors can be difficult to control, they are distinct from other abnormal actions that cannot be affected by the individual's will.
Slurred speech
MedGen UID:
65885
Concept ID:
C0234518
Finding
Abnormal coordination of muscles involved in speech.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Absent septum pellucidum
MedGen UID:
96561
Concept ID:
C0431371
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius. The septum pellucidum is a thin, triangular double membrane separating the frontal horns of the right and left lateral ventricles of the brain. It extends between the anterior portion of the corpus callosum, and the body of the fornix and its width varies from 1.5 to 3.0 mm.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Postural instability
MedGen UID:
334529
Concept ID:
C1843921
Finding
A tendency to fall or the inability to keep oneself from falling; imbalance. The retropulsion test is widely regarded as the gold standard to evaluate postural instability, Use of the retropulsion test includes a rapid balance perturbation in the backward direction, and the number of balance correcting steps (or total absence thereof) is used to rate the degree of postural instability. Healthy subjects correct such perturbations with either one or two large steps, or without taking any steps, hinging rapidly at the hips while swinging the arms forward as a counterweight. In patients with balance impairment, balance correcting steps are often too small, forcing patients to take more than two steps. Taking three or more steps is generally considered to be abnormal, and taking more than five steps is regarded as being clearly abnormal. Markedly affected patients continue to step backward without ever regaining their balance and must be caught by the examiner (this would be called true retropulsion). Even more severely affected patients fail to correct entirely, and fall backward like a pushed toy soldier, without taking any corrective steps.
Lateral ventricle dilatation
MedGen UID:
383904
Concept ID:
C1856409
Pathologic Function
Poor fine motor coordination
MedGen UID:
356863
Concept ID:
C1867864
Finding
An abnormality of the ability (skills) to perform a precise movement of small muscles with the intent to perform a specific act. Fine motor skills are required to mediate movements of the wrists, hands, fingers, feet, and toes.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Abnormally low-pitched voice
MedGen UID:
869488
Concept ID:
C4023915
Finding
An abnormal decrease in the pitch of the voice.
Generalized non-motor (absence) seizure
MedGen UID:
1385688
Concept ID:
C4316903
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized non-motor (absence) seizure is a type of a type of dialeptic seizure that is of electrographically generalized onset. It is a generalized seizure characterized by an interruption of activities, a blank stare, and usually the person will be unresponsive when spoken to. Any ictal motor phenomena are minor in comparison to these non-motor features.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Umbilical hernia
MedGen UID:
9232
Concept ID:
C0019322
Anatomical Abnormality
Protrusion of abdominal contents through a defect in the abdominal wall musculature around the umbilicus. Skin and subcutaneous tissue overlie the defect.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Retrognathia
MedGen UID:
19766
Concept ID:
C0035353
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Joint contracture of the hand
MedGen UID:
56382
Concept ID:
C0158113
Finding
Contractures of one ore more joints of the hands meaning chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Diastasis recti
MedGen UID:
113171
Concept ID:
C0221766
Disease or Syndrome
A separation of the rectus abdominis muscle into right and left halves (which are normally joined at the midline at the linea alba).
Short ribs
MedGen UID:
98094
Concept ID:
C0426817
Finding
Reduced rib length.
Accelerated skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
154262
Concept ID:
C0545053
Finding
An abnormally increased rate of skeletal maturation. Accelerated skeletal maturation can be diagnosed on the basis of an estimation of the bone age from radiographs of specific bones in the human body.
Camptodactyly
MedGen UID:
195780
Concept ID:
C0685409
Congenital Abnormality
The distal interphalangeal joint and/or the proximal interphalangeal joint of the fingers or toes cannot be extended to 180 degrees by either active or passive extension.
Flat occiput
MedGen UID:
332439
Concept ID:
C1837402
Finding
Reduced convexity of the occiput (posterior part of skull).
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Hypoplastic iliac wing
MedGen UID:
351279
Concept ID:
C1865027
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the ilium ala.
Macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
745757
Concept ID:
C2243051
Finding
Occipitofrontal (head) circumference greater than 97th centile compared to appropriate, age matched, sex-matched normal standards. Alternatively, a apparently increased size of the cranium.
Dysharmonic skeletal maturation
MedGen UID:
866572
Concept ID:
C4020918
Pathologic Function
Different levels of maturation of different bones.
Flared femoral metaphysis
MedGen UID:
871197
Concept ID:
C4025674
Anatomical Abnormality
Hoarse cry
MedGen UID:
394791
Concept ID:
C2678303
Finding
Round face
MedGen UID:
116087
Concept ID:
C0239479
Finding
The facial appearance is more circular than usual as viewed from the front.
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Dimple chin
MedGen UID:
1370532
Concept ID:
C4317152
Anatomical Abnormality
A persistent midline depression of the skin over the fat pad of the chin.
Cutis laxa
MedGen UID:
8206
Concept ID:
C0010495
Disease or Syndrome
Wrinkled, redundant, inelastic and sagging skin.
Melanocytic nevus
MedGen UID:
14364
Concept ID:
C0027962
Neoplastic Process
A oval and round, colored (usually medium-to dark brown, reddish brown, or flesh colored) lesion. Typically, a melanocytic nevus is less than 6 mm in diameter, but may be much smaller or larger.
Thin nail
MedGen UID:
98073
Concept ID:
C0423823
Finding
Nail that appears thin when viewed on end.
Fine hair
MedGen UID:
98401
Concept ID:
C0423867
Finding
Hair that is fine or thin to the touch.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term "persistent fetal fingertip pads" is often used as a synonym, but should better not be used because it implies knowledge of history of the patient which often does not exist.
Deep-set nails
MedGen UID:
479383
Concept ID:
C3277753
Finding
Deeply placed nails.
Sparse hair
MedGen UID:
1790211
Concept ID:
C5551005
Finding
Reduced density of hairs.
Inversion of nipple
MedGen UID:
82844
Concept ID:
C0269269
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of nipples that instead of pointing outward are retracted inwards.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVWeaver syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Weaver syndrome in Orphanet.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lui JC, Baron J
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2024 Jan 18;109(2):312-320. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgad420. PMID: 37450557
Marques P, Korbonits M
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 May 17;107(6):1767-1788. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab789. PMID: 34792134
Priolo M, Schanze D, Tatton-Brown K, Mulder PA, Tenorio J, Kooblall K, Acero IH, Alkuraya FS, Arias P, Bernardini L, Bijlsma EK, Cole T, Coubes C, Dapia I, Davies S, Di Donato N, Elcioglu NH, Fahrner JA, Foster A, González NG, Huber I, Iascone M, Kaiser AS, Kamath A, Liebelt J, Lynch SA, Maas SM, Mammì C, Mathijssen IB, McKee S, Menke LA, Mirzaa GM, Montgomery T, Neubauer D, Neumann TE, Pintomalli L, Pisanti MA, Plomp AS, Price S, Salter C, Santos-Simarro F, Sarda P, Segovia M, Shaw-Smith C, Smithson S, Suri M, Valdez RM, Van Haeringen A, Van Hagen JM, Zollino M, Lapunzina P, Thakker RV, Zenker M, Hennekam RC
Hum Mutat 2018 Sep;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1002/humu.23563. PMID: 29897170Free PMC Article
Baujat G, Cormier-Daire V
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Sep 7;2:36. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-36. PMID: 17825104Free PMC Article
Douglas J, Hanks S, Temple IK, Davies S, Murray A, Upadhyaya M, Tomkins S, Hughes HE, Cole TR, Rahman N
Am J Hum Genet 2003 Jan;72(1):132-43. Epub 2002 Dec 2 doi: 10.1086/345647. PMID: 12464997Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Marques P, Korbonits M
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2022 May 17;107(6):1767-1788. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgab789. PMID: 34792134
Priolo M, Schanze D, Tatton-Brown K, Mulder PA, Tenorio J, Kooblall K, Acero IH, Alkuraya FS, Arias P, Bernardini L, Bijlsma EK, Cole T, Coubes C, Dapia I, Davies S, Di Donato N, Elcioglu NH, Fahrner JA, Foster A, González NG, Huber I, Iascone M, Kaiser AS, Kamath A, Liebelt J, Lynch SA, Maas SM, Mammì C, Mathijssen IB, McKee S, Menke LA, Mirzaa GM, Montgomery T, Neubauer D, Neumann TE, Pintomalli L, Pisanti MA, Plomp AS, Price S, Salter C, Santos-Simarro F, Sarda P, Segovia M, Shaw-Smith C, Smithson S, Suri M, Valdez RM, Van Haeringen A, Van Hagen JM, Zollino M, Lapunzina P, Thakker RV, Zenker M, Hennekam RC
Hum Mutat 2018 Sep;39(9):1226-1237. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1002/humu.23563. PMID: 29897170Free PMC Article
Tatton-Brown K, Loveday C, Yost S, Clarke M, Ramsay E, Zachariou A, Elliott A, Wylie H, Ardissone A, Rittinger O, Stewart F, Temple IK, Cole T; Childhood Overgrowth Collaboration, Mahamdallie S, Seal S, Ruark E, Rahman N
Am J Hum Genet 2017 May 4;100(5):725-736. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.03.010. PMID: 28475857Free PMC Article
Neylon OM, Werther GA, Sabin MA
Curr Opin Pediatr 2012 Aug;24(4):505-11. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e3283558995. PMID: 22705997
Baujat G, Cormier-Daire V
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Sep 7;2:36. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-36. PMID: 17825104Free PMC Article

Therapy

Bedirli N, Işık B, Bashiri M, Pampal K, Kurtipek Ö
Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Jan;97(3):e9661. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000009661. PMID: 29505006Free PMC Article
Sabin MA, Werther GA, Kiess W
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011 Feb;25(1):207-20. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.09.010. PMID: 21396586

Prognosis

Tatton-Brown K, Loveday C, Yost S, Clarke M, Ramsay E, Zachariou A, Elliott A, Wylie H, Ardissone A, Rittinger O, Stewart F, Temple IK, Cole T; Childhood Overgrowth Collaboration, Mahamdallie S, Seal S, Ruark E, Rahman N
Am J Hum Genet 2017 May 4;100(5):725-736. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.03.010. PMID: 28475857Free PMC Article
Tatton-Brown K, Murray A, Hanks S, Douglas J, Armstrong R, Banka S, Bird LM, Clericuzio CL, Cormier-Daire V, Cushing T, Flinter F, Jacquemont ML, Joss S, Kinning E, Lynch SA, Magee A, McConnell V, Medeira A, Ozono K, Patton M, Rankin J, Shears D, Simon M, Splitt M, Strenger V, Stuurman K, Taylor C, Titheradge H, Van Maldergem L, Temple IK, Cole T, Seal S; Childhood Overgrowth Consortium, Rahman N
Am J Med Genet A 2013 Dec;161A(12):2972-80. Epub 2013 Nov 8 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.36229. PMID: 24214728
Neylon OM, Werther GA, Sabin MA
Curr Opin Pediatr 2012 Aug;24(4):505-11. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e3283558995. PMID: 22705997
Baujat G, Cormier-Daire V
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Sep 7;2:36. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-36. PMID: 17825104Free PMC Article
Opitz JM, Weaver DW, Reynolds JF Jr
Am J Med Genet 1998 Oct 2;79(4):294-304. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1096-8628(19981002)79:4<294::aid-ajmg12>3.0.co;2-m. PMID: 9781911

Clinical prediction guides

Abitbol M, Jagannathan V, Laurent N, Noblet E, Dutil GF, Troupel T, de Dufaure de Citres C, Gache V, Blot S, Escriou C, Leeb T
Anim Genet 2022 Oct;53(5):709-712. Epub 2022 Jul 21 doi: 10.1111/age.13245. PMID: 35864734Free PMC Article
Menezes AH, Traynelis VC
Childs Nerv Syst 2022 Feb;38(2):361-377. Epub 2021 Nov 22 doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05409-z. PMID: 34806157
Tatton-Brown K, Loveday C, Yost S, Clarke M, Ramsay E, Zachariou A, Elliott A, Wylie H, Ardissone A, Rittinger O, Stewart F, Temple IK, Cole T; Childhood Overgrowth Collaboration, Mahamdallie S, Seal S, Ruark E, Rahman N
Am J Hum Genet 2017 May 4;100(5):725-736. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.03.010. PMID: 28475857Free PMC Article
McClure M, Kim E, Bickhart D, Null D, Cooper T, Cole J, Wiggans G, Ajmone-Marsan P, Colli L, Santus E, Liu GE, Schroeder S, Matukumalli L, Van Tassell C, Sonstegard T
PLoS One 2013;8(3):e59251. Epub 2013 Mar 20 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059251. PMID: 23527149Free PMC Article
Baujat G, Cormier-Daire V
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2007 Sep 7;2:36. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-2-36. PMID: 17825104Free PMC Article

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