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Mask-like facies

MedGen UID:
140860
Concept ID:
C0424448
Finding
Synonyms: Immobile facies; Masked facies; Masklike facies
SNOMED CT: Masklike facies (103606006); Masklike face (103606006); Masked facies (103606006)
 
HPO: HP:0000298

Definition

A lack of facial expression often with staring eyes and a slightly open mouth. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVMask-like facies

Conditions with this feature

Oromandibular-limb hypogenesis spectrum
MedGen UID:
66357
Concept ID:
C0221060
Disease or Syndrome
The most basic description of Moebius syndrome is a congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction. The facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) and abducens nerve (CN VI) are most frequently involved, but other cranial nerves may be involved as well. Other variable features include orofacial dysmorphism and limb malformations. Mental retardation has been reported in a subset of patients. Most cases of Moebius syndrome are sporadic, but familial occurrence has been reported (Verzijl et al., 2003). The definition of and diagnostic criteria for Moebius syndrome have been controversial and problematic. The syndrome has most frequently been confused with hereditary congenital facial paresis (HCFP; see 601471), which is restricted to involvement of the facial nerve and no other abnormalities. Verzijl et al. (2003) and Verzijl et al. (2005) concluded that HCFP and Moebius syndrome are distinct disorders, and that Moebius syndrome is a complex developmental disorder of the brainstem. Moebius syndrome was defined at the Moebius Syndrome Foundation Research Conference in 2007 as congenital, nonprogressive facial weakness with limited abduction of one or both eyes. Additional features can include hearing loss and other cranial nerve dysfunction, as well as motor, orofacial, musculoskeletal, neurodevelopmental, and social problems (summary by Webb et al., 2012). Kumar (1990) provided a review of Moebius syndrome, which was critiqued by Lipson et al. (1990). Briegel (2006) provided a review of Moebius sequence with special emphasis on neuropsychiatric findings.
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome
MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120).
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
75730
Concept ID:
C0270952
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is characterized by ptosis and dysphagia due to selective involvement of the muscles of the eyelids and pharynx, respectively. For the vast majority of individuals with typical OPMD, the mean age of onset of ptosis is usually 48 years and of dysphagia 50 years; in 5%-10% of individuals with severe OPMD, onset of ptosis and dysphagia occur before age 45 years and is associated with lower limb girdle weakness starting around age 60 years. Swallowing difficulties, which determine prognosis, increase the risk for potentially life-threatening aspiration pneumonia and poor nutrition. Other manifestations as the disease progresses can include limitation of upward gaze, tongue atrophy and weakness, chewing difficulties, wet voice, facial muscle weakness, axial muscle weakness, and proximal limb girdle weakness predominantly in lower limbs. Some individuals with severe involvement will eventually need a wheelchair. Neuropsychological tests have shown altered scores in executive functions in some.
Schizophrenia 10
MedGen UID:
107776
Concept ID:
C0543918
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
A schizophrenia that has material basis in an autosomal dominant mutation of SCZD10 on chromosome 15q15.
Blepharonasofacial malformation syndrome
MedGen UID:
163226
Concept ID:
C0796197
Disease or Syndrome
A rare otorhinolaryngological malformation syndrome with characteristics of a distinctive mask-like facial dysmorphism, lacrimal duct obstruction, extrapyramidal features, digital malformations and intellectual disability. Reported in 3 families to date. The facies has a mask-like appearance due to weakness of facial muscles and lacrimal duct obstruction is characteristic. Clinical features also include telecanthus, bulky nose, broad nasal bridge, sometimes a hypoplastic midface, longitudinal cheek furrows, trapezoidal upper lip and malformation of the ears. Intellectual disability, cutaneous syndactyly, torsion dystonia, increased deep tendon reflexes; Babinski sign, poor coordination and joint laxity are also observed.
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population.
8q22.1 microdeletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334165
Concept ID:
C1842464
Disease or Syndrome
Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) is a rare entity defined by distinctive facial features, including blepharophimosis, tight-appearing glistening facial skin, an abnormal hair pattern with an upswept frontal hairline, sparse arched eyebrows, flat and broad nose, long philtrum, distinctive ears, and a happy demeanor (summary by Jain et al., 2010).
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome
MedGen UID:
338281
Concept ID:
C1847640
Disease or Syndrome
Kufor-Rakeb syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson disease (PARK9) associated with supranuclear gaze palsy, spasticity, and dementia. Some patients have neuroradiologic evidence of iron deposition in the basal ganglia, indicating that the pathogenesis of PARK9 can be considered among the syndromes of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA; see 234200) (summary by Bruggemann et al., 2010). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease (PD), see 168600. Biallelic mutation in the ATP13A2 gene also causes autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-78 (SPG78; 617225), an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder with overlapping features. Patients with SPG78 have later onset and prominent spasticity, but rarely parkinsonism. Loss of ATP13A2 function results in a multidimensional spectrum of neurologic features reflecting various regions of the brain and nervous system, including cortical, pyramidal, extrapyramidal, brainstem, cerebellar, and peripheral (summary by Estrada-Cuzcano et al., 2017).
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
337894
Concept ID:
C1849718
Disease or Syndrome
Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-1 (BPS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by multiple popliteal pterygia, ankyloblepharon, filiform bands between the jaws, cleft lip and palate, and syndactyly. Early lethality is common, although survival into childhood and beyond has been reported (summary by Mitchell et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bartsocas-Papas Syndrome Bartsocas-Papas syndrome-2 (BPS2) is caused by mutation in the CHUK gene (600664). A less severe form of popliteal pterygium syndrome (PPS; 119500) is caused by mutation in the IRF6 gene (607199).
Perry syndrome
MedGen UID:
357007
Concept ID:
C1868594
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of DCTN1-related neurodegeneration includes Perry syndrome, distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type 7B (dHMN7B), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), motor neuron disease / amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and progressive supranuclear palsy. Some individuals present with overlapping phenotypes (e.g., FTD-ALS, Perry syndrome-dHMN7B). Perry syndrome (the most common of the phenotypes associated with DCTN1) is characterized by parkinsonism, neuropsychiatric symptoms, hypoventilation, and weight loss. The mean age of onset in those with Perry syndrome is 49 years (range: 35-70 years), and the mean disease duration is five years (range: 2-14 years). In most affected persons, the reported cause/circumstance of death relates to sudden death/hypoventilation or suicide.
Autosomal recessive DOPA responsive dystonia
MedGen UID:
382128
Concept ID:
C2673535
Disease or Syndrome
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) deficiency is associated with a broad phenotypic spectrum. Based on severity of symptoms/signs as well as responsiveness to levodopa therapy, clinical phenotypes caused by pathogenic variants in TH are divided into (1) TH-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (the mild form of TH deficiency), (2) TH-deficient infantile parkinsonism with motor delay (the severe form), and (3) TH-deficient progressive infantile encephalopathy (the very severe form). In individuals with TH-deficient dopa-responsive dystonia (DYT5b, DYT-TH), onset is between age 12 months and 12 years; initial symptoms are typically lower-limb dystonia and/or difficulty in walking. Diurnal fluctuation of symptoms (worsening of the symptoms toward the evening and their alleviation in the morning after sleep) may be present. In most individuals with TH-deficient infantile parkinsonism with motor delay, onset is between age three and 12 months. In contrast to TH-deficient DRD, motor milestones are overtly delayed in this severe form. Affected infants demonstrate truncal hypotonia and parkinsonian symptoms and signs (hypokinesia, rigidity of extremities, and/or tremor). In individuals with TH-deficient progressive infantile encephalopathy, onset is before age three to six months. Fetal distress is reported in most. Affected individuals have marked delay in motor development, truncal hypotonia, severe hypokinesia, limb hypertonia (rigidity and/or spasticity), hyperreflexia, oculogyric crises, ptosis, intellectual disability, and paroxysmal periods of lethargy (with increased sweating and drooling) alternating with irritability.
Parkinson disease, late-onset
MedGen UID:
463618
Concept ID:
C3160718
Disease or Syndrome
Often the first symptom of Parkinson's disease is trembling or shaking (tremor) of a limb, especially when the body is at rest. Typically, the tremor begins on one side of the body, usually in one hand. Tremors can also affect the arms, legs, feet, and face. Other characteristic symptoms of Parkinson's disease include rigidity or stiffness of the limbs and torso, slow movement (bradykinesia) or an inability to move (akinesia), and impaired balance and coordination (postural instability). These symptoms worsen slowly over time.\n\nParkinson's disease can also affect emotions and thinking ability (cognition). Some affected individuals develop psychiatric conditions such as depression and visual hallucinations. People with Parkinson's disease also have an increased risk of developing dementia, which is a decline in intellectual functions including judgment and memory.\n\nGenerally, Parkinson's disease that begins after age 50 is called late-onset disease. The condition is described as early-onset disease if signs and symptoms begin before age 50. Early-onset cases that begin before age 20 are sometimes referred to as juvenile-onset Parkinson's disease.\n\nParkinson's disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system. The disorder affects several regions of the brain, especially an area called the substantia nigra that controls balance and movement.
Actin accumulation myopathy
MedGen UID:
777997
Concept ID:
C3711389
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-2A (CMYP2A) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by infantile- or childhood-onset myopathy with delayed motor milestones and nonprogressive muscle weakness. Of the patients with congenital myopathy caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene, about 90% carry heterozygous mutations that are usually de novo and cause the severe infantile phenotype (CMYP2C; 620278). Some patients with de novo mutations have a more typical and milder disease course with delayed motor development and proximal muscle weakness, but are able to achieve independent ambulation. Less frequently, autosomal dominant transmission of the disorder within a family may occur when the ACTA1 mutation produces a phenotype compatible with adult life. Of note, intrafamilial variability has also been reported: a severely affected proband may be identified and then mildly affected or even asymptomatic relatives are found to carry the same mutation. The severity of the disease most likely depends on the detrimental effect of the mutation, although there are probably additional modifying factors (Ryan et al., 2001; Laing et al., 2009; Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001; Agrawal et al., 2004; Nowak et al., 2013; Sewry et al., 2019; Laitila and Wallgren-Pettersson, 2021). The most common histologic finding on muscle biopsy in patients with ACTA1 mutations is the presence of 'nemaline rods,' which represent abnormal thread- or rod-like structures ('nema' is Greek for 'thread'). However, skeletal muscle biopsy from patients with mutations in the ACTA1 gene can show a range of pathologic phenotypes. These include classic rods, intranuclear rods, clumped filaments, cores, or fiber-type disproportion, all of which are nonspecific pathologic findings and not pathognomonic of a specific congenital myopathy. Most patients have clinically severe disease, regardless of the histopathologic phenotype (Nowak et al., 2007; Sewry et al., 2019). ACTA1 mutations are the second most common cause of congenital myopathies classified histologically as 'nemaline myopathy' after mutations in the NEB gene (161650). ACTA1 mutations are overrepresented in the severe phenotype with early death (Laing et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A1
MedGen UID:
924974
Concept ID:
C4284790
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and early death. The phenotype commonly includes cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly, cerebellar malformations, and retinal malformations. More variable features include macrocephaly or microcephaly, hypoplasia of midline brain structures, ventricular dilatation, microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and congenital contractures (Dobyns et al., 1989). Those with a more severe phenotype characterized as Walker-Warburg syndrome often die within the first year of life, whereas those characterized as having muscle-eye-brain disease may rarely acquire the ability to walk and to speak a few words. These are part of a group of disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with Brain and Eye Anomalies (Type A) Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutation in other genes involved in DAG1 glycosylation: see MDDGA2 (613150), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGA3 (253280), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGA4 (253800), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGA5 (613153), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGA6 (613154), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGA7 (614643), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGA8 (614830) caused by mutation in the GTDC2 gene (POMGNT2; 614828); MDDGA9 (616538), caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGA10 (615041), caused by mutation in the TMEM5 gene (RXYLT1; 605862); MDDGA11 (615181), caused by mutation in the B3GALNT2 gene (610194); MDDGA12 (615249), caused by mutation in the SGK196 gene (POMK; 615247); MDDGA13 (615287), caused by mutation in the B3GNT1 gene (B4GAT1; 605517); and MDDGA14 (615350), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 44
MedGen UID:
934667
Concept ID:
C4310700
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-44 (DEE44) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory infantile spasms or myoclonus usually in the first weeks or months of life, up to about 12 months of age. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show developmental stagnation and severe neurologic impairment. EEG in some patients shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Additional features include poor feeding and poor overall growth with microcephaly, axial hypotonia with peripheral hypertonia or spasticity, abnormal movements, limited eye contact, and profoundly impaired intellectual development with absent language. Many patients require tube feeding, and some die in childhood (summary by Muona et al., 2016; Colin et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 2D
MedGen UID:
1376619
Concept ID:
C4479409
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type IID (ARCL2D) is characterized by generalized skin wrinkling with sparse subcutaneous fat and dysmorphic progeroid facial features. Most patients also exhibit severe hypotonia as well as cardiovascular and neurologic involvement (summary by Van Damme et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive cutis laxa, see ARCL1A (219100).
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
1647990
Concept ID:
C4551479
Disease or Syndrome
Schwartz-Jampel syndrome is a rare condition characterized by permanent muscle stiffness (myotonia) and bone abnormalities known as chondrodysplasia. The signs and symptoms of this condition become apparent sometime after birth, usually in early childhood. Either muscle stiffness or chondrodysplasia can appear first. The muscle and bone abnormalities worsen in childhood, although most affected individuals have a normal lifespan. The specific features of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome vary widely.\n\nMyotonia involves continuous tensing (contraction) of muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles) throughout the body. This sustained muscle contraction causes stiffness that interferes with eating, sitting, walking, and other movements. Sustained contraction of muscles in the face leads to a fixed, "mask-like" facial expression with narrow eye openings (blepharophimosis) and pursed lips. This facial appearance is very specific to Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Affected individuals may also be nearsighted and experience abnormal blinking or spasms of the eyelids (blepharospasm).\n\nChondrodysplasia affects the development of the skeleton, particularly the long bones in the arms and legs and the bones of the hips. These bones are shortened and unusually wide at the ends, so affected individuals have short stature. The long bones may also be abnormally curved (bowed). Other bone abnormalities associated with Schwartz-Jampel syndrome include a protruding chest (pectus carinatum), abnormal curvature of the spine, flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly), and joint abnormalities called contractures that further restrict movement.\n\nResearchers originally described two types of Schwartz-Jampel syndrome. Type 1 has the signs and symptoms described above, while type 2 has more severe bone abnormalities and other health problems and is usually life-threatening in early infancy. Researchers have since discovered that the condition they thought was Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 2 is actually part of another disorder, Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome, which is caused by mutations in a different gene. They have recommended that the designation Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 2 no longer be used.
Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification 1
MedGen UID:
1637664
Concept ID:
C4551624
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth
MedGen UID:
1648309
Concept ID:
C4748081
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy, developmental delay, and episodic neurologic regression syndrome
MedGen UID:
1719567
Concept ID:
C5394367
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy, developmental delay, and episodic neurologic regression syndrome (LEUDEN) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent in early childhood, followed by episodic neurologic regression or decompensation associated with systemic stress, such as febrile infection. Affected individuals have hypotonia, gait difficulties or ataxia, poor or absent speech with dysarthria, and variable motor abnormalities, including spasticity, dystonia, extrapyramidal signs, and tremor. Many patients have seizures. Brain imaging shows diffuse white matter abnormalities, poor myelination, thin corpus callosum, and generalized cerebral atrophy with enlarged ventricles. The clinical features of the disorder and the abnormal brain imaging findings are progressive (summary by Mao et al., 2020).
Braddock-carey syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1823961
Concept ID:
C5774188
Disease or Syndrome
Braddock-Carey syndrome (BRDCS) is characterized by Pierre-Robin sequence, persistent congenital thrombocytopenia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe developmental delay, microcephaly, high forehead, sparse curly hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, telecanthus, inverted U-shaped upper vermilion, enamel hypoplasia, large posteriorly rotated ears, clinodactyly, and camptodactyly (Braddock et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Braddock-Carey Syndrome BRDCS2 (619981) is caused by mutation in the KIF15 gene (617569) on chromosome 3p21.

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Ames WA, Shichor TM, Speakman M, Zuker RM, McCaul C
Can J Anaesth 2005 Oct;52(8):837-44. doi: 10.1007/BF03021779. PMID: 16189336

Diagnosis

Mv P, Maikap D, Padhan P
Lupus 2023 Jul;32(8):1001-1007. Epub 2023 Jun 2 doi: 10.1177/09612033231181636. PMID: 37265384
Dave J, Mahajan S, Khadilkar P, Pradhan V
J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Nov;70(11):11-12. doi: 10.5005/japi-11001-0136. PMID: 37355940
Lin AE
J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2015 Dec;73(12 Suppl):S13-6. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2015.04.014. PMID: 26608141
Nofal A, Assaf M, Ghonemy S, Nofal E, Yosef A
Int J Dermatol 2015 Feb;54(2):160-7. Epub 2014 Jul 29 doi: 10.1111/ijd.12308. PMID: 25070745
Hegde SS, Shetty MS, Rama Murthy BS
Indian J Pediatr 2010 Feb;77(2):196-7. Epub 2009 Dec 11 doi: 10.1007/s12098-009-0227-6. PMID: 20012803

Therapy

Panda PK, Sharawat IK, Bolia R, Shrivastava Y
Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Aug;103(2):851-854. Epub 2020 Apr 30 doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0039. PMID: 32372748Free PMC Article
Nofal A, Assaf M, Ghonemy S, Nofal E, Yosef A
Int J Dermatol 2015 Feb;54(2):160-7. Epub 2014 Jul 29 doi: 10.1111/ijd.12308. PMID: 25070745
Yoshikawa K, Matsumoto M, Hamanaka M, Nakagawa M
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003 Sep;74(9):1312-4. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.74.9.1312. PMID: 12933943Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Dave J, Mahajan S, Khadilkar P, Pradhan V
J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Nov;70(11):11-12. doi: 10.5005/japi-11001-0136. PMID: 37355940
Ames WA, Shichor TM, Speakman M, Zuker RM, McCaul C
Can J Anaesth 2005 Oct;52(8):837-44. doi: 10.1007/BF03021779. PMID: 16189336
Bouffard JP, Mena H, Ripple M, Troncoso J
Mov Disord 2003 Nov;18(11):1354-7. doi: 10.1002/mds.10546. PMID: 14639681

Clinical prediction guides

Dave J, Mahajan S, Khadilkar P, Pradhan V
J Assoc Physicians India 2022 Nov;70(11):11-12. doi: 10.5005/japi-11001-0136. PMID: 37355940
Ames WA, Shichor TM, Speakman M, Zuker RM, McCaul C
Can J Anaesth 2005 Oct;52(8):837-44. doi: 10.1007/BF03021779. PMID: 16189336

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