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Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies(NMIHBA)

MedGen UID:
1380860
Concept ID:
C4479566
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: NMIHBA
SNOMED CT: PRUNE1-related neurological syndrome (1222657001); Prune exopolyphosphatase 1-related neurological syndrome (1222657001)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): PRUNE1 (1q21.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0060490
OMIM®: 617481
Orphanet: ORPHA544469

Definition

NMIHBA is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy and profoundly impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals have microcephaly with accompanying dysmorphic features, truncal hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, and lack of independent ambulation or speech acquisition. Brain imaging shows variable abnormalities, including cortical atrophy, thin corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, and delayed myelination (summary by Zollo et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Clonus
MedGen UID:
40341
Concept ID:
C0009024
Sign or Symptom
A series of rhythmic and involuntary muscle contractions (at a frequency of about 5 to 7 Hz) that occur in response to an abruptly applied and sustained stretch.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Hyperreflexia
MedGen UID:
57738
Concept ID:
C0151889
Finding
Hyperreflexia is the presence of hyperactive stretch reflexes of the muscles.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Spastic tetraparesis
MedGen UID:
658719
Concept ID:
C0575059
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic weakness affecting all four limbs.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Abnormal cerebral white matter morphology
MedGen UID:
181756
Concept ID:
C0948163
Pathologic Function
An abnormality of the cerebral white matter.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability, profound
MedGen UID:
892508
Concept ID:
C3161330
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Profound mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) below 20.
Profound global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
766364
Concept ID:
C3553450
Disease or Syndrome
A profound delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Joint contracture
MedGen UID:
3228
Concept ID:
C0009918
Anatomical Abnormality
A limitation in the passive range of motion of the elbow resulting from loss of elasticity in the periarticular tissues owing to structural changes of non-bony tissues, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules or skin. A contracture prevents movement of the associated body part.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Narrow palate
MedGen UID:
278045
Concept ID:
C1398312
Finding
Width of the palate more than 2 SD below the mean (objective) or apparently decreased palatal width (subjective).
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Decreased fetal movement
MedGen UID:
68618
Concept ID:
C0235659
Finding
An abnormal reduction in quantity or strength of fetal movements.
Proptosis
MedGen UID:
41917
Concept ID:
C0015300
Disease or Syndrome
An eye that is protruding anterior to the plane of the face to a greater extent than is typical.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Cataract
MedGen UID:
39462
Concept ID:
C0086543
Disease or Syndrome
A cataract is an opacity or clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its capsule.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVNeurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

O'Donnell-Luria AH, Pais LS, Faundes V, Wood JC, Sveden A, Luria V, Abou Jamra R, Accogli A, Amburgey K, Anderlid BM, Azzarello-Burri S, Basinger AA, Bianchini C, Bird LM, Buchert R, Carre W, Ceulemans S, Charles P, Cox H, Culliton L, Currò A; Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) Study, Demurger F, Dowling JJ, Duban-Bedu B, Dubourg C, Eiset SE, Escobar LF, Ferrarini A, Haack TB, Hashim M, Heide S, Helbig KL, Helbig I, Heredia R, Héron D, Isidor B, Jonasson AR, Joset P, Keren B, Kok F, Kroes HY, Lavillaureix A, Lu X, Maas SM, Maegawa GHB, Marcelis CLM, Mark PR, Masruha MR, McLaughlin HM, McWalter K, Melchinger EU, Mercimek-Andrews S, Nava C, Pendziwiat M, Person R, Ramelli GP, Ramos LLP, Rauch A, Reavey C, Renieri A, Rieß A, Sanchez-Valle A, Sattar S, Saunders C, Schwarz N, Smol T, Srour M, Steindl K, Syrbe S, Taylor JC, Telegrafi A, Thiffault I, Trauner DA, van der Linden H Jr, van Koningsbruggen S, Villard L, Vogel I, Vogt J, Weber YG, Wentzensen IM, Widjaja E, Zak J, Baxter S, Banka S, Rodan LH
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Jun 6;104(6):1210-1222. Epub 2019 May 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.021. PMID: 31079897Free PMC Article
Byrne S, Jansen L, U-King-Im JM, Siddiqui A, Lidov HG, Bodi I, Smith L, Mein R, Cullup T, Dionisi-Vici C, Al-Gazali L, Al-Owain M, Bruwer Z, Al Thihli K, El-Garhy R, Flanigan KM, Manickam K, Zmuda E, Banks W, Gershoni-Baruch R, Mandel H, Dagan E, Raas-Rothschild A, Barash H, Filloux F, Creel D, Harris M, Hamosh A, Kölker S, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Hoffmann GF, Manchester D, Boyer PJ, Manzur AY, Lourenco CM, Pilz DT, Kamath A, Prabhakar P, Rao VK, Rogers RC, Ryan MM, Brown NJ, McLean CA, Said E, Schara U, Stein A, Sewry C, Travan L, Wijburg FA, Zenker M, Mohammed S, Fanto M, Gautel M, Jungbluth H
Brain 2016 Mar;139(Pt 3):765-81. doi: 10.1093/brain/awv393. PMID: 26917586Free PMC Article
Pinto AM, Bianciardi L, Mencarelli MA, Imperatore V, Di Marco C, Furini S, Suppiej A, Salviati L, Tenconi R, Ariani F, Mari F, Renieri A
Brain Dev 2016 Jun;38(6):590-6. Epub 2016 Jan 2 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2015.12.006. PMID: 26754451
Biancheri R, Cerone R, Schiaffino MC, Caruso U, Veneselli E, Perrone MV, Rossi A, Gatti R
Neuropediatrics 2001 Feb;32(1):14-22. doi: 10.1055/s-2001-12217. PMID: 11315197

Diagnosis

Maroofian R, Kaiyrzhanov R, Cali E, Zamani M, Zaki MS, Ferla M, Tortora D, Sadeghian S, Saadi SM, Abdullah U, Karimiani EG, Efthymiou S, Yeşil G, Alavi S, Al Shamsi AM, Tajsharghi H, Abdel-Hamid MS, Saadi NW, Al Mutairi F, Alabdi L, Beetz C, Ali Z, Toosi MB, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Babaei M, Isohanni P, Muhammad J, Khan S, Al Shalan M, Hickey SE, Marom D, Elhanan E, Kurian MA, Marafi D, Saberi A, Hamid M, Spaull R, Meng L, Lalani S, Maqbool S, Rahman F, Seeger J, Palculict TB, Lau T, Murphy D, Mencacci NE, Steindl K, Begemann A, Rauch A, Akbas S, Aslanger AD, Salpietro V, Yousaf H, Ben-Shachar S, Ejeskär K, Al Aqeel AI, High FA, Armstrong-Javors AE, Zahraei SM, Seifi T, Zeighami J, Shariati G, Sedaghat A, Asl SN, Shahrooei M, Zifarelli G, Burglen L, Ravelli C, Zschocke J, Schatz UA, Ghavideldarestani M, Kamel WA, Van Esch H, Hackenberg A, Taylor JC, Al-Gazali L, Bauer P, Gleeson JJ, Alkuraya FS, Lupski JR, Galehdari H, Azizimalamiri R, Chung WK, Baig SM, Houlden H, Severino M
Brain 2023 Dec 1;146(12):5031-5043. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad257. PMID: 37517035Free PMC Article
Andelman-Gur MM, Leventer RJ, Hujirat M, Ganos C, Yosovich K, Carmi N, Lev D, Nissenkorn A, Dobyns WB, Bhatia K, Lerman-Sagie T, Blumkin L
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Oct;182(10):2207-2213. Epub 2020 Aug 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61795. PMID: 33001581
van der Schoot V, de Munnik S, Venselaar H, Elting M, Mancini GMS, Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Anderlid BM, Brunner HG, Stevens SJC
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2018 May;6(3):393-400. Epub 2018 Mar 24 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.387. PMID: 29573576Free PMC Article
Bramswig NC, Lüdecke HJ, Hamdan FF, Altmüller J, Beleggia F, Elcioglu NH, Freyer C, Gerkes EH, Demirkol YK, Knupp KG, Kuechler A, Li Y, Lowenstein DH, Michaud JL, Park K, Stegmann APA, Veenstra-Knol HE, Wieland T, Wollnik B, Engels H, Strom TM, Kleefstra T, Wieczorek D
Hum Genet 2017 Jul;136(7):821-834. Epub 2017 Apr 9 doi: 10.1007/s00439-017-1795-6. PMID: 28393272
Evans E, Mowat D, Wilson M, Einfeld S
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Mar;170(3):654-60. Epub 2015 Dec 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37502. PMID: 26686679

Prognosis

Calame DG, Bakhtiari S, Logan R, Coban-Akdemir Z, Du H, Mitani T, Fatih JM, Hunter JV, Herman I, Pehlivan D, Jhangiani SN, Person R, Schnur RE, Jin SC, Bilguvar K, Posey JE, Koh S, Firouzabadi SG, Alehabib E, Tafakhori A, Esmkhani S, Gibbs RA, Noureldeen MM, Zaki MS, Marafi D, Darvish H, Kruer MC, Lupski JR
Genet Med 2021 Dec;23(12):2455-2460. Epub 2021 Aug 12 doi: 10.1038/s41436-021-01291-x. PMID: 34385670Free PMC Article
Hashmi JA, Fadhli F, Almatrafi A, Afzal S, Ramzan K, Thiele H, Nürnberg P, Basit S
Brain Dev 2020 Sep;42(8):587-593. Epub 2020 May 10 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2020.04.010. PMID: 32402540
Byrne S, Jansen L, U-King-Im JM, Siddiqui A, Lidov HG, Bodi I, Smith L, Mein R, Cullup T, Dionisi-Vici C, Al-Gazali L, Al-Owain M, Bruwer Z, Al Thihli K, El-Garhy R, Flanigan KM, Manickam K, Zmuda E, Banks W, Gershoni-Baruch R, Mandel H, Dagan E, Raas-Rothschild A, Barash H, Filloux F, Creel D, Harris M, Hamosh A, Kölker S, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Hoffmann GF, Manchester D, Boyer PJ, Manzur AY, Lourenco CM, Pilz DT, Kamath A, Prabhakar P, Rao VK, Rogers RC, Ryan MM, Brown NJ, McLean CA, Said E, Schara U, Stein A, Sewry C, Travan L, Wijburg FA, Zenker M, Mohammed S, Fanto M, Gautel M, Jungbluth H
Brain 2016 Mar;139(Pt 3):765-81. doi: 10.1093/brain/awv393. PMID: 26917586Free PMC Article
Biancheri R, Cerone R, Schiaffino MC, Caruso U, Veneselli E, Perrone MV, Rossi A, Gatti R
Neuropediatrics 2001 Feb;32(1):14-22. doi: 10.1055/s-2001-12217. PMID: 11315197

Clinical prediction guides

Maroofian R, Zamani M, Kaiyrzhanov R, Liebmann L, Karimiani EG, Vona B, Huebner AK, Calame DG, Misra VK, Sadeghian S, Azizimalamiri R, Mohammadi MH, Zeighami J, Heydaran S, Toosi MB, Akhondian J, Babaei M, Hashemi N, Schnur RE, Suri M, Setzke J, Wagner M, Brunet T, Grochowski CM, Emrick L, Chung WK, Hellmich UA, Schmidts M, Lupski JR, Galehdari H, Severino M, Houlden H, Hübner CA
Genet Med 2024 Mar;26(3):101034. Epub 2023 Dec 3 doi: 10.1016/j.gim.2023.101034. PMID: 38054405Free PMC Article
Maroofian R, Kaiyrzhanov R, Cali E, Zamani M, Zaki MS, Ferla M, Tortora D, Sadeghian S, Saadi SM, Abdullah U, Karimiani EG, Efthymiou S, Yeşil G, Alavi S, Al Shamsi AM, Tajsharghi H, Abdel-Hamid MS, Saadi NW, Al Mutairi F, Alabdi L, Beetz C, Ali Z, Toosi MB, Rudnik-Schöneborn S, Babaei M, Isohanni P, Muhammad J, Khan S, Al Shalan M, Hickey SE, Marom D, Elhanan E, Kurian MA, Marafi D, Saberi A, Hamid M, Spaull R, Meng L, Lalani S, Maqbool S, Rahman F, Seeger J, Palculict TB, Lau T, Murphy D, Mencacci NE, Steindl K, Begemann A, Rauch A, Akbas S, Aslanger AD, Salpietro V, Yousaf H, Ben-Shachar S, Ejeskär K, Al Aqeel AI, High FA, Armstrong-Javors AE, Zahraei SM, Seifi T, Zeighami J, Shariati G, Sedaghat A, Asl SN, Shahrooei M, Zifarelli G, Burglen L, Ravelli C, Zschocke J, Schatz UA, Ghavideldarestani M, Kamel WA, Van Esch H, Hackenberg A, Taylor JC, Al-Gazali L, Bauer P, Gleeson JJ, Alkuraya FS, Lupski JR, Galehdari H, Azizimalamiri R, Chung WK, Baig SM, Houlden H, Severino M
Brain 2023 Dec 1;146(12):5031-5043. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad257. PMID: 37517035Free PMC Article
Guerrini R, Mei D, Kerti-Szigeti K, Pepe S, Koenig MK, Von Allmen G, Cho MT, McDonald K, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Powis Z, Rodan L, Nabbout R, Barcia G, Rosenfeld JA, Bacino CA, Mignot C, Power LH, Harris CJ, Marjanovic D, Møller RS, Hammer TB; DDD Study, Keski Filppula R, Vieira P, Hildebrandt C, Sacharow S; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Maragliano L, Benfenati F, Lachlan K, Benneche A, Petit F, de Sainte Agathe JM, Hallinan B, Si Y, Wentzensen IM, Zou F, Narayanan V, Matsumoto N, Boncristiano A, la Marca G, Kato M, Anderson K, Barba C, Sturiale L, Garozzo D, Bei R; ATP6V1A collaborators, Masuelli L, Conti V, Novarino G, Fassio A
Brain 2022 Aug 27;145(8):2687-2703. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac145. PMID: 35675510Free PMC Article
Andelman-Gur MM, Leventer RJ, Hujirat M, Ganos C, Yosovich K, Carmi N, Lev D, Nissenkorn A, Dobyns WB, Bhatia K, Lerman-Sagie T, Blumkin L
Am J Med Genet A 2020 Oct;182(10):2207-2213. Epub 2020 Aug 17 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.61795. PMID: 33001581
Evans E, Mowat D, Wilson M, Einfeld S
Am J Med Genet A 2016 Mar;170(3):654-60. Epub 2015 Dec 21 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.37502. PMID: 26686679

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