U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Aortic valve stenosis

MedGen UID:
1621
Concept ID:
C0003507
Pathologic Function
Synonym: Aortic stenosis
SNOMED CT: Aortic valve stenosis (60573004); Stenosed aortic valve (60573004)
 
HPO: HP:0001650
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0042981
OMIM®: 614823

Definition

The presence of a stenosis (narrowing) of the aortic valve. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-I-S
MedGen UID:
6453
Concept ID:
C0026708
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-B
MedGen UID:
43376
Concept ID:
C0086652
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia
MedGen UID:
82682
Concept ID:
C0264511
Disease or Syndrome
Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is a benign lymphoproliferative disorder of the lung that is characterized by the presence of a dense, predominantly lymphocytic interstitial infiltrate (lymphocytes, plasma cells, other elements of the lymphoreticular system) that expands the alveolar septa.
Pallister-Killian syndrome
MedGen UID:
120540
Concept ID:
C0265449
Disease or Syndrome
Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a dysmorphic condition involving most organ systems, but is also characterized by a tissue-limited mosaicism; most fibroblasts have 47 chromosomes with an extra small metacentric chromosome, whereas the karyotype of lymphocytes is normal. The extra metacentric chromosome is an isochromosome for part of the short arm of chromosome 12: i(12)(p10) (Peltomaki et al., 1987; Warburton et al., 1987).
Deletion of long arm of chromosome 18
MedGen UID:
96605
Concept ID:
C0432443
Disease or Syndrome
Monosomy 18q is a partial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 18 characterized by highly variable phenotype, most commonly including hypotonia, developmental delay, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, hearing loss and external ear anomalies, intellectual disability, palatal defects, dysmorphic facial features, skeletal anomalies (foot deformities, tapering fingers, scoliosis) and mood disorders.
Myhre syndrome
MedGen UID:
167103
Concept ID:
C0796081
Disease or Syndrome
Myhre syndrome is a connective tissue disorder with multisystem involvement, progressive and proliferative fibrosis that may occur spontaneously or following trauma or surgery, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and in some instances, autistic-like behaviors. Organ systems primarily involved include: cardiovascular (congenital heart defects, long- and short-segment stenosis of the aorta and peripheral arteries, pericardial effusion, constrictive pericarditis, restrictive cardiomyopathy, and hypertension); respiratory (choanal stenosis, laryngotracheal narrowing, obstructive airway disease, or restrictive pulmonary disease), gastrointestinal (pyloric stenosis, duodenal strictures, severe constipation); and skin (thickened particularly on the hands and extensor surfaces). Additional findings include distinctive craniofacial features and skeletal involvement (intrauterine growth restriction, short stature, limited joint range of motion). To date, 55 individuals with molecularly confirmed Myhre syndrome have been reported.
Progeroid short stature with pigmented nevi
MedGen UID:
224702
Concept ID:
C1261128
Disease or Syndrome
Mulvihill-Smith syndrome is characterized by premature aging, multiple pigmented nevi, lack of facial subcutaneous fat, microcephaly, short stature, sensorineural hearing loss, and mental retardation. Immunodeficiency may also be a feature. Adult manifestations include the development of tumors, a sleep disorder with severe insomnia, and cognitive decline (summary by Yagihashi et al., 2009).
von Willebrand disease type 1
MedGen UID:
220393
Concept ID:
C1264039
Disease or Syndrome
Von Willebrand disease (VWD), a congenital bleeding disorder caused by deficient or defective plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF), may only become apparent on hemostatic challenge, and bleeding history may become more apparent with increasing age. Recent guidelines on VWD have recommended taking a VWF level of 30 or 40 IU/dL as a cutoff for those diagnosed with the disorder. Individuals with VWF levels greater than 30 IU/dL and lower than 50 IU/dL can be described as having a risk factor for bleeding. This change in guidelines significantly alters the proportion of individuals with each disease type. Type 1 VWD (~30% of VWD) typically manifests as mild mucocutaneous bleeding. Type 2 VWD accounts for approximately 60% of VWD. Type 2 subtypes include: Type 2A, which usually manifests as mild-to-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding; Type 2B, which typically manifests as mild-to-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding that can include thrombocytopenia that worsens in certain circumstances; Type 2M, which typically manifests as mild-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding; Type 2N, which can manifest as excessive bleeding with surgery and mimics mild hemophilia A. Type 3 VWD (<10% of VWD) manifests with severe mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal bleeding.
Emanuel syndrome
MedGen UID:
323030
Concept ID:
C1836929
Disease or Syndrome
Emanuel syndrome is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, hypotonia, severe developmental delays, ear anomalies, preauricular tags or pits, cleft or high-arched palate, congenital heart defects, kidney abnormalities, and genital abnormalities in males.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations
MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome
MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
Oculofaciocardiodental (OFCD) syndrome is a condition that affects the development of the eyes (oculo-), facial features (facio-), heart (cardio-) and teeth (dental). This condition occurs only in females.\n\nThe eye abnormalities associated with OFCD syndrome can affect one or both eyes. Many people with this condition are born with eyeballs that are abnormally small (microphthalmia). Other eye problems can include clouding of the lens (cataract) and a higher risk of glaucoma, an eye disease that increases the pressure in the eye. These abnormalities can lead to vision loss or blindness.\n\nPeople with OFCD syndrome often have a long, narrow face with distinctive facial features, including deep-set eyes and a broad nasal tip that is divided by a cleft. Some affected people have an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate.\n\nHeart defects are another common feature of OFCD syndrome. Babies with this condition may be born with a hole between two chambers of the heart (an atrial or ventricular septal defect) or a leak in one of the valves that controls blood flow through the heart (mitral valve prolapse).\n\nTeeth with very large roots (radiculomegaly) are characteristic of OFCD syndrome. Additional dental abnormalities can include delayed loss of primary (baby) teeth, missing or abnormally small teeth, misaligned teeth, and defective tooth enamel.
Teebi-Shaltout syndrome
MedGen UID:
376472
Concept ID:
C1848912
Disease or Syndrome
Teebi-Shaltout syndrome is characterized by slow hair growth, scaphocephaly with prominent forehead, bitemporal depression, absence of primary teeth, camptodactyly, and caudal appendage with sacral dimple (summary by Aldemir et al., 2013).
GNPTG-mucolipidosis
MedGen UID:
340743
Concept ID:
C1854896
Disease or Syndrome
Mucolipidosis III gamma (ML III?) is a slowly progressive inborn error of metabolism mainly affecting skeletal, joint, and connective tissues. Clinical onset is in early childhood; the progressive course results in severe functional impairment and significant morbidity from chronic pain. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease from thoracic involvement, and thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves) are rarely clinically significant. A few (probably <10%) affected individuals display mild cognitive impairment.
Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
340943
Concept ID:
C1855722
Disease or Syndrome
Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common.
Dandy-Walker malformation-postaxial polydactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
341751
Concept ID:
C1857351
Disease or Syndrome
A syndromic disorder with the association between Dandy-Walker malformation and postaxial polydactyly as a major feature. The Dandy-Walker malformation has a variable expression and characteristics of a posterior fossa cyst communicating with the fourth ventricle, the partial or complete absence of the cerebellar vermis, and facultative hydrocephalus. Postaxial polydactyly includes tetramelic postaxial polydactyly of hands and feet with possible enlargement of the fifth metacarpal and metatarsal bones, as well as bifid fifth metacarpals.
Arterial tortuosity syndrome
MedGen UID:
347942
Concept ID:
C1859726
Disease or Syndrome
Arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS) is characterized by widespread elongation and tortuosity of the aorta and mid-sized arteries as well as focal stenosis of segments of the pulmonary arteries and/or aorta combined with findings of a generalized connective tissue disorder, which may include soft or doughy hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, inguinal hernia, and diaphragmatic hernia. Skeletal findings include pectus excavatum or carinatum, arachnodactyly, scoliosis, knee/elbow contractures, and camptodactyly. The cardiovascular system is the major source of morbidity and mortality with increased risk at any age for aneurysm formation and dissection both at the aortic root and throughout the arterial tree, and for ischemic vascular events involving cerebrovascular circulation (resulting in non-hemorrhagic stroke) and the abdominal arteries (resulting in infarctions of abdominal organs).
Calcific aortic disease with immunologic abnormalities, familial
MedGen UID:
354631
Concept ID:
C1861974
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial septal defect 1
MedGen UID:
349495
Concept ID:
C1862389
Congenital Abnormality
Secundum atrial septal defect (ASD) is a common congenital heart malformation that occurs as an isolated anomaly in 10% of individuals with congenital heart disease. Uncorrected ASD can cause pulmonary overcirculation, right heart volume overload, and premature death (summary by Benson et al., 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Atrial Septal Defect The ASD1 locus has been mapped to chromosome 5p. Other forms of atrial septal defect that are associated with other congenital heart disease but no conduction defects or noncardiac abnormalities include ASD2 (607941), caused by mutation in the GATA4 gene (600576), and ASD4 (611363), caused by mutation in the TBX20 gene (606061). ASD3 (614089) and ASD5 (612794), in which atrial septal defect is not associated with other cardiac abnormalities, are caused by mutation in the MYH6 (160710) and ACTC1 (102540) genes, respectively. ASD6 (613087), in which atrial septal defect may be associated with aneurysm of the interatrial septum and cardiac arrhythmias, is caused by mutation in the TLL1 gene (606742). ASD7 (108900), in which ASD is often associated with atrioventricular conduction defects, is caused by mutation in the NKX2-5 gene (600584). ASD8 (614433), in which ASD may be associated with other cardiac anomalies, is caused by mutation in the CITED2 gene (602937). ASD9 (614475) is caused by mutation in the GATA6 gene (601656). Somatic mutations in the HAND1 gene (602406) have been identified in tissue samples from patients with ASDs.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 2, dominant
MedGen UID:
358388
Concept ID:
C1869115
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Gaucher disease type I
MedGen UID:
409531
Concept ID:
C1961835
Disease or Syndrome
Gaucher disease (GD) encompasses a continuum of clinical findings from a perinatal lethal disorder to an asymptomatic type. The identification of three major clinical types (1, 2, and 3) and two other subtypes (perinatal-lethal and cardiovascular) is useful in determining prognosis and management. GD type 1 is characterized by the presence of clinical or radiographic evidence of bone disease (osteopenia, focal lytic or sclerotic lesions, and osteonecrosis), hepatosplenomegaly, anemia and thrombocytopenia, lung disease, and the absence of primary central nervous system disease. GD types 2 and 3 are characterized by the presence of primary neurologic disease; in the past, they were distinguished by age of onset and rate of disease progression, but these distinctions are not absolute. Disease with onset before age two years, limited psychomotor development, and a rapidly progressive course with death by age two to four years is classified as GD type 2. Individuals with GD type 3 may have onset before age two years, but often have a more slowly progressive course, with survival into the third or fourth decade. The perinatal-lethal form is associated with ichthyosiform or collodion skin abnormalities or with nonimmune hydrops fetalis. The cardiovascular form is characterized by calcification of the aortic and mitral valves, mild splenomegaly, corneal opacities, and supranuclear ophthalmoplegia. Cardiopulmonary complications have been described with all the clinical subtypes, although varying in frequency and severity.
NPHP3-related Meckel-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
382217
Concept ID:
C2673885
Disease or Syndrome
This autosomal recessive disorder is designated Meckel syndrome type 7 (MKS7) based on the classic phenotypic triad of (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system abnormality, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, as defined by Meckel (1822), Salonen (1984), and Logan et al. (2011). According to these criteria, polydactyly is a variable feature. Herriot et al. (1991) and Al-Gazali et al. (1996) concluded that Dandy-Walker malformation can be the phenotypic manifestation of a central nervous system malformation in MKS. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome, see MKS1 (249000).
CBL-related disorder
MedGen UID:
462153
Concept ID:
C3150803
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder is a developmental disorder resembling Noonan syndrome (NS1; 163950) and characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, and ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies. There is extensive phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity (summary by Martinelli et al., 2010). Patients with heterozygous germline CBL mutations have an increased risk for certain malignancies, particularly juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML; 607785), as also seen in patients with Noonan syndrome (summary by Niemeyer et al., 2010).
Geleophysic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
479777
Concept ID:
C3278147
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Geleophysic dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
481684
Concept ID:
C3280054
Disease or Syndrome
Geleophysic dysplasia, a progressive condition resembling a lysosomal storage disorder, is characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, progressive joint limitation and contractures, distinctive facial features, progressive cardiac valvular disease, and thickened skin. Intellect is normal. Major findings are likely to be present in the first year of life. Cardiac, respiratory, and lung involvement result in death before age five years in approximately 33% of individuals with ADAMTSL2-related geleophysic dysplasia.
Psychomotor retardation, epilepsy, and craniofacial dysmorphism
MedGen UID:
482685
Concept ID:
C3281055
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, craniofacial abnormalities, and seizures (NEDHCS) is an autosomal recessive syndrome characterized primarily by hypotonia and poor feeding apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, and recognizable craniofacial dysmorphism with skull abnormalities. The disorder is believed to be unique to the Amish population, where it exhibits a founder effect (summary by Ammous et al., 2021).
Primary ciliary dyskinesia 20
MedGen UID:
761920
Concept ID:
C3540844
Disease or Syndrome
CILD20 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by infantile onset of chronic sinopulmonary infections resulting from immotile cilia and defective clearance. Patients may also have situs inversus or cardiac anomalies. Electron microscopy of respiratory epithelial cells shows absence of the outer dynein arms. Unlike other forms of CILD, patients with CILD20 do not appear to be infertile. For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400.
Aortic valve disease 2
MedGen UID:
762200
Concept ID:
C3542024
Disease or Syndrome
Any aortic valve disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SMAD6 gene.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
766699
Concept ID:
C3553785
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 2
MedGen UID:
767193
Concept ID:
C3554279
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple types of congenital heart defects-2 (CHTD2) is characterized by variable congenital heart defects, primarily involving the valves, but also including septal defects or aneurysms, and complex defects such as tetralogy of Fallot. Dilated cardiomyopathy and myocardial noncompaction have been reported in some patients. In addition, some affected individuals exhibit facial dysmorphism and features of connective tissue disease (Thienpont et al., 2010; Ackerman et al., 2016; Ritelli et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHTD, see 306955.
Renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
811626
Concept ID:
C3715199
Disease or Syndrome
Any renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the NPHP3 gene.
Atrial fibrillation, familial, 13
MedGen UID:
815641
Concept ID:
C3809311
Disease or Syndrome
Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial atrial fibrillation, see ATFB1 (608583).
Nephronophthisis 16
MedGen UID:
815650
Concept ID:
C3809320
Disease or Syndrome
The nephronophthisis (NPH) phenotype is characterized by reduced renal concentrating ability, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis, cystic renal disease, and progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) before age 30 years. Three age-based clinical subtypes are recognized: infantile, juvenile, and adolescent/adult. Infantile NPH can present in utero with oligohydramnios sequence (limb contractures, pulmonary hypoplasia, and facial dysmorphisms) or postnatally with renal manifestations that progress to ESRD before age 3 years. Juvenile NPH, the most prevalent subtype, typically presents with polydipsia and polyuria, growth retardation, chronic iron-resistant anemia, or other findings related to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is typically absent due to salt wasting. ESRD develops at a median age of 13 years. Ultrasound findings are increased echogenicity, reduced corticomedullary differentiation, and renal cysts (in 50% of affected individuals). Histologic findings include tubulointerstitial fibrosis, thickened and disrupted tubular basement membrane, sporadic corticomedullary cysts, and normal or reduced kidney size. Adolescent/adult NPH is clinically similar to juvenile NPH, but ESRD develops at a median age of 19 years. Within a subtype, inter- and intrafamilial variability in rate of progression to ESRD is considerable. Approximately 80%-90% of individuals with the NPH phenotype have no extrarenal features (i.e., they have isolated NPH); ~10%-20% have extrarenal manifestations that constitute a recognizable syndrome (e.g., Joubert syndrome, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Jeune syndrome and related skeletal disorders, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, Senior-Løken syndrome, Leber congenital amaurosis, COACH syndrome, and oculomotor apraxia, Cogan type).
Renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
815764
Concept ID:
C3809434
Disease or Syndrome
RHPD2 is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with severe abnormalities apparent in utero and often resulting in fetal death or death in infancy. The main organs affected include the kidney, liver, and pancreas, although other abnormalities, including cardiac, skeletal, and lung defects, may also be present. Affected individuals often have situs inversus. The disorder results from a defect in ciliogenesis and ciliary function, as well as in cell proliferation and epithelial morphogenesis; thus, the clinical manifestations are highly variable (summary by Grampa et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia, see RHPD1 (208540).
Microcephaly-thin corpus callosum-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
816410
Concept ID:
C3810080
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disease characterized by progressive postnatal microcephaly and global developmental delay, as well as moderate to profound intellectual disability, difficulty or inability to walk, pyramidal signs (including spasticity, hyperreflexia and extensor plantar response) and thin corpus callosum revealed by brain imaging. Ophthalmologic signs (including nystagmus, strabismus and abnormal retinal pigmentation), foot deformity and genital anomalies may also be associated.
Aortic valve disease 1
MedGen UID:
854610
Concept ID:
C3887892
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant form of bicuspid aortic valve caused by mutation(s) in the NOTCH1 gene, encoding neurogenic locus notch homolog protein 1.
Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 4
MedGen UID:
862747
Concept ID:
C4014310
Disease or Syndrome
The multiple types of congenital heart defects observed in CHTD4 include atrial, ventricular, and atrioventricular septal defects, double-outlet right ventricle, tetralogy of Fallot, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, aortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta. Intrafamilial variability and incomplete penetrance has been reported (Al Turki et al., 2014; Qiao et al., 2018). Some patients exhibit syndromic features such as developmental delay, congenital diaphragmatic hernia, and severe gastroesophageal reflux (High et al., 2016; Upadia et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple types of congenital heart defects, see CHTD1 (306955).
MEND syndrome
MedGen UID:
905986
Concept ID:
C4085243
Disease or Syndrome
Male EBP disorder with neurologic defects (MEND) is an X-linked recessive disorder representing a continuous phenotypic spectrum with variable manifestations associated with a defect in sterol biosynthesis. Features include intellectual disability, short stature, scoliosis, digital abnormalities, cataracts, and dermatologic abnormalities. Not all patients show all features, and the severity is highly variable. Molecular studies indicate that affected males are hemizygous for a nonmosaic hypomorphic EBP allele. Carrier females are generally clinically asymptomatic, but may show biochemical abnormalities (summary by Arnold et al., 2012 and Barboza-Cerda et al., 2014).
Singleton-Merten syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
907372
Concept ID:
C4225380
Disease or Syndrome
Singleton-Merten syndrome-2 is characterized by variable expression of glaucoma, aortic calcification, and skeletal abnormalities, without dental anomalies (summary by Jang et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Singleton-Merten syndrome, see SGMRT1 (182250).
Singleton-Merten syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
899946
Concept ID:
C4225427
Disease or Syndrome
Singleton-Merten syndrome (SGMRT) is an uncommon autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormalities of blood vessels, teeth, and bone. Calcifications of the aorta and aortic and mitral valves occur in childhood or puberty and can lead to early death. Dental findings include delayed primary tooth exfoliation and permanent tooth eruption, truncated tooth root formation, early-onset periodontal disease, and severe root and alveolar bone resorption associated with dysregulated mineralization, leading to tooth loss. Osseous features consist of osteoporosis, either generalized or limited to distal extremities, distal limb osteolysis, widened medullary cavities, and easy tearing of tendons from bone. Less common features are mild facial dysmorphism (high anterior hair line, broad forehead, smooth philtrum, thin upper vermilion border), generalized muscle weakness, psoriasis, early-onset glaucoma, and recurrent infections. The disorder manifests with variable inter- and intrafamilial phenotypes (summary by Rutsch et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Singleton-Merten Syndrome An atypical form of Singleton-Merten syndrome (SGMRT2; 616298) is caused by mutation in the DDX58 gene (609631) on chromosome 9p21.
Vertebral, cardiac, renal, and limb defects syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1621146
Concept ID:
C4540004
Disease or Syndrome
Vertebral, cardiac, renal, and limb defects syndrome-1 (VCRL1) is an autosomal recessive congenital malformation syndrome characterized by vertebral segmentation abnormalities, congenital cardiac defects, renal defects, and mild distal limb defects. Additional features are variable (summary by Shi et al., 2017). Genetic Heterogeneity of Vertebral, Cardiac, Renal, and Limb Defects Syndrome See also VCRL2 (617661), caused by mutation in the KYNU gene (605197) on chromosome 2q22, and VCRL3 (618845), caused by mutation in the NADSYN1 gene (608285) on chromosome 11q13.
Adams-Oliver syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1635567
Concept ID:
C4551482
Disease or Syndrome
Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) of the scalp and terminal transverse limb defects (TTLD). ACC lesions usually occur in the midline of the parietal or occipital regions, but can also occur on the abdomen or limbs. At birth, an ACC lesion may already have the appearance of a healed scar. ACC lesions less than 5 cm often involve only the skin and almost always heal over a period of months; larger lesions are more likely to involve the skull and possibly the dura, and are at greater risk for complications, which can include infection, hemorrhage, or thrombosis, and can result in death. The limb defects range from mild (unilateral or bilateral short distal phalanges) to severe (complete absence of all toes or fingers, feet or hands, or more, often resembling an amputation). The lower extremities are almost always more severely affected than the upper extremities. Additional major features frequently include cardiovascular malformations/dysfunction (23%), brain anomalies, and less frequently renal, liver, and eye anomalies.
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1634646
Concept ID:
C4551776
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RSS) is a clinically recognizable condition that includes the cardinal findings of craniofacial features, cerebellar defects, and cardiovascular malformations resulting in the alternate diagnostic name of 3C syndrome. Dysmorphic facial features may include brachycephaly, hypotonic face with protruding tongue, flat appearance of the face on profile view, short midface, widely spaced eyes, downslanted palpebral fissures, low-set ears with overfolding of the upper helix, smooth or short philtrum, and high or cleft palate. Affected individuals also typically have a characteristic metacarpal phalangeal profile showing a consistent wavy pattern on hand radiographs. RSS is associated with variable degrees of developmental delay and intellectual disability. Eye anomalies and hypercholesterolemia may be variably present.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1646779
Concept ID:
C4551854
Disease or Syndrome
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome results from defective development of the aorta proximal to the entrance of the ductus arteriosus and hypoplasia of the left ventricle and mitral valve. As a result of the abnormal circulation, the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale are patent and the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary artery are enlarged (Brekke, 1953). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome-2 (HLHS2; 614435) is caused by mutation in the NKX2-5 gene (600584) on chromosome 5q35.1. Somatic mutations in the HAND1 gene (602406) have been identified in tissue samples from patients with HLHS.
TWIST1-related craniosynostosis
MedGen UID:
1646646
Concept ID:
C4551902
Disease or Syndrome
Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Mutation in the TWIST1 has been found to cause coronal and sagittal forms of craniosynostosis. Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis-2 (CRS2; 604757) is caused by mutation in the MSX2 gene (123101) on chromosome 5q35. Craniosynostosis-3 (CRS3; 615314) is caused by mutation in the TCF12 gene (600480) on chromosome 15q21. Craniosynostosis-4 (CRS4; 600775) is caused by mutation in the ERF gene (611888) on chromosome 19q13. Susceptibility to craniosynostosis-5 (CRS5; 615529) is conferred by variation in the ALX4 gene (605420) on chromosome 11p11. Craniosynostosis-6 (CRS6; 616602) is caused by mutation in the ZIC1 gene (600470) on chromosome 3q24. Susceptibility to craniosynostosis-7 (CRS7; 617439) is conferred by variation in the SMAD6 gene (602931) on chromosome 15q22.
Anauxetic dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
1638106
Concept ID:
C4551965
Disease or Syndrome
The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1637058
Concept ID:
C4552002
Disease or Syndrome
Weill-Marchesani syndrome (WMS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by abnormalities of the lens of the eye, short stature, brachydactyly, joint stiffness, and cardiovascular defects. The ocular problems, typically recognized in childhood, include microspherophakia (small spherical lens), myopia secondary to the abnormal shape of the lens, ectopia lentis (abnormal position of the lens), and glaucoma, which can lead to blindness. Height of adult males is 142-169 cm; height of adult females is 130-157 cm. Autosomal recessive WMS cannot be distinguished from autosomal dominant WMS by clinical findings alone.
Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 5
MedGen UID:
1636547
Concept ID:
C4693563
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiac, facial, and digital anomalies with developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1648330
Concept ID:
C4748484
Disease or Syndrome
CAFDADD is a multisystemic developmental disorder with variable cardiac and digital anomalies and facial dysmorphism. Some patients may have seizures and ocular/aural abnormalities (Tokita et al., 2018).
Aortic valve disease 3
MedGen UID:
1681142
Concept ID:
C5193127
Disease or Syndrome
Aortic valve disease-3 (AOVD3) is characterized by aortic stenosis and/or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), associated in some patients with aneurysm of the aortic root and/or ascending aorta. Atrial septal defect (ASD) has also been observed in some individuals (Gould et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of aortic valve disease, see AOVD1 (109730).
Mucopolysaccharidosis, type 10
MedGen UID:
1794274
Concept ID:
C5562064
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type X (MPS10) is an autosomal recessive childhood-onset disorder associated with disproportionate short-trunk short stature and skeletal, cardiac, and ophthalmologic abnormalities (Verheyen et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Lauder L, Mahfoud F, Azizi M, Bhatt DL, Ewen S, Kario K, Parati G, Rossignol P, Schlaich MP, Teo KK, Townsend RR, Tsioufis C, Weber MA, Weber T, Böhm M
Eur Heart J 2023 Jun 20;44(23):2066-2077. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehac395. PMID: 36342266
Kronenberg F, Mora S, Stroes ESG, Ference BA, Arsenault BJ, Berglund L, Dweck MR, Koschinsky M, Lambert G, Mach F, McNeal CJ, Moriarty PM, Natarajan P, Nordestgaard BG, Parhofer KG, Virani SS, von Eckardstein A, Watts GF, Stock JK, Ray KK, Tokgözoğlu LS, Catapano AL
Eur Heart J 2022 Oct 14;43(39):3925-3946. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehac361. PMID: 36036785Free PMC Article
Kanwar A, Thaden JJ, Nkomo VT
Mayo Clin Proc 2018 Apr;93(4):488-508. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.01.020. PMID: 29622096

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Plunde O, Bäck M
Kardiol Pol 2021;79(6):614-621. Epub 2021 May 18 doi: 10.33963/KP.a2021.0003. PMID: 34002847
Howard C, Jullian L, Joshi M, Noshirwani A, Bashir M, Harky A
J Card Surg 2019 Dec;34(12):1577-1590. Epub 2019 Oct 10 doi: 10.1111/jocs.14226. PMID: 31600005
Kanwar A, Thaden JJ, Nkomo VT
Mayo Clin Proc 2018 Apr;93(4):488-508. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.01.020. PMID: 29622096
Argulian E, Windecker S, Messerli FH
Am J Med 2017 Apr;130(4):398-402. Epub 2017 Jan 18 doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.12.025. PMID: 28109966
Bakaeen FG, Rosengart TK, Carabello BA
Ann Intern Med 2017 Jan 3;166(1):ITC1-ITC16. doi: 10.7326/AITC201701030. PMID: 28030676

Diagnosis

Boskovski MT, Gleason TG
Circ Res 2021 Apr 30;128(9):1398-1417. Epub 2021 Apr 29 doi: 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.121.318040. PMID: 33914604
Howard C, Jullian L, Joshi M, Noshirwani A, Bashir M, Harky A
J Card Surg 2019 Dec;34(12):1577-1590. Epub 2019 Oct 10 doi: 10.1111/jocs.14226. PMID: 31600005
Joseph J, Naqvi SY, Giri J, Goldberg S
Am J Med 2017 Mar;130(3):253-263. Epub 2016 Nov 1 doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.10.005. PMID: 27810479
Patel A, Kirtane AJ
JAMA Cardiol 2016 Aug 1;1(5):623. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2016.2060. PMID: 27434020
Chambers J
BMJ 2005 Apr 9;330(7495):801-2. doi: 10.1136/bmj.330.7495.801. PMID: 15817530Free PMC Article

Therapy

Diederichsen ACP, Lindholt JS, Möller S, Øvrehus KA, Auscher S, Lambrechtsen J, Hosbond SE, Alan DH, Urbonaviciene G, Becker SW, Fredgart MH, Hasific S, Folkestad L, Gerke O, Rasmussen LM, Møller JE, Mickley H, Dahl JS
Circulation 2022 May 3;145(18):1387-1397. Epub 2022 Apr 25 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.121.057008. PMID: 35465686Free PMC Article
Jørgensen TH, Thyregod HGH, Ihlemann N, Nissen H, Petursson P, Kjeldsen BJ, Steinbrüchel DA, Olsen PS, Søndergaard L
Eur Heart J 2021 Aug 7;42(30):2912-2919. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab375. PMID: 34179981Free PMC Article
Markham R, Sharma R
Interv Cardiol Clin 2020 Oct;9(4):461-467. doi: 10.1016/j.iccl.2020.07.002. PMID: 32921370
Kanwar A, Thaden JJ, Nkomo VT
Mayo Clin Proc 2018 Apr;93(4):488-508. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.01.020. PMID: 29622096
Kappetein AP, Head SJ, Généreux P, Piazza N, van Mieghem NM, Blackstone EH, Brott TG, Cohen DJ, Cutlip DE, van Es GA, Hahn RT, Kirtane AJ, Krucoff MW, Kodali S, Mack MJ, Mehran R, Rodés-Cabau J, Vranckx P, Webb JG, Windecker S, Serruys PW, Leon MB; Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2012 Nov;42(5):S45-60. Epub 2012 Oct 1 doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezs533. PMID: 23026738

Prognosis

Ludman PF
Heart 2019 Mar;105(Suppl 2):s2-s5. doi: 10.1136/heartjnl-2018-313510. PMID: 30846517
Ali N, Patel PA, Lindsay SJ
Eur J Heart Fail 2018 Apr;20(4):642-650. Epub 2018 Jan 25 doi: 10.1002/ejhf.1141. PMID: 29368369
Rodrigues I, Agapito AF, de Sousa L, Oliveira JA, Branco LM, Galrinho A, Abreu J, Timóteo AT, Rosa SA, Ferreira RC
Cardiol Young 2017 Apr;27(3):518-529. Epub 2016 Dec 12 doi: 10.1017/S1047951116002560. PMID: 27938448
Mack MJ, Leon MB, Smith CR, Miller DC, Moses JW, Tuzcu EM, Webb JG, Douglas PS, Anderson WN, Blackstone EH, Kodali SK, Makkar RR, Fontana GP, Kapadia S, Bavaria J, Hahn RT, Thourani VH, Babaliaros V, Pichard A, Herrmann HC, Brown DL, Williams M, Akin J, Davidson MJ, Svensson LG; PARTNER 1 trial investigators
Lancet 2015 Jun 20;385(9986):2477-84. Epub 2015 Mar 15 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60308-7. PMID: 25788234
Tsukui H, Yamazaki K
Surg Today 2014 Jun;44(6):992-1003. Epub 2013 Jul 14 doi: 10.1007/s00595-013-0663-9. PMID: 23851588

Clinical prediction guides

Fulop P, Valocik G, Barbierik Vachalcova M, Zenuch P, Filipova L
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2024 Feb;40(2):299-305. Epub 2023 Nov 11 doi: 10.1007/s10554-023-02986-9. PMID: 37950827Free PMC Article
Pontone G, Maragna R
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2024 Apr;17(4):408-410. Epub 2023 Nov 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2023.09.012. PMID: 37943234
Stassen J, Ewe SH, Pio SM, Pibarot P, Redfors B, Leipsic J, Genereux P, Van Mieghem NM, Kuneman JH, Makkar R, Hahn RT, Playford D, Marsan NA, Delgado V, Ben-Yehuda O, Leon MB, Bax JJ
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2023 Jun;16(6):837-855. Epub 2023 Feb 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2022.12.013. PMID: 36881428
Tully A, Tom S, Xie J, O'Brian C, Gleason P, Grubb KJ
J Card Surg 2022 Dec;37(12):4124-4132. Epub 2022 Sep 28 doi: 10.1111/jocs.16977. PMID: 36168827
Bing R, Cavalcante JL, Everett RJ, Clavel MA, Newby DE, Dweck MR
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging 2019 Feb;12(2):283-296. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2018.11.026. PMID: 30732723Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Oz A, Tsoumas I, Lampropoulos K, Xanthos T, Karpettas N, Papadopoulos D
Curr Probl Cardiol 2023 Mar;48(3):101531. Epub 2022 Dec 7 doi: 10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101531. PMID: 36493915
Swift SL, Puehler T, Misso K, Lang SH, Forbes C, Kleijnen J, Danner M, Kuhn C, Haneya A, Seoudy H, Cremer J, Frey N, Lutter G, Wolff R, Scheibler F, Wehkamp K, Frank D
BMJ Open 2021 Dec 6;11(12):e054222. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-054222. PMID: 34873012Free PMC Article
Tinica G, Tarus A, Enache M, Artene B, Rotaru I, Bacusca A, Burlacu A
Rev Cardiovasc Med 2020 Jun 30;21(2):263-274. doi: 10.31083/j.rcm.2020.02.68. PMID: 32706214
Siontis GCM, Overtchouk P, Cahill TJ, Modine T, Prendergast B, Praz F, Pilgrim T, Petrinic T, Nikolakopoulou A, Salanti G, Søndergaard L, Verma S, Jüni P, Windecker S
Eur Heart J 2019 Oct 7;40(38):3143-3153. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehz275. PMID: 31329852
Marquis-Gravel G, Redfors B, Leon MB, Généreux P
Circulation 2016 Nov 29;134(22):1766-1784. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.023997. PMID: 27895025

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...