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Ophthalmoparesis

MedGen UID:
155551
Concept ID:
C0751401
Sign or Symptom
Synonym: Ophthalmopareses
 
HPO: HP:0000597

Definition

Ophthalmoplegia is a paralysis or weakness of one or more of the muscles that control eye movement. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Familial infantile myasthenia
MedGen UID:
140751
Concept ID:
C0393929
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. CMS6 is an autosomal recessive CMS resulting from a presynaptic defect; patients have onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood and tend to have sudden apneic episodes. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors may be beneficial (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Myasthenia, limb-girdle, autoimmune
MedGen UID:
331795
Concept ID:
C1834635
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4C
MedGen UID:
373251
Concept ID:
C1837091
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome associated with AChR deficiency is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) clinically characterized by early-onset muscle weakness with variable severity. Electrophysiologic studies show low amplitude of the miniature endplate potential (MEPP) and current (MEPC) resulting from deficiency of AChR at the endplate. Patients with mutations in the CHRNE gene may have compensatory increased expression of the fetal subunit CHRNG (100730) and may respond to treatment with cholinergic agents, pyridostigmine, or amifampridine (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Striatonigral degeneration, infantile, mitochondrial
MedGen UID:
374113
Concept ID:
C1839022
Disease or Syndrome
Sensory ataxic neuropathy, dysarthria, and ophthalmoparesis
MedGen UID:
375302
Concept ID:
C1843851
Disease or Syndrome
POLG-related disorders comprise a continuum of overlapping phenotypes that were clinically defined long before their molecular basis was known. Most affected individuals have some, but not all, of the features of a given phenotype; nonetheless, the following nomenclature can assist the clinician in diagnosis and management. Onset of the POLG-related disorders ranges from infancy to late adulthood. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome (AHS), one of the most severe phenotypes, is characterized by childhood-onset progressive and ultimately severe encephalopathy with intractable epilepsy and hepatic failure. Childhood myocerebrohepatopathy spectrum (MCHS) presents between the first few months of life and about age three years with developmental delay or dementia, lactic acidosis, and a myopathy with failure to thrive. Other findings can include liver failure, renal tubular acidosis, pancreatitis, cyclic vomiting, and hearing loss. Myoclonic epilepsy myopathy sensory ataxia (MEMSA) now describes the spectrum of disorders with epilepsy, myopathy, and ataxia without ophthalmoplegia. MEMSA now includes the disorders previously described as spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy (SCAE). The ataxia neuropathy spectrum (ANS) includes the phenotypes previously referred to as mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome (MIRAS) and sensory ataxia neuropathy dysarthria and ophthalmoplegia (SANDO). About 90% of persons in the ANS have ataxia and neuropathy as core features. Approximately two thirds develop seizures and almost one half develop ophthalmoplegia; clinical myopathy is rare. Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia (arPEO) is characterized by progressive weakness of the extraocular eye muscles resulting in ptosis and ophthalmoparesis (or paresis of the extraocular muscles) without associated systemic involvement; however, caution is advised because many individuals with apparently isolated arPEO at the onset develop other manifestations of POLG-related disorders over years or decades. Of note, in the ANS spectrum the neuropathy commonly precedes the onset of PEO by years to decades. Autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia (adPEO) typically includes a generalized myopathy and often variable degrees of sensorineural hearing loss, axonal neuropathy, ataxia, depression, parkinsonism, hypogonadism, and cataracts (in what has been called "chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia plus," or "CPEO+").
Progressive supranuclear palsy-parkinsonism syndrome
MedGen UID:
342410
Concept ID:
C1850077
Disease or Syndrome
An atypical variant of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a rare late-onset neurodegenerative disease, by prominent early parkinsonism (tremor, limb bradykinesia, axial and limb rigidity) rather than falls and cognitive change. Over the years, patients ultimately develop clinical features characteristic of classical PSP. Neuropathological characteristics includes tau pathology and neuronal loss in specific brain areas, especially in the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra. The tau pathology is less severe than in classical PSP.
Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis 1
MedGen UID:
376708
Concept ID:
C1850127
Disease or Syndrome
Osteopetrosis (OPT) is a life-threatening disease caused by subnormal osteoclast function, with an incidence of 1 in 250,000 births. The disease usually manifests in the first few months of life with macrocephaly and frontal bossing, resulting in a characteristic facial appearance. Defective bone remodeling of the skull results in choanal stenosis with concomitant respiratory problems and feeding difficulties, which are the first clinical manifestation of disease. The expanding bone encroaches on neural foramina, leading to blindness, deafness, and facial palsy. Complete visual loss invariably occurs in all untreated patients, and hearing loss is estimated to affect 78% of patients with OPT. Tooth eruption defects and severe dental caries are common. Calcium feedback hemostasis is impaired, and children with OPT are at risk of developing hypocalcemia with attendant tetanic seizures and secondary hyperparathyroidism. The most severe complication of OPT, limiting survival, is bone marrow insufficiency. The abnormal expansion of cortical and trabecular bone physically limits the availability of medullary space for hematopoietic activity, leading to life-threatening cytopenia and secondary expansion of extramedullary hematopoiesis at sites such as the liver and spleen (summary by Aker et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Osteopetrosis Other forms of autosomal recessive infantile malignant osteopetrosis include OPTB4 (611490), which is caused by mutation in the CLCN7 gene (602727) on chromosome 16p13, and OPTB5 (259720), which is caused by mutation in the OSTM1 gene (607649) on chromosome 6q21. A milder, osteoclast-poor form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB2; 259710) is caused by mutation in the TNFSF11 gene (602642) on chromosome 13q14, an intermediate form (OPTB6; 611497) is caused by mutation in the PLEKHM1 gene (611466) on chromosome 17q21, and a severe osteoclast-poor form associated with hypogammaglobulinemia (OPTB7; 612301) is caused by mutation in the TNFRSF11A gene (603499) on chromosome 18q22. Another form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis (OPTB8; 615085) is caused by mutation in the SNX10 gene (614780) on chromosome 7p15. A form of autosomal recessive osteopetrosis associated with renal tubular acidosis (OPTB3; 259730) is caused by mutation in the CA2 gene (611492) on chromosome 8q21. OPTB9 (620366) is caused by mutation in the SLC4A2 gene (109280) on chromosome 7q36. Autosomal dominant forms of osteopetrosis are more benign (see OPTA1, 607634).
Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis due to ISCU deficiency
MedGen UID:
342573
Concept ID:
C1850718
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive muscular disorder characterized by childhood onset of exercise intolerance with muscle tenderness, cramping, dyspnea, and palpitations. Biochemical features include lactic acidosis and, rarely, rhabdomyolysis. It is a chronic disorder with remission and exacerbation of the muscle phenotype (summary by Sanaker et al., 2010).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
376880
Concept ID:
C1850792
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. CMS10 is an autosomal recessive CMS resulting from a postsynaptic defect affecting endplate maintenance of the NMJ. Patients present with limb-girdle weakness in the first decade. Treatment with ephedrine or salbutamol may be beneficial; cholinesterase inhibitors should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28
MedGen UID:
339941
Concept ID:
C1853249
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28) is characterized by young-adult onset, very slowly progressive gait and limb ataxia resulting in coordination and balance problems, dysarthria, ptosis, nystagmus, and ophthalmoparesis. In most individuals, SCA28 presents as a loss of coordination of lower limbs (unsteadiness, gait ataxia). Less frequently, ptosis/ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria, or upper-limb incoordination may occur as the initial finding. The course of the disease is slowly progressive without impairment of functional autonomy even decades after onset.
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
400481
Concept ID:
C1864233
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction. Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. Endplate acetylcholinesterase deficiency is an autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndrome characterized by a defect within the synapse at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Mutations in COLQ result in a deficiency of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes prolonged synaptic currents and action potentials due to extended residence of acetylcholine in the synaptic space. Treatment with ephedrine may be beneficial; AChE inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 1A
MedGen UID:
419336
Concept ID:
C2931107
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic, as well as by pathologic mechanism and electrophysiologic studies (i.e., acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency, slow-channel or fast-channel kinetic defects at the AChR) (summary by Engel et al., 2003; Engel et al., 2015). Approximately 10% of CMS cases are presynaptic, 15% are synaptic, and 75% are postsynaptic, the majority of which are caused by AChR deficiency (Engel et al., 2003). Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic NMJ characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the AChR channel, specifically prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Recessive mutations in subunits of the acetylcholine receptor are the most common cause of CMS (Harper, 2004). CMS1A and CMS1B (608930) are caused by mutation in the CHRNA1 gene (100690); CMS2A (616313) and CMS2C (616314) are caused by mutation in the CHRNB1 gene (100710) on 17p12; CMS3A (616321), CMS3B (616322), and CMS3C (616323) are caused by mutation in the CHRND gene (100720) on 2q33; and CMS4A (605809), CMS4B (616324), and CMS4C (608931) are caused by mutation in the CHRNE gene (100725) on 17p13. CMS5 (603034) is caused by mutation in the COLQ gene (603033) on 3p25; CMS6 (254210) is caused by mutation in the CHAT gene (118490) on 10q; CMS7 (616040) is caused by mutation in the SYT2 gene (600104) on 1q32; CMS8 (615120) is caused by mutation in the AGRN gene (103320) on 1p; CMS9 (616325) is caused by mutation in the MUSK gene (601296) on 9q31; CMS10 (254300) is caused by mutation in the DOK7 gene (610285) on 4p; CMS11 (616326) is caused by mutation in the RAPSN gene (601592) on 11p11; CMS12 (610542) is caused by mutation in the GFPT1 gene (138292) on 2p14; CMS13 (614750) is caused by mutation in the DPAGT1 gene (191350) on 11q23; CMS14 (616228) is caused by mutation in the ALG2 gene (607905) on 9q22; CMS15 (616227) is caused by mutation in the ALG14 gene (612866) on 1p21; CMS16 (614198) is caused by mutation in the SCN4A gene (603967) on 17q; CMS17 (616304) is caused by mutation in the LRP4 gene (604270) on 11p12; CMS18 (616330) is caused by mutation in the SNAP25 gene (600322) on 20p11; CMS19 (616720) is caused by mutation in the COL13A1 gene (120350) on 10q22; CMS20 (617143) is caused by mutation in the SLC5A7 gene (608761) on 2q12; CMS21 (617239) is caused by mutation in the SLC18A3 gene (600336) on 10q11; CMS22 (616224) is caused by mutation in the PREPL gene (609557) on 2p21; CMS23 (618197) is caused by mutation in the SLC25A1 gene (190315) on 22q11; CMS24 (618198) is caused by mutation in the MYO9A gene (604875) on 15q22; and CMS25 (618323) is caused by mutation in the VAMP1 gene (185880) on 12p13.
Proximal tubulopathy-diabetes mellitus-cerebellar ataxia syndrome
MedGen UID:
463309
Concept ID:
C3151959
Disease or Syndrome
Proximal tubulopathy-diabetes mellitus-cerebellar ataxia syndrome is characterized by onset of proximal tubulopathy in the first year of life, followed by progressive development during childhood of skin anomalies (erythrocyanosis and abnormal pigmentation), blindness, osteoporosis, cerebellar ataxia, mitochondrial myopathy, deafness and diabetes mellitus.
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
765249
Concept ID:
C3552335
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-12 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of proximal muscle weakness in the first decade. EMG classically shows a decremental response to repeated nerve stimulation. Affected individuals show a favorable response to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (summary by Senderek et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Mitochondrial DNA deletion syndrome with progressive myopathy
MedGen UID:
767513
Concept ID:
C3554599
Disease or Syndrome
PEOA6 is characterized by muscle weakness, mainly affecting the lower limbs, external ophthalmoplegia, exercise intolerance, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions on muscle biopsy. Symptoms may appear in childhood or adulthood and show slow progression (summary by Ronchi et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640).
Nemaline myopathy 8
MedGen UID:
815539
Concept ID:
C3809209
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-8 is a severe autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by fetal akinesia or hypokinesia, followed by contractures, fractures, respiratory failure, and swallowing difficulties apparent at birth. Most patients die in infancy. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows numerous small nemaline bodies, often with no normal myofibrils (summary by Ravenscroft et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM3 (161800).
Early-onset progressive neurodegeneration-blindness-ataxia-spasticity syndrome
MedGen UID:
815995
Concept ID:
C3809665
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-79B (SPG79B) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and optic atrophy in the first decade of life. Additional features are variable, but may include peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive impairment (summary by Rydning et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
901897
Concept ID:
C4225312
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions-2 (PEOB2) is a mitochondrial disorder characterized by adult onset of progressive external ophthalmoplegia, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, and signs and symptoms of spinocerebellar ataxia, such as impaired gait and dysarthria. Some patients may have respiratory insufficiency. Laboratory studies are consistent with a defect in mtDNA replication (summary by Reyes et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive PEO, see PEOB1 (258450).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 1B, fast-channel
MedGen UID:
909200
Concept ID:
C4225405
Disease or Syndrome
Fast-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (FCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) channel, specifically from abnormally brief opening and activity of the channel, with a rapid decay in endplate current and a failure to reach the threshold for depolarization. Treatment with pyridostigmine or amifampridine may be helpful; quinine, quinidine, and fluoxetine should be avoided (summary by Sine et al., 2003 and Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 4A
MedGen UID:
908188
Concept ID:
C4225413
Disease or Syndrome
Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934661
Concept ID:
C4310694
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-20 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe hypotonia associated with episodic apnea soon after birth. Patients have muscle weakness resulting in delayed walking, ptosis, poor sucking and swallowing, and generalized limb fatigability and weakness. EMG studies usually show a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation, and some patients may show a good response to AChE inhibitors (summary by Bauche et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1631838
Concept ID:
C4551995
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy (MNGIE) disease is characterized by progressive gastrointestinal dysmotility (manifesting as early satiety, nausea, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, postprandial emesis, episodic abdominal pain and/or distention, and diarrhea); cachexia; ptosis/ophthalmoplegia or ophthalmoparesis; leukoencephalopathy; and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (manifesting as paresthesias (tingling, numbness, and pain) and symmetric and distal weakness more prominently affecting the lower extremities). The order in which manifestations appear is unpredictable. Onset is usually between the first and fifth decades; in about 60% of individuals, symptoms begin before age 20 years.
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy 1
MedGen UID:
1684682
Concept ID:
C5231388
Disease or Syndrome
Oculopharyngodistal myopathy-1 (OPDM1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by adult-onset ptosis, external ophthalmoplegia, facial muscle weakness, distal limb muscle weakness and atrophy, and pharyngeal involvement, resulting in dysphagia and dysarthria. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows myopathic changes with rimmed vacuoles. There are variable manifestations of the disorder regarding muscle involvement and severity (summary by Ishiura et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Oculopharyngodistal Myopathy See also OPDM2 (618940), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the GIPC1 gene (605072) on chromosome 19p13; OPDM3 (619473), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the NOTCH2NLC gene (618025) on chromosome 1q21; and OPDM4 (619790), caused by trinucleotide repeat expansion in the RILPL1 gene (614092) on chromosome 12q24. Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD; 164300) is a similar disorder with overlapping features. It is caused by a similar heterozygous trinucleotide repeat expansion in the PABPN1 gene (602279) (summary by Durmus et al., 2011).
Myopathy, congenital, with structured cores and z-line abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1684705
Concept ID:
C5231445
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-8 (CMYP8) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by hypotonia and delayed motor development apparent from infancy or childhood, resulting in difficulties walking or loss of ambulation within the first few decades. Affected individuals show respiratory insufficiency, high-arched palate, and scoliosis; external ophthalmoplegia may also be present. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows cores and myofibrillar disorganization (Lornage et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Cytochrome-c oxidase deficiency disease
MedGen UID:
1750917
Concept ID:
C5435656
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 1 (MC4DN1) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurodegeneration and encephalopathy with loss of motor and cognitive skills between about 5 and 18 months of age after normal early development. Affected individuals show hypotonia, failure to thrive, loss of the ability to sit or walk, poor communication, and poor eye contact. Other features may include oculomotor abnormalities, including slow saccades, strabismus, ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus, as well as deafness, apneic episodes, ataxia, tremor, and brisk tendon reflexes. Brain imaging shows bilateral symmetric lesions in the basal ganglia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). Some patients may also have abnormalities in the brainstem and cerebellum. Laboratory studies usually show increased serum and CSF lactate and decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV in patient tissues. There is phenotypic variability, but death in childhood, often due to central respiratory failure, is common (summary by Tiranti et al., 1998; Tiranti et al., 1999; Teraoka et al., 1999; Poyau et al., 2000) Genetic Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial Complex IV Deficiency Most isolated COX deficiencies are inherited as autosomal recessive disorders caused by mutations in nuclear-encoded genes; mutations in the mtDNA-encoded COX subunit genes are relatively rare (Shoubridge, 2001; Sacconi et al., 2003). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency caused by mutation in nuclear-encoded genes, in addition to MC4DN1, include MC4DN2 (604377), caused by mutation in the SCO2 gene (604272); MC4DN3 (619046), caused by mutation in the COX10 gene (602125); MC4DN4 (619048), caused by mutation in the SCO1 gene (603664); MC4DN5 (220111), caused by mutation in the LRPPRC gene (607544); MC4DN6 (615119), caused by mutation in the COX15 gene (603646); MC4DN7 (619051), caused by mutation in the COX6B1 gene (124089); MC4DN8 (619052), caused by mutation in the TACO1 gene (612958); MC4DN9 (616500), caused by mutation in the COA5 gene (613920); MC4DN10 (619053), caused by mutation in the COX14 gene (614478); MC4DN11 (619054), caused by mutation in the COX20 gene (614698); MC4DN12 (619055), caused by mutation in the PET100 gene (614770); MC4DN13 (616501), caused by mutation in the COA6 gene (614772); MC4DN14 (619058), caused by mutation in the COA3 gene (614775); MC4DN15 (619059), caused by mutation in the COX8A gene (123870); MC4DN16 (619060), caused by mutation in the COX4I1 gene (123864); MC4DN17 (619061), caused by mutation in the APOPT1 gene (616003); MC4DN18 (619062), caused by mutation in the COX6A2 gene (602009); MC4DN19 (619063), caused by mutation in the PET117 gene (614771); MC4DN20 (619064), caused by mutation in the COX5A gene (603773); MC4DN21 (619065), caused by mutation in the COXFA4 gene (603883); MC4DN22 (619355), caused by mutation in the COX16 gene (618064); and MC4DN23 (620275), caused by mutation in the COX11 gene (603648). Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency has been associated with mutations in several mitochondrial genes, including MTCO1 (516030), MTCO2 (516040), MTCO3 (516050), MTTS1 (590080), MTTL1 (590050), and MTTN (590010).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Keene KR, Kan HE, van der Meeren S, Verbist BM, Tannemaat MR, Beenakker JM, Verschuuren JJGM
J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 2022 Dec;13(6):2820-2834. Epub 2022 Sep 29 doi: 10.1002/jcsm.13089. PMID: 36172973Free PMC Article
Kierdaszuk B, Kaliszewska M, Rusecka J, Kosińska J, Bartnik E, Tońska K, Kamińska AM, Kostera-Pruszczyk A
Genes (Basel) 2020 Dec 31;12(1) doi: 10.3390/genes12010054. PMID: 33396418Free PMC Article
Suanprasert N, Hanchaiphiboolkul S
J Med Assoc Thai 2017 Mar;100(3):262-9. PMID: 29911781

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Klopstock T, Priglinger C, Yilmaz A, Kornblum C, Distelmaier F, Prokisch H
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2021 Nov 5;118(44):741-748. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2021.0251. PMID: 34158150Free PMC Article
Torricelli RPJE
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Apr;75(4):248-254. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20170026. PMID: 28489146
Wakerley BR, Uncini A, Yuki N; GBS Classification Group; GBS Classification Group
Nat Rev Neurol 2014 Sep;10(9):537-44. Epub 2014 Jul 29 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.138. PMID: 25072194
Jankovic J
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008 Apr;79(4):368-76. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2007.131045. PMID: 18344392
LaRoche GR
Curr Opin Ophthalmol 1999 Oct;10(5):310-3. doi: 10.1097/00055735-199910000-00005. PMID: 10621543

Diagnosis

Klopstock T, Priglinger C, Yilmaz A, Kornblum C, Distelmaier F, Prokisch H
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2021 Nov 5;118(44):741-748. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.m2021.0251. PMID: 34158150Free PMC Article
Wakerley BR, Uncini A, Yuki N; GBS Classification Group; GBS Classification Group
Nat Rev Neurol 2014 Sep;10(9):537-44. Epub 2014 Jul 29 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2014.138. PMID: 25072194
Shahrizaila N, Yuki N
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2013 May;84(5):576-83. Epub 2012 Sep 15 doi: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-302824. PMID: 22984203
Teener JW
Semin Neurol 2012 Nov;32(5):512-6. Epub 2013 May 15 doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334470. PMID: 23677659
Jankovic J
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008 Apr;79(4):368-76. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2007.131045. PMID: 18344392

Therapy

McKean N, Chircop C
BMJ Case Rep 2021 Nov 18;14(11) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2021-244273. PMID: 34794976Free PMC Article
Akan O, Baysal-Kirac L
Acta Neurol Belg 2021 Oct;121(5):1131-1140. Epub 2021 Jan 4 doi: 10.1007/s13760-020-01556-3. PMID: 33439450
Europa TA, Nel M, Heckmann JM
Muscle Nerve 2018 Oct;58(4):542-549. Epub 2018 Aug 1 doi: 10.1002/mus.26172. PMID: 29790193
Rychen J, Croci D, Roethlisberger M, Nossek E, Potts M, Radovanovic I, Riina H, Mariani L, Guzman R, Zumofen DW
World Neurosurg 2018 May;113:163-179. Epub 2018 Feb 13 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.02.016. PMID: 29452317
Liewluck T, Kao JC, Mauermann ML
J Immunother 2018 May;41(4):208-211. doi: 10.1097/CJI.0000000000000196. PMID: 29200081

Prognosis

McKean N, Chircop C
BMJ Case Rep 2021 Nov 18;14(11) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2021-244273. PMID: 34794976Free PMC Article
Quarracino C, López R, Landi PJ, Santoro P, Salutto V
Neurol India 2020 Sep-Oct;68(5):985-988. doi: 10.4103/0028-3886.294547. PMID: 33109838
Torricelli RPJE
Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2017 Apr;75(4):248-254. doi: 10.1590/0004-282X20170026. PMID: 28489146
Fallah A, Wang AC, Weil AG, Ibrahim GM, Mansouri A, Bhatia S
Neurosurgery 2016 Feb;78(2):285-96. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000001024. PMID: 26397447
Teener JW
Semin Neurol 2012 Nov;32(5):512-6. Epub 2013 May 15 doi: 10.1055/s-0033-1334470. PMID: 23677659

Clinical prediction guides

Keene KR, Kan HE, van der Meeren S, Verbist BM, Tannemaat MR, Beenakker JM, Verschuuren JJGM
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J Mol Neurosci 2021 Dec;71(12):2462-2467. Epub 2021 Apr 1 doi: 10.1007/s12031-021-01831-9. PMID: 33791913
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Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2017 May;17(5):40. doi: 10.1007/s11910-017-0747-9. PMID: 28365885
Fallah A, Wang AC, Weil AG, Ibrahim GM, Mansouri A, Bhatia S
Neurosurgery 2016 Feb;78(2):285-96. doi: 10.1227/NEU.0000000000001024. PMID: 26397447

Recent systematic reviews

Manini A, Querzola G, Lovati C, Pantoni L
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Rychen J, Croci D, Roethlisberger M, Nossek E, Potts M, Radovanovic I, Riina H, Mariani L, Guzman R, Zumofen DW
World Neurosurg 2018 May;113:163-179. Epub 2018 Feb 13 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.02.016. PMID: 29452317

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