U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35(MRXS35)

MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: MRXS35
 
Gene (location): RPL10 (Xq28)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030908
OMIM®: 300998

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Decreased testicular size
MedGen UID:
66027
Concept ID:
C0241355
Finding
Reduced volume of the testicle (the male gonad).
Bilateral cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
96568
Concept ID:
C0431663
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of both testes from the scrotum owing to failure of the testis or testes to descend through the inguinal canal to the scrotum.
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Tapered finger
MedGen UID:
98098
Concept ID:
C0426886
Finding
The gradual reduction in girth of the finger from proximal to distal.
2-3 toe cutaneous syndactyly
MedGen UID:
98470
Concept ID:
C0432040
Congenital Abnormality
Cutaneous syndactyly of toes
MedGen UID:
320423
Concept ID:
C1834737
Congenital Abnormality
A soft tissue continuity in the anteroposterior axis between adjacent foot digits that involves at least half of the proximodistal length of one of the two involved digits; or, a soft tissue continuity in the A/P axis between two digits of the foot that does not meet the prior objective criteria.
Short finger
MedGen UID:
334977
Concept ID:
C1844548
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormally short finger associated with developmental hypoplasia.
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
MedGen UID:
340456
Concept ID:
C1850049
Congenital Abnormality
Clinodactyly refers to a bending or curvature of the fifth finger in the radial direction (i.e., towards the 4th finger).
Broad foot
MedGen UID:
356187
Concept ID:
C1866241
Finding
A foot for which the measured width is above the 95th centile for age; or, a foot that appears disproportionately wide for its length.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Pulmonary artery stenosis
MedGen UID:
65965
Concept ID:
C0238397
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormal narrowing or constriction of the pulmonary artery, in the main pulmonary artery and/or in the left or right pulmonary artery branches.
Dilation of Virchow-Robin spaces
MedGen UID:
342926
Concept ID:
C1853618
Finding
Increased dimensions of the Virchow-Robin spaces (also known as perivascular spaces), which surround the walls of vessels as they course from the subarachnoid space through the brain parenchyma. Perivascular spaces are commonly microscopic, and not visible on conventional neuroimaging. This term refers to an increase of size of these spaces such that they are visible on neuroimaging (usually magnetic resonance imaging). The dilatations are regular cavities that always contain a patent artery.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
235586
Concept ID:
C1384666
Disease or Syndrome
A decreased magnitude of the sensory perception of sound.
Protruding ear
MedGen UID:
343309
Concept ID:
C1855285
Finding
Angle formed by the plane of the ear and the mastoid bone greater than the 97th centile for age (objective); or, outer edge of the helix more than 2 cm from the mastoid at the point of maximum distance (objective).
Absent antihelix
MedGen UID:
869031
Concept ID:
C4023448
Anatomical Abnormality
No discernible ridge between concha and triangular fossa and helix.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Febrile seizure (within the age range of 3 months to 6 years)
MedGen UID:
3232
Concept ID:
C0009952
Disease or Syndrome
A febrile seizure is any type of seizure (most often a generalized tonic-clonic seizure) occurring with fever (at least 38 degrees Celsius) but in the absence of central nervous system infection, severe metabolic disturbance or other alternative precipitant in children between the ages of 3 months and 6 years.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Tremor
MedGen UID:
21635
Concept ID:
C0040822
Sign or Symptom
An unintentional, oscillating to-and-fro muscle movement about a joint axis.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Periventricular white matter hyperintensities
MedGen UID:
927595
Concept ID:
C4293686
Finding
Areas of brighter than expected signal on magnetic resonance imaging emanating from the cerebral white matter that surrounds the cerebral ventricles.
Inguinal hernia
MedGen UID:
6817
Concept ID:
C0019294
Finding
Protrusion of the contents of the abdominal cavity through the inguinal canal.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Osteoporosis
MedGen UID:
14535
Concept ID:
C0029456
Disease or Syndrome
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone density and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue with a consequent increase in bone fragility. According to the WHO criteria, osteoporosis is defined as a BMD that lies 2.5 standard deviations or more below the average value for young healthy adults (a T-score below -2.5 SD).
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
20916
Concept ID:
C0038015
Finding
A disorder of bone growth affecting the vertebrae and the ends of the long bones (epiphyses).
Dolichocephaly
MedGen UID:
65142
Concept ID:
C0221358
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormality of skull shape characterized by a increased anterior-posterior diameter, i.e., an increased antero-posterior dimension of the skull. Cephalic index less than 76%. Alternatively, an apparently increased antero-posterior length of the head compared to width. Often due to premature closure of the sagittal suture.
Frequent falls
MedGen UID:
163408
Concept ID:
C0850703
Finding
Microretrognathia
MedGen UID:
326907
Concept ID:
C1839546
Finding
A form of developmental hypoplasia of the mandible in which the mandible is mislocalised posteriorly.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
412209
Concept ID:
C2267233
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in the neonatal period.
Lumbar scoliosis
MedGen UID:
412568
Concept ID:
C2748518
Finding
Contracture of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the 2nd finger
MedGen UID:
867093
Concept ID:
C4021451
Anatomical Abnormality
Chronic loss of joint motion of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the 2nd finger due to structural changes in non-bony tissue.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Congenital laryngomalacia
MedGen UID:
120500
Concept ID:
C0264303
Anatomical Abnormality
Laryngomalacia is a congenital abnormality of the laryngeal cartilage in which the cartilage is floppy and prolapses over the larynx during inspiration.
Recurrent infections
MedGen UID:
65998
Concept ID:
C0239998
Finding
Increased susceptibility to infections.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Dental crowding
MedGen UID:
11850
Concept ID:
C0040433
Finding
Changes in alignment of teeth in the dental arch
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Dorsal hirsutism
MedGen UID:
1814164
Concept ID:
C5558436
Finding
Abnormally increased hair growth in the lskin of the back.
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Premature birth
MedGen UID:
57721
Concept ID:
C0151526
Pathologic Function
The birth of a baby of less than 37 weeks of gestational age.
Central hypothyroidism
MedGen UID:
488836
Concept ID:
C0271801
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hypothyroidism due to an insufficient stimulation of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. Central hypothyroidism is caused by either pituitary (secondary hypothyroidism) or hypothalamic (tertiary hypothyroidism) defects.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
High myopia
MedGen UID:
78759
Concept ID:
C0271183
Disease or Syndrome
A severe form of myopia with greater than -6.00 diopters.
Rod-cone dystrophy
MedGen UID:
1632921
Concept ID:
C4551714
Disease or Syndrome
An inherited retinal disease subtype in which the rod photoreceptors appear to be more severely affected than the cone photoreceptors. Typical presentation is with nyctalopia (due to rod dysfunction) followed by loss of mid-peripheral field of vision, which gradually extends and leaves many patients with a small central island of vision due to the preservation of macular cones.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Kalman LV, Tarleton JC, Percy AK, Aradhya S, Bale S, Barker SD, Bayrak-Toydemir P, Bridges C, Buller-Burckle AM, Das S, Iyer RK, Vo TD, Zvereff VV, Toji LH
J Mol Diagn 2014 Mar;16(2):273-9. Epub 2014 Feb 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jmoldx.2013.11.004. PMID: 24508304Free PMC Article
Cronister A, Teicher J, Rohlfs EM, Donnenfeld A, Hallam S
Obstet Gynecol 2008 Mar;111(3):596-601. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e318163be0b. PMID: 18310361
Fransen E, Van Camp G, D'Hooge R, Vits L, Willems PJ
J Med Genet 1998 May;35(5):399-404. doi: 10.1136/jmg.35.5.399. PMID: 9610803Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Canton APM, Tinano FR, Guasti L, Montenegro LR, Ryan F, Shears D, de Melo ME, Gomes LG, Piana MP, Brauner R, Espino-Aguilar R, Escribano-Muñoz A, Paganoni A, Read JE, Korbonits M, Seraphim CE, Costa SS, Krepischi AC, Jorge AAL, David A, Kaisinger LR, Ong KK, Perry JRB, Abreu AP, Kaiser UB, Argente J, Mendonca BB, Brito VN, Howard SR, Latronico AC
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2023 Aug;11(8):545-554. Epub 2023 Jun 26 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(23)00131-6. PMID: 37385287Free PMC Article
Winkelman JW, Grant NR, Molay F, Stephen CD, Sadjadi R, Eichler FS
Sleep Med 2022 Mar;91:31-34. Epub 2022 Feb 16 doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2022.02.008. PMID: 35245789Free PMC Article
Lubs HA, Stevenson RE, Schwartz CE
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Apr 6;90(4):579-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.02.018. PMID: 22482801Free PMC Article
Lisik MZ, Sieron AL
Med Sci Monit 2008 Nov;14(11):RA221-9. PMID: 18971887
Folz SJ, Trobe JD
Surv Ophthalmol 1991 Mar-Apr;35(5):353-68. doi: 10.1016/0039-6257(91)90185-i. PMID: 1710072

Diagnosis

van Geest FS, Groeneweg S, Popa VM, Stals MAM, Visser WE
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2023 Dec 21;109(1):e330-e335. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgad412. PMID: 37450560Free PMC Article
Canton APM, Tinano FR, Guasti L, Montenegro LR, Ryan F, Shears D, de Melo ME, Gomes LG, Piana MP, Brauner R, Espino-Aguilar R, Escribano-Muñoz A, Paganoni A, Read JE, Korbonits M, Seraphim CE, Costa SS, Krepischi AC, Jorge AAL, David A, Kaisinger LR, Ong KK, Perry JRB, Abreu AP, Kaiser UB, Argente J, Mendonca BB, Brito VN, Howard SR, Latronico AC
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2023 Aug;11(8):545-554. Epub 2023 Jun 26 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(23)00131-6. PMID: 37385287Free PMC Article
Winkelman JW, Grant NR, Molay F, Stephen CD, Sadjadi R, Eichler FS
Sleep Med 2022 Mar;91:31-34. Epub 2022 Feb 16 doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2022.02.008. PMID: 35245789Free PMC Article
LaDuca H, Farwell KD, Vuong H, Lu HM, Mu W, Shahmirzadi L, Tang S, Chen J, Bhide S, Chao EC
PLoS One 2017;12(2):e0170843. Epub 2017 Feb 2 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170843. PMID: 28152038Free PMC Article
Lubs HA, Stevenson RE, Schwartz CE
Am J Hum Genet 2012 Apr 6;90(4):579-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.02.018. PMID: 22482801Free PMC Article

Therapy

Refetoff S, Pappa T, Williams MK, Matheus MG, Liao XH, Hansen K, Nicol L, Pierce M, Blasco PA, Wiebers Jensen M, Bernal J, Weiss RE, Dumitrescu AM, LaFranchi S
Thyroid 2021 May;31(5):713-720. Epub 2020 Sep 25 doi: 10.1089/thy.2020.0306. PMID: 32746752Free PMC Article
LaDuca H, Farwell KD, Vuong H, Lu HM, Mu W, Shahmirzadi L, Tang S, Chen J, Bhide S, Chao EC
PLoS One 2017;12(2):e0170843. Epub 2017 Feb 2 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170843. PMID: 28152038Free PMC Article
Tomanin R, Zanetti A, D'Avanzo F, Rampazzo A, Gasparotto N, Parini R, Pascarella A, Concolino D, Procopio E, Fiumara A, Borgo A, Frigo AC, Scarpa M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014 Sep 18;9:129. doi: 10.1186/s13023-014-0129-1. PMID: 25231261Free PMC Article
Shimada S, Okamoto N, Ito M, Arai Y, Momosaki K, Togawa M, Maegaki Y, Sugawara M, Shimojima K, Osawa M, Yamamoto T
Brain Dev 2013 May;35(5):411-9. Epub 2012 Aug 9 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2012.07.010. PMID: 22877836
Wraith JE, Beck M, Giugliani R, Clarke J, Martin R, Muenzer J; HOS Investigators
Genet Med 2008 Jul;10(7):508-16. doi: 10.1097/gim.0b013e31817701e6. PMID: 18580692

Prognosis

Groeneweg S, Peeters RP, Moran C, Stoupa A, Auriol F, Tonduti D, Dica A, Paone L, Rozenkova K, Malikova J, van der Walt A, de Coo IFM, McGowan A, Lyons G, Aarsen FK, Barca D, van Beynum IM, van der Knoop MM, Jansen J, Manshande M, Lunsing RJ, Nowak S, den Uil CA, Zillikens MC, Visser FE, Vrijmoeth P, de Wit MCY, Wolf NI, Zandstra A, Ambegaonkar G, Singh Y, de Rijke YB, Medici M, Bertini ES, Depoorter S, Lebl J, Cappa M, De Meirleir L, Krude H, Craiu D, Zibordi F, Oliver Petit I, Polak M, Chatterjee K, Visser TJ, Visser WE
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2019 Sep;7(9):695-706. Epub 2019 Jul 31 doi: 10.1016/S2213-8587(19)30155-X. PMID: 31377265Free PMC Article
LaDuca H, Farwell KD, Vuong H, Lu HM, Mu W, Shahmirzadi L, Tang S, Chen J, Bhide S, Chao EC
PLoS One 2017;12(2):e0170843. Epub 2017 Feb 2 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170843. PMID: 28152038Free PMC Article
Tomanin R, Zanetti A, D'Avanzo F, Rampazzo A, Gasparotto N, Parini R, Pascarella A, Concolino D, Procopio E, Fiumara A, Borgo A, Frigo AC, Scarpa M
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2014 Sep 18;9:129. doi: 10.1186/s13023-014-0129-1. PMID: 25231261Free PMC Article
Bindu PS, Taly AB, Kothari S, Christopher R, Gayathri N, Sinha S, Nagappa M, Bhatt M, Bharath RD
Brain Dev 2013 May;35(5):398-405. Epub 2012 Aug 24 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2012.07.016. PMID: 22921468
Lisik MZ, Sieron AL
Med Sci Monit 2008 Nov;14(11):RA221-9. PMID: 18971887

Clinical prediction guides

van Geest FS, Groeneweg S, Popa VM, Stals MAM, Visser WE
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2023 Dec 21;109(1):e330-e335. doi: 10.1210/clinem/dgad412. PMID: 37450560Free PMC Article
Pehlivan D, Ak M, Glaze DG, Suter B, Motil KJ
Neurogastroenterol Motil 2023 Aug;35(8):e14601. Epub 2023 Apr 30 doi: 10.1111/nmo.14601. PMID: 37122114Free PMC Article
LaDuca H, Farwell KD, Vuong H, Lu HM, Mu W, Shahmirzadi L, Tang S, Chen J, Bhide S, Chao EC
PLoS One 2017;12(2):e0170843. Epub 2017 Feb 2 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170843. PMID: 28152038Free PMC Article
Hustyi KM, Hall SS, Jo B, Lightbody AA, Reiss AL
Res Dev Disabil 2014 Nov;35(11):2691-701. Epub 2014 Aug 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2014.07.003. PMID: 25129200Free PMC Article
Wraith JE, Beck M, Giugliani R, Clarke J, Martin R, Muenzer J; HOS Investigators
Genet Med 2008 Jul;10(7):508-16. doi: 10.1097/gim.0b013e31817701e6. PMID: 18580692

Recent systematic reviews

Fuertes-González MC, Silvestre FJ, Almerich-Silla JM
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011 Jan 1;16(1):e37-41. doi: 10.4317/medoral.16.e37. PMID: 20526264

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...