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Baller-Gerold syndrome(BGS)

MedGen UID:
120532
Concept ID:
C0265308
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: BGS; Craniosynostosis radial aplasia syndrome; Craniosynostosis with radial defects
SNOMED CT: Baller-Gerold syndrome (77608001); Craniosynostosis-radial aplasia syndrome (77608001)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): RECQL4 (8q24.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009039
OMIM®: 218600
Orphanet: ORPHA1225

Disease characteristics

Excerpted from the GeneReview: Baller-Gerold Syndrome
Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. The coronal suture is most commonly affected; the metopic, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures may also be involved alone or in combination. Upper limb abnormality can include a combination of thumb hypo- or aplasia and radial hypo- or aplasia and may be asymmetric. Malformation or absence of carpal or metacarpal bones has also been described. Skin lesions may appear anytime within the first few years after birth, typically beginning with erythema of the face and extremities and evolving into poikiloderma. Slow growth is apparent in infancy with eventual height and length typically at 4 SD below the mean. [from GeneReviews]
Authors:
Lionel Van Maldergem  |  Juliette Piard  |  Lidia Larizza, et. al.   view full author information

Additional descriptions

From OMIM
The cardinal features of the Baller-Gerold syndrome are craniosynostosis and radial aplasia (Galea and Tolmie, 1990). Cases reported as Baller-Gerold syndrome have phenotypic overlap with several other disorders, including Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS; 101400).  http://www.omim.org/entry/218600
From MedlinePlus Genetics
Baller-Gerold syndrome is a rare condition characterized by the premature fusion of certain skull bones (craniosynostosis) and abnormalities of bones in the arms and hands.

People with Baller-Gerold syndrome have prematurely fused skull bones, most often along the coronal suture, the growth line that goes over the head from ear to ear. Other sutures of the skull may be fused as well. These changes result in an abnormally shaped head, a prominent forehead, and bulging eyes with shallow eye sockets (ocular proptosis). Other distinctive facial features can include widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a small mouth, and a saddle-shaped or underdeveloped nose.

Bone abnormalities in the hands include missing fingers (oligodactyly) and malformed or absent thumbs. Partial or complete absence of bones in the forearm is also common. Together, these hand and arm abnormalities are called radial ray malformations.

People with Baller-Gerold syndrome may have a variety of additional signs and symptoms including slow growth beginning in infancy, small stature, and malformed or missing kneecaps (patellae). A skin rash often appears on the arms and legs a few months after birth. This rash spreads over time, causing patchy changes in skin coloring, areas of thinning skin (atrophy), and small clusters of blood vessels just under the skin (telangiectases). These chronic skin problems are collectively known as poikiloderma.

The varied signs and symptoms of Baller-Gerold syndrome overlap with features of other disorders, namely Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and RAPADILINO syndrome. These syndromes are also characterized by radial ray defects, skeletal abnormalities, and slow growth. All of these conditions can be caused by mutations in the same gene. Based on these similarities, researchers are investigating whether Baller-Gerold syndrome, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, and RAPADILINO syndrome are separate disorders or part of a single syndrome with overlapping signs and symptoms.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/baller-gerold-syndrome

Clinical features

From HPO
Midface capillary hemangioma
MedGen UID:
336589
Concept ID:
C1849377
Neoplastic Process
Abnormality of the kidney
MedGen UID:
78593
Concept ID:
C0266292
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of the kidney.
Perineal fistula
MedGen UID:
107555
Concept ID:
C0561921
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of a fistula between the bowel and the perineum.
Radial deviation of the hand
MedGen UID:
108280
Concept ID:
C0575803
Finding
An abnormal position of the hand in which the wrist is bent toward the radius (i.e., toward the thumb).
Hypoplasia of the radius
MedGen UID:
672334
Concept ID:
C0685381
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the radius.
Absent radius
MedGen UID:
235613
Concept ID:
C1405984
Congenital Abnormality
Missing radius bone associated with congenital failure of development.
Short humerus
MedGen UID:
316907
Concept ID:
C1832117
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the humerus.
Carpal bone aplasia
MedGen UID:
324464
Concept ID:
C1836219
Finding
Congenital absence of a carpal bone.
Patellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
327021
Concept ID:
C1840068
Finding
Underdevelopment of the patella.
Aplasia of metacarpal bones
MedGen UID:
335431
Concept ID:
C1846473
Finding
Developmental defect associated with absence of one or more metacarpal bones.
Limited elbow movement
MedGen UID:
337930
Concept ID:
C1849955
Finding
Forearm undergrowth
MedGen UID:
383651
Concept ID:
C1855299
Anatomical Abnormality
Forearm shortening because of underdevelopment of one or more bones of the forearm.
Hypoplasia of the ulna
MedGen UID:
395934
Concept ID:
C1860614
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the ulna.
Ulnar bowing
MedGen UID:
356099
Concept ID:
C1865847
Finding
Bending of the diaphysis (shaft) of the ulna.
Patellar aplasia
MedGen UID:
401474
Concept ID:
C1868578
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the patella.
Absent thumb
MedGen UID:
480441
Concept ID:
C3278811
Finding
Absent thumb, i.e., the absence of both phalanges of a thumb and the associated soft tissues.
Oligodactyly
MedGen UID:
854358
Concept ID:
C3887496
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental defect resulting in the presence of fewer than the normal number of digits.
Aphalangy of the hands
MedGen UID:
870660
Concept ID:
C4025114
Anatomical Abnormality
Absence of a digit or of one or more phalanges of a finger.
Abnormal heart morphology
MedGen UID:
6748
Concept ID:
C0018798
Congenital Abnormality
Any structural anomaly of the heart.
Abnormal cardiovascular system morphology
MedGen UID:
892473
Concept ID:
C4049796
Anatomical Abnormality
Any structural anomaly of the heart and blood vessels.
Severe short stature
MedGen UID:
3931
Concept ID:
C0013336
Disease or Syndrome
A severe degree of short stature, more than -4 SD from the mean corrected for age and sex.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Severe intrauterine growth retardation
MedGen UID:
383783
Concept ID:
C1855843
Finding
Intrauterine growth retardation that is 4 or more standard deviations below average, corrected for sex and gestational age.
Imperforate anus
MedGen UID:
1997
Concept ID:
C0003466
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital absence of the anus, i.e., the opening at the bottom end of the intestinal tract.
Rectovaginal fistula
MedGen UID:
11152
Concept ID:
C0034895
Finding
The presence of a fistula between the vagina and the rectum.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Anteriorly placed anus
MedGen UID:
333160
Concept ID:
C1838705
Finding
Anterior malposition of the anus.
Anomalous splenoportal venous system
MedGen UID:
870779
Concept ID:
C4025236
Anatomical Abnormality
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Mixed hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
102336
Concept ID:
C0155552
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing loss resulting from a combination of conductive hearing impairment and sensorineural hearing impairment.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Chiari malformation
MedGen UID:
2065
Concept ID:
C0003803
Congenital Abnormality
Chiari malformation consists of a downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsils and the medulla through the foramen magnum, sometimes causing hydrocephalus as a result of obstruction of CSF outflow.
Hydrocephalus
MedGen UID:
9335
Concept ID:
C0020255
Disease or Syndrome
Hydrocephalus is an active distension of the ventricular system of the brain resulting from inadequate passage of CSF from its point of production within the cerebral ventricles to its point of absorption into the systemic circulation.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Spina bifida occulta
MedGen UID:
36380
Concept ID:
C0080174
Congenital Abnormality
The closed form of spina bifida with incomplete closure of a vertebral body with intact overlying skin.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
78605
Concept ID:
C0266464
Congenital Abnormality
Polymicrogyria is a congenital malformation of the cerebral cortex characterized by abnormal cortical layering (lamination) and an excessive number of small gyri (folds).
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome
MedGen UID:
101045
Concept ID:
C0520679
Disease or Syndrome
Obstructive sleep apnea is a common, chronic, complex disease associated with serious cardiovascular and neuropsychologic sequelae and with substantial social and economic costs (Palmer et al., 2003).
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Craniosynostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1163
Concept ID:
C0010278
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis refers to the premature closure of the cranial sutures. Primary craniosynostosis refers to the closure of one or more sutures due to abnormalities in skull development, and secondary craniosynostosis results from failure of brain growth.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Brachycephaly
MedGen UID:
113165
Concept ID:
C0221356
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a decreased anterior-posterior diameter. That is, a cephalic index greater than 81%. Alternatively, an apparently shortened anteroposterior dimension (length) of the head compared to width.
Rib fusion
MedGen UID:
78570
Concept ID:
C0265695
Congenital Abnormality
Complete or partial merging of adjacent ribs.
Carpal synostosis
MedGen UID:
98468
Concept ID:
C0431863
Congenital Abnormality
Synostosis (bony fusion) involving one or more bones of the carpus (scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, pisiform).
Sagittal craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
140921
Concept ID:
C0432123
Congenital Abnormality
A kind of craniosynostosis affecting the sagittal suture.
Large fontanelles
MedGen UID:
105329
Concept ID:
C0456132
Finding
In newborns, the two frontal bones, two parietal bones, and one occipital bone are joined by fibrous sutures, which form a small posterior fontanelle, and a larger, diamond-shaped anterior fontanelle. These regions allow for the skull to pass the birth canal and for later growth. The fontanelles gradually ossify, whereby the posterior fontanelle usually closes by eight weeks and the anterior fontanelle by the 9th to 16th month of age. Large fontanelles are diagnosed if the fontanelles are larger than age-dependent norms.
Craniosynostosis 4
MedGen UID:
322167
Concept ID:
C1833340
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis (CRS) is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Craniosynostosis-4 (CRS4) includes lambdoid, sagittal, metopic, coronal, and multisuture forms. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of craniosynostosis, see CRS1 (123100).
Abnormal vertebral morphology
MedGen UID:
371742
Concept ID:
C1834129
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of one or more of the vertebrae.
Limited shoulder movement
MedGen UID:
341979
Concept ID:
C1851313
Finding
A limitation of the range of movement of the shoulder joint.
Coronal craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
344694
Concept ID:
C1856266
Congenital Abnormality
Premature closure of the coronal suture of skull.
Brachyturricephaly
MedGen UID:
387833
Concept ID:
C1857484
Finding
Abnormal vertical height of the skull and a shortening of its anterior-posterior length, frequently combined with malformations of the occipital region.
Wide anterior fontanel
MedGen UID:
400926
Concept ID:
C1866134
Finding
Enlargement of the anterior fontanelle with respect to age-dependent norms.
Bicoronal synostosis
MedGen UID:
866810
Concept ID:
C4021164
Congenital Abnormality
Synostosis affecting the right and the left coronal suture.
Oxycephaly
MedGen UID:
1634950
Concept ID:
C4551646
Congenital Abnormality
Oxycephaly (from Greek oxus, sharp, and kephalos, head) refers to a conical or pointed shape of the skull.
Turricephaly
MedGen UID:
1726910
Concept ID:
C5399823
Congenital Abnormality
Tall head relative to width and length.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Concave nasal ridge
MedGen UID:
78105
Concept ID:
C0264169
Finding
Nasal ridge curving posteriorly to an imaginary line that connects the nasal root and tip.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Thin vermilion border
MedGen UID:
108294
Concept ID:
C0578038
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the medial part of the lip more than 2 SD below the mean, or apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the lip in the frontal view. The vermilion is the red part of the lips (and confusingly, the vermilion itself is also often referred to as being equivalent the lips).
Choanal stenosis
MedGen UID:
108427
Concept ID:
C0584837
Finding
Abnormal narrowing of the choana (the posterior nasal aperture).
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Underdeveloped nasal alae
MedGen UID:
322332
Concept ID:
C1834055
Congenital Abnormality
Thinned, deficient, or excessively arched ala nasi.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Flat forehead
MedGen UID:
347463
Concept ID:
C1857485
Finding
A forehead with abnormal flatness.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).
Long upper lip
MedGen UID:
462845
Concept ID:
C3151495
Finding
Increased width of the upper lip.
Bifid uvula
MedGen UID:
1646931
Concept ID:
C4551488
Congenital Abnormality
Uvula separated into two parts most easily seen at the tip.
Erythema
MedGen UID:
11999
Concept ID:
C0041834
Disease or Syndrome
Redness of the skin, caused by hyperemia of the capillaries in the lower layers of the skin.
Dermal atrophy
MedGen UID:
101793
Concept ID:
C0151514
Disease or Syndrome
Partial or complete wasting (atrophy) of the skin.
Poikiloderma
MedGen UID:
97905
Concept ID:
C0392777
Disease or Syndrome
Poikiloderma refers to a patch of skin with (1) reticulated hypopigmentation and hyperpigmentation, (2) wrinkling secondary to epidermal atrophy, and (3) telangiectasias.
Astigmatism
MedGen UID:
2473
Concept ID:
C0004106
Disease or Syndrome
Astigmatism (from the Greek 'a' meaning absence and 'stigma' meaning point) is a condition in which the parallel rays of light entering the eye through the refractive media are not focused on a single point. Both corneal and noncorneal factors contribute to refractive astigmatism. Corneal astigmatism is mainly the result of an aspheric anterior surface of the cornea, which can be measured readily by means of a keratometer; in a small fraction of cases (approximately 1 in 10) the effect is neutralized by the back surface. The curvature of the back surface of the cornea is not considered in most studies, because it is more difficult to measure; moreover, in the case of severe corneal astigmatism, there is evidence that both surfaces have the same configuration. Noncorneal factors are errors in the curvature of the 2 surfaces of the crystalline lens, irregularity in the refractive index of the lens, and an eccentric lens position. Since the cornea is the dominant component of the eye's refracting system, a highly astigmatic cornea is likely to result in a similarly astigmatic ocular refraction (summary by Clementi et al., 1998).
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
High myopia
MedGen UID:
78759
Concept ID:
C0271183
Disease or Syndrome
A severe form of myopia with greater than -6.00 diopters.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
137901
Concept ID:
C0338502
Disease or Syndrome
Underdevelopment of the optic nerve.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBaller-Gerold syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Baller-Gerold syndrome in Orphanet.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Piard J, Aral B, Vabres P, Holder-Espinasse M, Mégarbané A, Gauthier S, Capra V, Pierquin G, Callier P, Baumann C, Pasquier L, Baujat G, Martorell L, Rodriguez A, Brady AF, Boralevi F, González-Enseñat MA, Rio M, Bodemer C, Philip N, Cordier MP, Goldenberg A, Demeer B, Wright M, Blair E, Puzenat E, Parent P, Sznajer Y, Francannet C, DiDonato N, Boute O, Barlogis V, Moldovan O, Bessis D, Coubes C, Tardieu M, Cormier-Daire V, Sousa AB, Franques J, Toutain A, Tajir M, Elalaoui SC, Geneviève D, Thevenon J, Courcet JB, Rivière JB, Collet C, Gigot N, Faivre L, Thauvin-Robinet C
Clin Genet 2015 Mar;87(3):244-51. Epub 2014 Mar 26 doi: 10.1111/cge.12361. PMID: 24635570

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Balajee AS
Cytogenet Genome Res 2021;161(6-7):305-327. Epub 2021 Sep 2 doi: 10.1159/000516568. PMID: 34474412
Cao DH, Mu K, Liu DN, Sun JL, Bai XZ, Zhang N, Qiu GB, Ma XW
Genet Mol Res 2015 May 11;14(2):4757-66. doi: 10.4238/2015.May.11.8. PMID: 25966250
Ceylan A, Peker E, Dogan M, Tuncer O, Kirimi E
Genet Couns 2011;22(1):69-74. PMID: 21614991
Larizza L, Roversi G, Volpi L
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Jan 29;5:2. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-2. PMID: 20113479Free PMC Article
Seto ML, Lee SJ, Sze RW, Cunningham ML
Am J Med Genet 2001 Dec 15;104(4):323-30. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.10065. PMID: 11754069

Diagnosis

Kaneko H, Izumi R, Oda H, Ohara O, Sameshima K, Ohnishi H, Fukao T, Funato M
Mol Med Rep 2017 May;15(5):3222-3224. Epub 2017 Mar 28 doi: 10.3892/mmr.2017.6408. PMID: 28358413
Solomon BD
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2011 Aug 16;6:56. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-6-56. PMID: 21846383Free PMC Article
Ceylan A, Peker E, Dogan M, Tuncer O, Kirimi E
Genet Couns 2011;22(1):69-74. PMID: 21614991
Larizza L, Roversi G, Volpi L
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2010 Jan 29;5:2. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-5-2. PMID: 20113479Free PMC Article
Anoop P, Sasidharan CK
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Clinical prediction guides

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