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Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies(NDMSBA)

MedGen UID:
1380260
Concept ID:
C4479631
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: NDMSBA; NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH PROGRESSIVE MICROCEPHALY, SPASTICITY, AND BRAIN ANOMALIES
SNOMED CT: Phospholipase A2 activating protein-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (1217367007); PLAA-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (1217367007); PLAAND - phospholipase A2 activating protein-associated neurodevelopmental disorder (1217367007)
 
Gene (location): PLAA (9p21.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0060502
OMIM®: 617527
Orphanet: ORPHA521426

Definition

NDMSBA is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile onset of progressive microcephaly and spasticity and severe global developmental delay resulting in profound mental retardation and severely impaired or absent motor function. More variable features include seizures and optic atrophy. Brain imaging may show myelinating abnormalities and white matter lesions consistent with a leukoencephalopathy, as well as structural anomalies, including thin corpus callosum, gyral abnormalities, and cerebral or cerebellar atrophy. Some patients die in early childhood (summary by Falik Zaccai et al., 2017 and Hall et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Postaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
67394
Concept ID:
C0220697
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Congenital vertical talus
MedGen UID:
66821
Concept ID:
C0240912
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital vertical talus (CVT), also known as 'rocker-bottom foot' deformity, is a dislocation of the talonavicular joint characterized by vertical orientation of the talus with a rigid dorsal dislocation of the navicular, equinus deformity of the calcaneus, abduction deformity of the forefoot, and contracture of the soft tissues of the hind- and mid-foot. This condition is usually associated with multiple other congenital deformities and only rarely is an isolated deformity with familial occurrence (summary by Levinsohn et al., 2004). The condition is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance, and sometimes shows incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. There may be a broad spectrum of deformities, including flatfoot, talipes equinovarus (TEV or clubfoot), cavus foot, metatarsus adductus, and even hypoplasia of the tibia (summary by Dobbs et al., 2006).
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Long fingers
MedGen UID:
346836
Concept ID:
C1858091
Finding
The middle finger is more than 2 SD above the mean for newborns 27 to 41 weeks EGA or above the 97th centile for children from birth to 16 years of age AND the five digits retain their normal length proportions relative to each other (i.e., it is not the case that the middle finger is the only lengthened digit), or, Fingers that appear disproportionately long compared to the palm of the hand.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Poor suck
MedGen UID:
324693
Concept ID:
C1837142
Finding
An inadequate sucking reflex, resulting in the difficult of newborns to be breast-fed.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Abnormal pyramidal sign
MedGen UID:
68582
Concept ID:
C0234132
Sign or Symptom
Functional neurological abnormalities related to dysfunction of the pyramidal tract.
Abnormality of extrapyramidal motor function
MedGen UID:
115941
Concept ID:
C0234133
Sign or Symptom
A neurological condition related to lesions of the basal ganglia leading to typical abnormalities including akinesia (inability to initiate changes in activity and perform volitional movements rapidly and easily), muscular rigidity (continuous contraction of muscles with constant resistance to passive movement), chorea (widespread arrhythmic movements of a forcible, rapid, jerky, and restless nature), athetosis (inability to sustain the muscles of the fingers, toes, or other group of muscles in a fixed position), and akathisia (inability to remain motionless).
Generalized-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
115963
Concept ID:
C0234533
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating at some point within, and rapidly engaging, bilaterally distributed networks. The networks may include cortical and subcortical structures but not necessarily the entire cortex.
Cognitive impairment
MedGen UID:
90932
Concept ID:
C0338656
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Abnormal cognition is characterized by deficits in thinking, reasoning, or remembering.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Delayed myelination
MedGen UID:
224820
Concept ID:
C1277241
Finding
Delayed myelination.
Exaggerated startle response
MedGen UID:
329357
Concept ID:
C1740801
Finding
An exaggerated startle reaction in response to a sudden unexpected visual or acoustic stimulus, or a quick movement near the face.
Progressive leukoencephalopathy
MedGen UID:
344402
Concept ID:
C1855010
Finding
Leukoencephalopathy that gets more severe with time.
Abnormal cortical gyration
MedGen UID:
343457
Concept ID:
C1856019
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the gyri (i.e., the ridges) of the cerebral cortex of the brain.
Bulbar signs
MedGen UID:
347246
Concept ID:
C1856507
Finding
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Bulbar palsy
MedGen UID:
898626
Concept ID:
C4082299
Disease or Syndrome
Bulbar weakness (or bulbar palsy) refers to bilateral impairment of function of the lower cranial nerves IX, X, XI and XII, which occurs due to lower motor neuron lesion either at nuclear or fascicular level in the medulla or from bilateral lesions of the lower cranial nerves outside the brain-stem. Bulbar weakness is often associated with difficulty in chewing, weakness of the facial muscles, dysarthria, palatal weakness and regurgitation of fluids, dysphagia, and dysphonia.
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Kyphosis
MedGen UID:
44042
Concept ID:
C0022821
Anatomical Abnormality
Exaggerated anterior convexity of the thoracic vertebral column.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Rigidity
MedGen UID:
7752
Concept ID:
C0026837
Sign or Symptom
Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from muscle spasticity.
Pectus carinatum
MedGen UID:
57643
Concept ID:
C0158731
Finding
A deformity of the chest caused by overgrowth of the ribs and characterized by protrusion of the sternum.
Progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
340542
Concept ID:
C1850456
Anatomical Abnormality
Progressive microcephaly is diagnosed when the head circumference falls progressively behind age- and gender-dependent norms.
Contractures of the large joints
MedGen UID:
347211
Concept ID:
C1859698
Finding
Cessation of head growth
MedGen UID:
870859
Concept ID:
C4025319
Anatomical Abnormality
Stagnation of head growth seen as flattening of the head circumference curve.
Apnea
MedGen UID:
2009
Concept ID:
C0003578
Sign or Symptom
Lack of breathing with no movement of the respiratory muscles and no exchange of air in the lungs. This term refers to a disposition to have recurrent episodes of apnea rather than to a single event.
Respiratory insufficiency
MedGen UID:
11197
Concept ID:
C0035229
Pathologic Function
Impairment of gas exchange within the lungs secondary to a disease process, neoplasm, or trauma, possibly resulting in hypoxia, hypercarbia, or both, but not requiring intubation or mechanical ventilation. Patients are normally managed with pharmaceutical therapy, supplemental oxygen, or both.
Edema
MedGen UID:
4451
Concept ID:
C0013604
Pathologic Function
An abnormal accumulation of fluid beneath the skin, or in one or more cavities of the body.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Hypomimic face
MedGen UID:
208827
Concept ID:
C0813217
Finding
A reduced degree of motion of the muscles beneath the skin of the face, often associated with reduced facial crease formation.
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Tented upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326574
Concept ID:
C1839767
Finding
Triangular appearance of the oral aperture with the apex in the midpoint of the upper vermilion and the lower vermilion forming the base.
Coarse facial features
MedGen UID:
335284
Concept ID:
C1845847
Finding
Absence of fine and sharp appearance of brows, nose, lips, mouth, and chin, usually because of rounded and heavy features or thickened skin with or without thickening of subcutaneous and bony tissues.
Short nose
MedGen UID:
343052
Concept ID:
C1854114
Finding
Distance from nasion to subnasale more than two standard deviations below the mean, or alternatively, an apparently decreased length from the nasal root to the nasal tip.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Hirsutism
MedGen UID:
42461
Concept ID:
C0019572
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased hair growth referring to a male pattern of body hair (androgenic hair).
Palmoplantar hyperhidrosis
MedGen UID:
224808
Concept ID:
C1274743
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperhidrosis palmaris et plantaris (HYPRPP) is characterized by excessive perspiration of the eccrine sweat gland in the palm, sole, and axilla. Perspiration in those affected may be aggravated by emotional stimuli (summary by Higashimoto et al., 2006). Stolman (1998) noted that hyperhidrosis may be complicated by skin maceration as well as secondary microbial infections, and that treatment modalities are associated with complications.
Congenital hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
41344
Concept ID:
C0010308
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypothyroidism is a partial or complete loss of function of the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism) that affects infants from birth (congenital). The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped tissue in the lower neck. It makes iodine-containing hormones that play an important role in regulating growth, brain development, and the rate of chemical reactions in the body (metabolism). People with congenital hypothyroidism have lower-than-normal levels of these important hormones.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland fails to develop or function properly. In 80 to 85 percent of cases, the thyroid gland is absent, severely reduced in size (hypoplastic), or abnormally located. These cases are classified as thyroid dysgenesis. In the remainder of cases, a normal-sized or enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) is present, but production of thyroid hormones is decreased or absent. Most of these cases occur when one of several steps in the hormone synthesis process is impaired; these cases are classified as thyroid dyshormonogenesis. Less commonly, reduction or absence of thyroid hormone production is caused by impaired stimulation of the production process (which is normally done by a structure at the base of the brain called the pituitary gland), even though the process itself is unimpaired. These cases are classified as central (or pituitary) hypothyroidism.\n\nSigns and symptoms of congenital hypothyroidism result from the shortage of thyroid hormones. Affected babies may show no features of the condition, although some babies with congenital hypothyroidism are less active and sleep more than normal. They may have difficulty feeding and experience constipation. If untreated, congenital hypothyroidism can lead to intellectual disability and slow growth. In the United States and many other countries, all hospitals test newborns for congenital hypothyroidism. If treatment begins in the first two weeks after birth, infants usually develop normally.\n\nCongenital hypothyroidism can also occur as part of syndromes that affect other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. Some common forms of syndromic hypothyroidism include Pendred syndrome, Bamforth-Lazarus syndrome, and brain-lung-thyroid syndrome.
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNeurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain anomalies

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Salpietro V, Maroofian R, Zaki MS, Wangen J, Ciolfi A, Barresi S, Efthymiou S, Lamaze A, Aughey GN, Al Mutairi F, Rad A, Rocca C, Calì E, Accogli A, Zara F, Striano P, Mojarrad M, Tariq H, Giacopuzzi E, Taylor JC, Oprea G, Skrahina V, Rehman KU, Abd Elmaksoud M, Bassiony M, El Said HG, Abdel-Hamid MS, Al Shalan M, Seo G, Kim S, Lee H, Khang R, Issa MY, Elbendary HM, Rafat K, Marinakis NM, Traeger-Synodinos J, Ververi A, Sourmpi M, Eslahi A, Khadivi Zand F, Beiraghi Toosi M, Babaei M, Jackson A; SYNAPS Study Group, Bertoli-Avella A, Pagnamenta AT, Niceta M, Battini R, Corsello A, Leoni C, Chiarelli F, Dallapiccola B, Faqeih EA, Tallur KK, Alfadhel M, Alobeid E, Maddirevula S, Mankad K, Banka S, Ghayoor-Karimiani E, Tartaglia M, Chung WK, Green R, Alkuraya FS, Jepson JEC, Houlden H
Am J Hum Genet 2024 Jan 4;111(1):200-210. Epub 2023 Dec 20 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2023.11.012. PMID: 38118446Free PMC Article
Huemer M, Mulder-Bleile R, Burda P, Froese DS, Suormala T, Zeev BB, Chinnery PF, Dionisi-Vici C, Dobbelaere D, Gökcay G, Demirkol M, Häberle J, Lossos A, Mengel E, Morris AA, Niezen-Koning KE, Plecko B, Parini R, Rokicki D, Schiff M, Schimmel M, Sewell AC, Sperl W, Spiekerkoetter U, Steinmann B, Taddeucci G, Trejo-Gabriel-Galán JM, Trefz F, Tsuji M, Vilaseca MA, von Kleist-Retzow JC, Walker V, Zeman J, Baumgartner MR, Fowler B
J Inherit Metab Dis 2016 Jan;39(1):115-24. Epub 2015 May 30 doi: 10.1007/s10545-015-9860-6. PMID: 26025547Free PMC Article
Leventer RJ, Jansen A, Pilz DT, Stoodley N, Marini C, Dubeau F, Malone J, Mitchell LA, Mandelstam S, Scheffer IE, Berkovic SF, Andermann F, Andermann E, Guerrini R, Dobyns WB
Brain 2010 May;133(Pt 5):1415-27. Epub 2010 Apr 19 doi: 10.1093/brain/awq078. PMID: 20403963Free PMC Article
Hagberg B, Aicardi J, Dias K, Ramos O
Ann Neurol 1983 Oct;14(4):471-9. doi: 10.1002/ana.410140412. PMID: 6638958

Diagnosis

Rudd Garces G, Letko A, Häfliger IM, Müller J, Herden C, Nesseler A, Wagner H, Schmidt MJ, Drögemüller C, Lühken G
Anim Genet 2024 Feb;55(1):152-157. Epub 2023 Nov 3 doi: 10.1111/age.13374. PMID: 37921236
Van Bergen NJ, Guo Y, Al-Deri N, Lipatova Z, Stanga D, Zhao S, Murtazina R, Gyurkovska V, Pehlivan D, Mitani T, Gezdirici A, Antony J, Collins F, Willis MJH, Coban Akdemir ZH, Liu P, Punetha J, Hunter JV, Jhangiani SN, Fatih JM, Rosenfeld JA, Posey JE, Gibbs RA, Karaca E, Massey S, Ranasinghe TG, Sleiman P, Troedson C, Lupski JR, Sacher M, Segev N, Hakonarson H, Christodoulou J
Brain 2020 Jan 1;143(1):112-130. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz374. PMID: 31794024Free PMC Article
Leventer RJ, Jansen A, Pilz DT, Stoodley N, Marini C, Dubeau F, Malone J, Mitchell LA, Mandelstam S, Scheffer IE, Berkovic SF, Andermann F, Andermann E, Guerrini R, Dobyns WB
Brain 2010 May;133(Pt 5):1415-27. Epub 2010 Apr 19 doi: 10.1093/brain/awq078. PMID: 20403963Free PMC Article
Grosso S, Cerase A, De Stefano N, Marco LD, Galluzzi P, Galimberti D, Morgese G, Balestri P
Brain Dev 2005 Jan;27(1):73-7. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2004.04.009. PMID: 15626547
Hagberg B, Aicardi J, Dias K, Ramos O
Ann Neurol 1983 Oct;14(4):471-9. doi: 10.1002/ana.410140412. PMID: 6638958

Therapy

Huemer M, Mulder-Bleile R, Burda P, Froese DS, Suormala T, Zeev BB, Chinnery PF, Dionisi-Vici C, Dobbelaere D, Gökcay G, Demirkol M, Häberle J, Lossos A, Mengel E, Morris AA, Niezen-Koning KE, Plecko B, Parini R, Rokicki D, Schiff M, Schimmel M, Sewell AC, Sperl W, Spiekerkoetter U, Steinmann B, Taddeucci G, Trejo-Gabriel-Galán JM, Trefz F, Tsuji M, Vilaseca MA, von Kleist-Retzow JC, Walker V, Zeman J, Baumgartner MR, Fowler B
J Inherit Metab Dis 2016 Jan;39(1):115-24. Epub 2015 May 30 doi: 10.1007/s10545-015-9860-6. PMID: 26025547Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Rudd Garces G, Letko A, Häfliger IM, Müller J, Herden C, Nesseler A, Wagner H, Schmidt MJ, Drögemüller C, Lühken G
Anim Genet 2024 Feb;55(1):152-157. Epub 2023 Nov 3 doi: 10.1111/age.13374. PMID: 37921236
Van Bergen NJ, Guo Y, Al-Deri N, Lipatova Z, Stanga D, Zhao S, Murtazina R, Gyurkovska V, Pehlivan D, Mitani T, Gezdirici A, Antony J, Collins F, Willis MJH, Coban Akdemir ZH, Liu P, Punetha J, Hunter JV, Jhangiani SN, Fatih JM, Rosenfeld JA, Posey JE, Gibbs RA, Karaca E, Massey S, Ranasinghe TG, Sleiman P, Troedson C, Lupski JR, Sacher M, Segev N, Hakonarson H, Christodoulou J
Brain 2020 Jan 1;143(1):112-130. doi: 10.1093/brain/awz374. PMID: 31794024Free PMC Article
Alhaddad B, Schossig A, Haack TB, Kovács-Nagy R, Braunisch MC, Makowski C, Senderek J, Vill K, Müller-Felber W, Strom TM, Krabichler B, Freisinger P, Deshpande C, Polster T, Wolf NI, Desguerre I, Wörmann F, Rötig A, Ahting U, Kopajtich R, Prokisch H, Meitinger T, Feichtinger RG, Mayr JA, Jungbluth H, Hubmann M, Zschocke J, Distelmaier F, Koch J
Neuropediatrics 2018 Oct;49(5):330-338. Epub 2018 Jun 25 doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1661396. PMID: 29940663
Leventer RJ, Jansen A, Pilz DT, Stoodley N, Marini C, Dubeau F, Malone J, Mitchell LA, Mandelstam S, Scheffer IE, Berkovic SF, Andermann F, Andermann E, Guerrini R, Dobyns WB
Brain 2010 May;133(Pt 5):1415-27. Epub 2010 Apr 19 doi: 10.1093/brain/awq078. PMID: 20403963Free PMC Article
Grosso S, Cerase A, De Stefano N, Marco LD, Galluzzi P, Galimberti D, Morgese G, Balestri P
Brain Dev 2005 Jan;27(1):73-7. doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2004.04.009. PMID: 15626547

Clinical prediction guides

Kaiyrzhanov R, Rad A, Lin SJ, Bertoli-Avella A, Kallemeijn WW, Godwin A, Zaki MS, Huang K, Lau T, Petree C, Efthymiou S, Karimiani EG, Hempel M, Normand EA, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Schatz UA, Baggelaar MP, Ilyas M, Sultan T, Alvi JR, Ganieva M, Fowler B, Aanicai R, Tayfun GA, Al Saman A, Alswaid A, Amiri N, Asilova N, Shotelersuk V, Yeetong P, Azam M, Babaei M, Monajemi GB, Mohammadi P, Samie S, Banu SH, Pinto Basto J, Kortüm F, Bauer M, Bauer P, Beetz C, Garshasbi M, Issa AH, Eyaid W, Ahmed H, Hashemi N, Hassanpour K, Herman I, Ibrohimov S, Abdul-Majeed BA, Imdad M, Isrofilov M, Kaiyal Q, Khan S, Kirmse B, Koster J, Lourenço CM, Mitani T, Moldovan O, Murphy D, Najafi M, Pehlivan D, Rocha ME, Salpietro V, Schmidts M, Shalata A, Mahroum M, Talbeya JK, Taylor RW, Vazquez D, Vetro A, Waterham HR, Zaman M, Schrader TA, Chung WK, Guerrini R, Lupski JR, Gleeson J, Suri M, Jamshidi Y, Bhatia KP, Vona B, Schrader M, Severino M, Guille M, Tate EW, Varshney GK, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2024 Apr 4;147(4):1436-1456. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad380. PMID: 37951597Free PMC Article
Rudd Garces G, Letko A, Häfliger IM, Müller J, Herden C, Nesseler A, Wagner H, Schmidt MJ, Drögemüller C, Lühken G
Anim Genet 2024 Feb;55(1):152-157. Epub 2023 Nov 3 doi: 10.1111/age.13374. PMID: 37921236
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