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Stenosis of the external auditory canal

MedGen UID:
140758
Concept ID:
C0395837
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: External auditory canal stenosis; Stenotic ear canals; Stenotic external auditory canal; Stenotic external auditory canals
SNOMED CT: Stenosis of external auditory canal (301061006); Stenosis of ear canal (301061006)
 
HPO: HP:0000402

Definition

An abnormal narrowing of the external auditory canal. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

5p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
41345
Concept ID:
C0010314
Disease or Syndrome
Cri-du-chat syndrome was first described by Lejeune et al. (1963) as a hereditary congenital syndrome associated with deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The deletions can vary in size from extremely small and involving only band 5p15.2 to the entire short arm. Although the majority of deletions arise as new mutations, approximately 12% result from unbalanced segregation of translocations or recombination involving a pericentric inversion in one of the parents.
Focal dermal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
42055
Concept ID:
C0016395
Disease or Syndrome
Focal dermal hypoplasia is a multisystem disorder characterized primarily by involvement of the skin, skeletal system, eyes, and face. Skin manifestations present at birth include atrophic and hypoplastic areas of skin; cutis aplasia; fat nodules in the dermis manifesting as soft, yellow-pink cutaneous nodules; and pigmentary changes. Verrucoid papillomas of the skin and mucous membranes may appear later. The nails can be ridged, dysplastic, or hypoplastic; hair can be sparse or absent. Limb malformations include oligo-/syndactyly and split hand/foot. Developmental abnormalities of the eye can include anophthalmia/microphthalmia, iris and chorioretinal coloboma, and lacrimal duct abnormalities. Craniofacial findings can include facial asymmetry, notched alae nasi, cleft lip and palate, and pointed chin. Occasional findings include dental anomalies, abdominal wall defects, diaphragmatic hernia, and renal anomalies. Psychomotor development is usually normal; some individuals have cognitive impairment.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Cat eye syndrome
MedGen UID:
120543
Concept ID:
C0265493
Disease or Syndrome
Cat eye syndrome (CES) is characterized clinically by the combination of coloboma of the iris and anal atresia with fistula, downslanting palpebral fissures, preauricular tags and/or pits, frequent occurrence of heart and renal malformations, and normal or near-normal mental development. A small supernumerary chromosome (smaller than chromosome 21) is present, frequently has 2 centromeres, is bisatellited, and represents an inv dup(22)(q11).
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
Peters plus syndrome
MedGen UID:
163204
Concept ID:
C0796012
Disease or Syndrome
Peters plus syndrome is characterized by anterior chamber eye anomalies, short limbs with broad distal extremities, characteristic facial features, cleft lip/palate, and variable developmental delay / intellectual disability. The most common anterior chamber defect is Peters' anomaly, consisting of central corneal clouding, thinning of the posterior cornea, and iridocorneal adhesions. Cataracts and glaucoma are common. Developmental delay is observed in about 80% of children; intellectual disability can range from mild to severe.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, Ohdo type
MedGen UID:
162905
Concept ID:
C0796094
Disease or Syndrome
A rare multiple congenital malformation syndrome with characteristics of blepharophimosis, ptosis, dental hypoplasia, hearing impairment and intellectual disability. Abnormal ears, microcephaly, and growth retardation have been reported occasionally. Male patients may show cryptorchidism and scrotal hypoplasia. Most reported cases are sporadic, except the original cases of Ohdo who described two affected sisters and a first cousin, suggesting autosomal recessive inheritance. Autosomal dominant, X-linked- and mitochondrial inheritance have also been suggested.
Barber-Say syndrome
MedGen UID:
230818
Concept ID:
C1319466
Disease or Syndrome
Barber-Say syndrome (BBRSAY) is a rare congenital condition characterized by severe hypertrichosis, especially of the back, skin abnormalities such as hyperlaxity and redundancy, and facial dysmorphism, including macrostomia, eyelid deformities, ocular telecanthus, abnormal and low-set ears, bulbous nasal tip with hypoplastic alae nasi, and low frontal hairline (summary by Roche et al., 2010).
Rapp-Hodgkin ectodermal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
315656
Concept ID:
C1785148
Disease or Syndrome
The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling.
Anterior chamber cleavage disorder, cerebellar hypoplasia, hypothyroidism, and tracheal stenosis
MedGen UID:
316973
Concept ID:
C1832362
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, congenital malformation syndrome characterized by the association of anterior ocular chamber cleavage disorder with developmental delay, short stature and congenital hypothyroidism. Additional manifestations include cerebellar hypoplasia, tracheal stenosis, narrow external auditory meatus, and hip dislocation. There have been no further description in the literature since 1995.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis with ptosis, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
331276
Concept ID:
C1842349
Disease or Syndrome
Pelviscapular dysplasia
MedGen UID:
342400
Concept ID:
C1850040
Disease or Syndrome
Syndrome with characteristics of pelviscapular dysplasia with epiphyseal abnormalities, congenital dwarfism and facial dysmorphism. The facial dysmorphism has manifestations of frontal bossing, hypertelorism, narrow palpebral fissures, deep-set eyes, strabismus, low-set posteriorly rotated and malformed ears, dysplasia of conchae, a small chin, a short neck with redundant skin folds, and a low hairline. Intelligence may vary from normal to moderately impaired. Radiographic features comprise aplasia of the body of the scapula, hypoplasia of the iliac bone, humeroradial synostosis, dislocation of the femoral heads, and moderate brachydactyly. Mutations in the TBX15 gene have been identified as potentially causative. Pelviscapular dysplasia is phenotypically similar to pelvis-shoulder dysplasia.
Phocomelia-ectrodactyly-deafness-sinus arrhythmia syndrome
MedGen UID:
356961
Concept ID:
C1868390
Disease or Syndrome
Rare syndrome with features of phocomelia (involving arms more severely), ectrodactyly, ear anomalies (bilateral anomalies of the pinnae), conductive deafness, dysmorphism (long and prominent philtrum, mild maxillary hypoplasia) and sinus arrhythmia. It has been described in four patients from two unrelated families.
4p partial monosomy syndrome
MedGen UID:
408255
Concept ID:
C1956097
Disease or Syndrome
Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, developmental disability of variable degree, characteristic craniofacial features ('Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose, high forehead, prominent glabella, hypertelorism, high-arched eyebrows, protruding eyes, epicanthal folds, short philtrum, distinct mouth with downturned corners, and micrognathia), and a seizure disorder (Battaglia et al., 2008).
Bilateral microtia-deafness-cleft palate syndrome
MedGen UID:
382936
Concept ID:
C2676772
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic, orofacial clefting syndrome characterized by the association of bilateral microtia with severe to profound hearing impairment, and cleft palate.
Oculoauricular syndrome
MedGen UID:
393758
Concept ID:
C2677500
Disease or Syndrome
Oculoauricular syndrome (OCACS) is characterized by complex ocular anomalies, including congenital cataract, anterior segment dysgenesis, iris coloboma, and early-onset retinal dystrophy, and dysplastic ears with abnormal external ear cartilage (summary by Gillespie et al., 2015).
Zechi-Ceide syndrome
MedGen UID:
416693
Concept ID:
C2752047
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of occipital atretic cephalocele associated with a specific facial dysmorphism (consisting of prominent forehead, narrow palpebral fissures, midface deficiency, narrow, malformed ears, broad nose and nasal root, grooved nasal tip and columella, laterally angulated, hypoplastic nares, short philtrum, thin upper lip, clift lip/palate, severe oligodontia, prominent chin) and large feet with sandal gap. Intellectual disability, developmental delay and hypoplastic finger and toenails have also been reported.
COG1 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443957
Concept ID:
C2931011
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the few cases reported to date, variable signs including microcephaly, growth retardation, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.
Antley-Bixler syndrome without genital anomalies or disordered steroidogenesis
MedGen UID:
422448
Concept ID:
C2936791
Disease or Syndrome
Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a broad phenotypic spectrum including cortisol deficiency, altered sex steroid synthesis, disorders of sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations of the Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) phenotype. Cortisol deficiency is usually partial, with some baseline cortisol production but failure to mount an adequate cortisol response in stress. Mild mineralocorticoid excess can be present and causes arterial hypertension, usually presenting in young adulthood. Manifestations of altered sex steroid synthesis include ambiguous genitalia/DSD in both males and females, large ovarian cysts in females, poor masculinization and delayed puberty in males, and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Skeletal malformations can manifest as craniosynostosis, mid-face retrusion with proptosis and choanal stenosis or atresia, low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals, hydrocephalus, radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, and clubfeet; other anomalies observed include urinary tract anomalies (renal pelvic dilatation, vesicoureteral reflux). Cognitive impairment is of minor concern and likely associated with the severity of malformations; studies of developmental outcomes are lacking.
Atresia of external auditory canal and conductive deafness
MedGen UID:
502760
Concept ID:
C3502361
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766318
Concept ID:
C3553404
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND), also known as 'question-mark ear syndrome' or 'dysgnathia complex,' is a craniofacial malformation syndrome characterized by highly variable mandibular anomalies, including mild to severe micrognathia, often with temporomandibular joint ankylosis, cleft palate, and a distinctive ear malformation that consists of separation of the lobule from the external ear, giving the appearance of a question mark. Other frequently described features include prominent cheeks, cupped and posteriorly rotated ears, preauricular tags, and microstomia (summary by Rieder et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of auriculocondylar syndrome, see ARCND1 (602483).
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 11
MedGen UID:
766956
Concept ID:
C3554042
Disease or Syndrome
Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma.
Blepharophimosis - intellectual disability syndrome, MKB type
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders.
Van Maldergem syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
816205
Concept ID:
C3809875
Disease or Syndrome
Van Maldergem syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability, typical craniofacial features, auditory malformations resulting in hearing loss, and skeletal and limb malformations. Some patients have renal hypoplasia. Brain MRI typically shows periventricular nodular heterotopia (summary by Cappello et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Van Maldergem syndrome, see 601390.
Auriculocondylar syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
816662
Concept ID:
C3810332
Disease or Syndrome
Auriculocondylar syndrome (ARCND) is a rare craniofacial disorder involving first and second pharyngeal arch derivatives and includes the key features of micrognathia, temporomandibular joint and condyle anomalies, microstomia, prominent cheeks, and question mark ears (QMEs). QMEs consist of a defect between the lobe and the upper two-thirds of the pinna, ranging from a mild indentation in the helix to a complete cleft between the lobe and helix (summary by Gordon et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of auriculocondylar syndrome, see ARCND1 (602483).
Meier-Gorlin syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
905079
Concept ID:
C4225188
Disease or Syndrome
Any Meier-Gorlin syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the GMNN gene.
Mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia
MedGen UID:
898794
Concept ID:
C4225349
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mandibulofacial dysostosis with the association with scalp alopecia and sparse eyebrows and eyelashes. Craniofacial dysmorphic features include zygomatic and mandibular dysplasia or hypoplasia, cleft palate, micrognathia, dental anomalies, auricular dysmorphism and eyelid anomalies among others. Patients may experience limited jaw mobility, glossoptosis, upper airway obstruction and conductive hearing loss.
Diamond-Blackfan anemia 15 with mandibulofacial dysostosis
MedGen UID:
902755
Concept ID:
C4225411
Disease or Syndrome
Any Diamond-Blackfan anemia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RPS28 gene.
Branchiootorenal syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1632634
Concept ID:
C4551702
Disease or Syndrome
Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family.
Auriculocondylar syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639644
Concept ID:
C4551996
Disease or Syndrome
Other features of auriculo-condylar syndrome can include prominent cheeks, an unusually small mouth (microstomia), differences in the size and shape of facial structures between the right and left sides of the face (facial asymmetry), and an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). These features vary, even among affected members of the same family.\n\nAbnormalities of the mandible are another characteristic feature of auriculo-condylar syndrome. These abnormalities often include an unusually small chin (micrognathia) and malfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), which connects the lower jaw to the skull. Problems with the TMJ affect how the upper and lower jaws fit together and can make it difficult to open and close the mouth. The term "condylar" in the name of the condition refers to the mandibular condyle, which is the upper portion of the mandible that forms part of the TMJ.\n\nMost people with auriculo-condylar syndrome have malformed outer ears ("auriculo-" refers to the ears). A hallmark of this condition is an ear abnormality called a "question-mark ear," in which the ears have a distinctive question-mark shape caused by a split that separates the upper part of the ear from the earlobe. Other ear abnormalities that can occur in auriculo-condylar syndrome include cupped ears, ears with fewer folds and grooves than usual (described as "simple"), narrow ear canals, small skin tags in front of or behind the ears, and ears that are rotated backward. Some affected individuals also have hearing loss.\n\nAuriculo-condylar syndrome is a condition that affects facial development, particularly development of the ears and lower jaw (mandible).
X-linked external auditory canal atresia-dilated internal auditory canal-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648389
Concept ID:
C4746975
Disease or Syndrome
DFNX7 is a congenital form of bilateral mixed or conductive hearing loss, which may be progressive. It is not associated with vestibular symptoms (Xing et al., 2017).
Kilquist syndrome
MedGen UID:
1742639
Concept ID:
C5436756
Disease or Syndrome
Kilquist syndrome (KILQS) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by neurologic, gastrointestinal, and secretory dysfunction. Affected individuals present at birth with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, mild dysmorphic features, and sensorineural hearing loss. They show poor overall growth associated with gastrointestinal anomalies such as gastroesophageal reflux or midgut malrotation, as well as profound global developmental delay with inability to sit or speak. Tear, sweat, and saliva production is also impaired, causing dry mouth and recurrent bronchial mucus plugging. Some of the clinical features are reminiscent of cystic fibrosis (CF; 219700) (summary by Stodberg et al., 2020).
Ferguson-Bonni neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794275
Concept ID:
C5562065
Disease or Syndrome
Ferguson-Bonni neurodevelopmental syndrome (FERBON) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and hypotonia with early motor delay. Additional features may include dysmorphic facies, mild skeletal abnormalities, and hearing loss (summary by Ferguson et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Qiu W, Chen P, Lv M, Zhu J, Wang Y, Zhao S
Acta Otolaryngol 2023 Nov-Dec;143(11-12):940-945. Epub 2024 Jan 26 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2023.2299689. PMID: 38250795
Pappas DG, Flexer C, Shackelford L
Laryngoscope 1994 Sep;104(9):1065-70. doi: 10.1288/00005537-199409000-00003. PMID: 8072350
Clark DP, Hanke CW
J Dermatol Surg Oncol 1988 Nov;14(11):1223-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-4725.1988.tb03479.x. PMID: 3053825

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Evain F, Lovblad KO, Fracasso T
Int J Legal Med 2021 Nov;135(6):2653-2658. Epub 2021 Oct 2 doi: 10.1007/s00414-021-02682-0. PMID: 34599364Free PMC Article
Zhang K, Qu P, Wang B, Zhang E, Chen B
Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Dec;100(10):NP469-NP474. Epub 2020 May 22 doi: 10.1177/0145561320927922. PMID: 32438822
Chen CK, Chang KP, Chien CY, Hsieh LC
Biomed J 2021 Aug;44(4):489-494. Epub 2020 Apr 21 doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2020.04.003. PMID: 32330680Free PMC Article
Schwarz D, Luers JC, Huttenbrink KB, Stuermer KJ
Acta Otolaryngol 2018 Sep;138(9):790-794. Epub 2018 May 31 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2018.1476779. PMID: 29852809
Schwartz SR, Magit AE, Rosenfeld RM, Ballachanda BB, Hackell JM, Krouse HJ, Lawlor CM, Lin K, Parham K, Stutz DR, Walsh S, Woodson EA, Yanagisawa K, Cunningham ER Jr
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Jan;156(1_suppl):S1-S29. doi: 10.1177/0194599816671491. PMID: 28045591

Diagnosis

Mankekar G, Entezami P
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2023 Oct;56(5):919-931. Epub 2023 Aug 6 doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2023.06.012. PMID: 37553271
Morrison D, Kesser B
Otolaryngol Clin North Am 2023 Oct;56(5):933-948. Epub 2023 Aug 1 doi: 10.1016/j.otc.2023.06.007. PMID: 37537101
Zhang K, Qu P, Wang B, Zhang E, Chen B
Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Dec;100(10):NP469-NP474. Epub 2020 May 22 doi: 10.1177/0145561320927922. PMID: 32438822
Chen CK, Chang KP, Chien CY, Hsieh LC
Biomed J 2021 Aug;44(4):489-494. Epub 2020 Apr 21 doi: 10.1016/j.bj.2020.04.003. PMID: 32330680Free PMC Article
Schwartz SR, Magit AE, Rosenfeld RM, Ballachanda BB, Hackell JM, Krouse HJ, Lawlor CM, Lin K, Parham K, Stutz DR, Walsh S, Woodson EA, Yanagisawa K, Cunningham ER Jr
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Jan;156(1_suppl):S1-S29. doi: 10.1177/0194599816671491. PMID: 28045591

Therapy

Acke FRE, De Vriese C, Van Hoecke H, De Leenheer EMR
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2022 Jul;279(7):3371-3378. Epub 2021 Aug 31 doi: 10.1007/s00405-021-07060-5. PMID: 34463816
Schwartz SR, Magit AE, Rosenfeld RM, Ballachanda BB, Hackell JM, Krouse HJ, Lawlor CM, Lin K, Parham K, Stutz DR, Walsh S, Woodson EA, Yanagisawa K, Cunningham ER Jr
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2017 Jan;156(1_suppl):S1-S29. doi: 10.1177/0194599816671491. PMID: 28045591
Grinblat G, Prasad SC, Piras G, He J, Taibah A, Russo A, Sanna M
Otol Neurotol 2016 Dec;37(10):1565-1572. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000001239. PMID: 27755370
Bajin MD, Yılmaz T, Günaydın RÖ, Kuşçu O, Sözen T, Jafarov S
J Int Adv Otol 2015 Aug;11(2):147-50. doi: 10.5152/iao.2015.461. PMID: 26381006
Li CL, Dai PD, Yang L, Zhang TY
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Jun;79(6):793-797. Epub 2015 Apr 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.03.032. PMID: 25912684

Prognosis

Zhang H, Han Z, Li Y, Lin J, Zou Y
Acta Otolaryngol 2023 Nov;143(sup1):S45-S48. Epub 2024 Feb 13 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2023.2281504. PMID: 38113167
Karempelis P, Greenlund L, Gruhl R, Dorrity J, Wagner J, Roby B
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2022 Apr;155:111068. Epub 2022 Feb 15 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2022.111068. PMID: 35202898
Zhang K, Qu P, Wang B, Zhang E, Chen B
Ear Nose Throat J 2021 Dec;100(10):NP469-NP474. Epub 2020 May 22 doi: 10.1177/0145561320927922. PMID: 32438822
Schwarz D, Luers JC, Huttenbrink KB, Stuermer KJ
Acta Otolaryngol 2018 Sep;138(9):790-794. Epub 2018 May 31 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2018.1476779. PMID: 29852809
Keller RG, Ong AA, Nguyen SA, O'Connell BP, Lambert PR
Laryngoscope 2017 Feb;127(2):488-495. Epub 2016 Aug 31 doi: 10.1002/lary.26214. PMID: 27576514

Clinical prediction guides

Scaria SM, Tward AD
Otol Neurotol 2022 Sep 1;43(8):973-977. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000003625. PMID: 35970160Free PMC Article
Jiang Y, Jiang C, Huang X, Huang J, Shi B, Zhu X, Lin L, Huang L
J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2022 Feb;50(2):140-145. Epub 2021 Nov 16 doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2021.11.004. PMID: 34810109
Evain F, Lovblad KO, Fracasso T
Int J Legal Med 2021 Nov;135(6):2653-2658. Epub 2021 Oct 2 doi: 10.1007/s00414-021-02682-0. PMID: 34599364Free PMC Article
Schwarz D, Luers JC, Huttenbrink KB, Stuermer KJ
Acta Otolaryngol 2018 Sep;138(9):790-794. Epub 2018 May 31 doi: 10.1080/00016489.2018.1476779. PMID: 29852809
Mierzwiński J, Kosowska J, Tyra J, Haber K, Drela M, Paczkowski D, Burduk P
World J Surg Oncol 2018 Jan 15;16(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12957-017-1302-5. PMID: 29335001Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Swisher AR, Singh P, Debbaneh P, Rivero A
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2023 Oct;132(10):1249-1260. Epub 2023 Jan 12 doi: 10.1177/00034894221147804. PMID: 36635864
Chan CY, Karmali SA, Arulanandam B, Nguyen LHP, Duval M
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2023 Sep;169(3):449-453. Epub 2022 Apr 18 doi: 10.1177/01945998221094230. PMID: 35439089
Keller RG, Ong AA, Nguyen SA, O'Connell BP, Lambert PR
Laryngoscope 2017 Feb;127(2):488-495. Epub 2016 Aug 31 doi: 10.1002/lary.26214. PMID: 27576514
Nadaraja GS, Gurgel RK, Kim J, Chang KW
Otol Neurotol 2013 Oct;34(8):1394-9. doi: 10.1097/MAO.0b013e3182a36065. PMID: 24005171

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