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Neurodevelopmental disorder with severe motor impairment and absent language(NEDMIAL)

MedGen UID:
1622162
Concept ID:
C4540496
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonym: NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH VARIABLE MOTOR AND LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT
 
Gene (location): DHX30 (3p21.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0060622
OMIM®: 617804

Definition

NEDMIAL is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and hypotonia apparent from early infancy, resulting in feeding difficulties, ataxic gait or inability to walk, delayed or absent speech development, and impaired intellectual development, sometimes with behavioral abnormalities, such as hand-flapping. Additional common features may include sleep disorder, nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, and joint hyperlaxity (summary by Lessel et al., 2017 and Mannucci et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Broad palm
MedGen UID:
75535
Concept ID:
C0264142
Congenital Abnormality
For children from birth to 4 years of age the palm width is more than 2 SD above the mean; for children from 4 to 16 years of age the palm width is above the 95th centile; or, the width of the palm appears disproportionately wide for the length.
Single transverse palmar crease
MedGen UID:
96108
Concept ID:
C0424731
Finding
The distal and proximal transverse palmar creases are merged into a single transverse palmar crease.
Tapered finger
MedGen UID:
98098
Concept ID:
C0426886
Finding
The gradual reduction in girth of the finger from proximal to distal.
Broad thumb
MedGen UID:
140880
Concept ID:
C0426891
Finding
Increased thumb width without increased dorso-ventral dimension.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Macrotia
MedGen UID:
488785
Concept ID:
C0152421
Congenital Abnormality
Median longitudinal ear length greater than two standard deviations above the mean and median ear width greater than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparent increase in length and width of the pinna (subjective).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Bruxism
MedGen UID:
676
Concept ID:
C0006325
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Bruxism is characterized by the grinding of the teeth including the clenching of the jaw and typically occur during sleep, but also can occur while the affected individual is awake.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Chorea
MedGen UID:
3420
Concept ID:
C0008489
Disease or Syndrome
Chorea (Greek for 'dance') refers to widespread arrhythmic involuntary movements of a forcible, jerky and restless fashion. It is a random-appearing sequence of one or more discrete involuntary movements or movement fragments. Movements appear random because of variability in timing, duration or location. Each movement may have a distinct start and end. However, movements may be strung together and thus may appear to flow randomly from one muscle group to another. Chorea can involve the trunk, neck, face, tongue, and extremities.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Sleep abnormality
MedGen UID:
52372
Concept ID:
C0037317
Sign or Symptom
An abnormal pattern in the quality, quantity, or characteristics of sleep.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Involuntary movements
MedGen UID:
140884
Concept ID:
C0427086
Sign or Symptom
Involuntary contractions of muscle leading to involuntary movements of extremities, neck, trunk, or face.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Stereotypical hand wringing
MedGen UID:
646835
Concept ID:
C0562479
Finding
Habitual clasping and wringing of the hands in the middle of the body, similar to a hand-washing movement.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Persistent head lag
MedGen UID:
256151
Concept ID:
C1141883
Finding
The Premie-Neuro and the Dubowitz Neurological Examination score head lag in the same manner. Scoring for both is as follows
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Joint hypermobility
MedGen UID:
336793
Concept ID:
C1844820
Finding
The capability that a joint (or a group of joints) has to move, passively and/or actively, beyond normal limits along physiological axes.
Prominent crus of helix
MedGen UID:
867019
Concept ID:
C4021377
Anatomical Abnormality
The presence of an abnormally prominent of the crus of the helix. That is, development of the crus helix to the same degree as an average antihelix stem or helix.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Protruding tongue
MedGen UID:
66831
Concept ID:
C0241442
Finding
Tongue extending beyond the alveolar ridges or teeth at rest.
Mandibular prognathia
MedGen UID:
98316
Concept ID:
C0399526
Finding
Abnormal prominence of the chin related to increased length of the mandible.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Smooth philtrum
MedGen UID:
222980
Concept ID:
C1142533
Finding
Flat skin surface, with no ridge formation in the central region of the upper lip between the nasal base and upper vermilion border.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Widow peak
MedGen UID:
342891
Concept ID:
C1853486
Finding
Frontal hairline with bilateral arcs to a low point in the midline of the forehead.
Small face
MedGen UID:
343376
Concept ID:
C1855538
Finding
A face that is short and narrow.
Upper eyelid edema
MedGen UID:
825252
Concept ID:
C3839407
Finding
Edema in the region of the upper eyelid.
Thin eyebrow
MedGen UID:
924116
Concept ID:
C4281771
Finding
Decreased diameter of eyebrow hairs.
Cafe-au-lait spot
MedGen UID:
113157
Concept ID:
C0221263
Finding
Cafe-au-lait spots are hyperpigmented lesions that can vary in color from light brown to dark brown with smooth borders and having a size of 1.5 cm or more in adults and 0.5 cm or more in children.
Thin skin
MedGen UID:
140848
Concept ID:
C0423757
Finding
Reduction in thickness of the skin, generally associated with a loss of suppleness and elasticity of the skin.
Synophrys
MedGen UID:
98132
Concept ID:
C0431447
Congenital Abnormality
Meeting of the medial eyebrows in the midline.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term "persistent fetal fingertip pads" is often used as a synonym, but should better not be used because it implies knowledge of history of the patient which often does not exist.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Thalwitzer KM, Driedger JH, Xian J, Saffari A, Zacher P, Bölsterli BK, Ruggiero SM, Sullivan KR, Datta AN, Kellinghaus C, Althaus J, Wiemer-Kruel A, van Baalen A, Pampel A, Alber M, Braakman HMH, Debus OM, Denecke J, Hobbiebrunken E, Breitweg I, Diehl D, Eitel H, Gburek-Augustat J, Preisel M, Schlump JU, Laufs M, Mammadova D, Wurst C, Prager C, Löhr-Nilles C, Martin P, Garbade SF, Platzer K, Benkel-Herrenbrueck I, Egler K, Fazeli W, Lemke JR, Runkel E, Klein B, Linden T, Schröter J, Steffeck H, Thies B, von Deimling F, Illsinger S, Borggraefe I, Classen G, Wieczorek D, Ramantani G, Koelker S, Hoffmann GF, Ries M, Helbig I, Syrbe S
Neurology 2023 Aug 29;101(9):e879-e891. Epub 2023 Jul 5 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207550. PMID: 37407264Free PMC Article
Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article
Jimenez-Gomez A, Niu S, Andujar-Perez F, McQuade EA, Balasa A, Huss D, Coorg R, Quach M, Vinson S, Risen S, Holder JL Jr
J Neurodev Disord 2019 Aug 8;11(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s11689-019-9276-y. PMID: 31395010Free PMC Article
El Ters NM, Vesoulis ZA, Liao SM, Smyser CD, Mathur AM
Early Hum Dev 2018 Apr;119:68-72. Epub 2018 Mar 23 doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.02.010. PMID: 29579560Free PMC Article
Robertson CM, Finer NN, Grace MG
J Pediatr 1989 May;114(5):753-60. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(89)80132-5. PMID: 2469789

Diagnosis

Thalwitzer KM, Driedger JH, Xian J, Saffari A, Zacher P, Bölsterli BK, Ruggiero SM, Sullivan KR, Datta AN, Kellinghaus C, Althaus J, Wiemer-Kruel A, van Baalen A, Pampel A, Alber M, Braakman HMH, Debus OM, Denecke J, Hobbiebrunken E, Breitweg I, Diehl D, Eitel H, Gburek-Augustat J, Preisel M, Schlump JU, Laufs M, Mammadova D, Wurst C, Prager C, Löhr-Nilles C, Martin P, Garbade SF, Platzer K, Benkel-Herrenbrueck I, Egler K, Fazeli W, Lemke JR, Runkel E, Klein B, Linden T, Schröter J, Steffeck H, Thies B, von Deimling F, Illsinger S, Borggraefe I, Classen G, Wieczorek D, Ramantani G, Koelker S, Hoffmann GF, Ries M, Helbig I, Syrbe S
Neurology 2023 Aug 29;101(9):e879-e891. Epub 2023 Jul 5 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207550. PMID: 37407264Free PMC Article
Jimenez-Gomez A, Niu S, Andujar-Perez F, McQuade EA, Balasa A, Huss D, Coorg R, Quach M, Vinson S, Risen S, Holder JL Jr
J Neurodev Disord 2019 Aug 8;11(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s11689-019-9276-y. PMID: 31395010Free PMC Article
Carvalho A, Brites C, Mochida G, Ventura P, Fernandes A, Lage ML, Taguchi T, Brandi I, Silva A, Franceschi G, Lucena P, Lucena R
Brain Dev 2019 Aug;41(7):587-594. Epub 2019 Mar 23 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2019.03.005. PMID: 30914212
El Ters NM, Vesoulis ZA, Liao SM, Smyser CD, Mathur AM
Early Hum Dev 2018 Apr;119:68-72. Epub 2018 Mar 23 doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.02.010. PMID: 29579560Free PMC Article
Zhu W, Li J, Chen S, Zhang J, Vetrini F, Braxton A, Eng CM, Yang Y, Xia F, Keller KL, Okinaka-Hu L, Lee C, Holder JL Jr, Bi W
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Apr;176(4):973-979. Epub 2018 Feb 9 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38622. PMID: 29423971Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Jimenez-Gomez A, Niu S, Andujar-Perez F, McQuade EA, Balasa A, Huss D, Coorg R, Quach M, Vinson S, Risen S, Holder JL Jr
J Neurodev Disord 2019 Aug 8;11(1):18. doi: 10.1186/s11689-019-9276-y. PMID: 31395010Free PMC Article
Carvalho A, Brites C, Mochida G, Ventura P, Fernandes A, Lage ML, Taguchi T, Brandi I, Silva A, Franceschi G, Lucena P, Lucena R
Brain Dev 2019 Aug;41(7):587-594. Epub 2019 Mar 23 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2019.03.005. PMID: 30914212
El Ters NM, Vesoulis ZA, Liao SM, Smyser CD, Mathur AM
Early Hum Dev 2018 Apr;119:68-72. Epub 2018 Mar 23 doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.02.010. PMID: 29579560Free PMC Article
Robertson CM, Finer NN, Grace MG
J Pediatr 1989 May;114(5):753-60. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(89)80132-5. PMID: 2469789

Clinical prediction guides

Thalwitzer KM, Driedger JH, Xian J, Saffari A, Zacher P, Bölsterli BK, Ruggiero SM, Sullivan KR, Datta AN, Kellinghaus C, Althaus J, Wiemer-Kruel A, van Baalen A, Pampel A, Alber M, Braakman HMH, Debus OM, Denecke J, Hobbiebrunken E, Breitweg I, Diehl D, Eitel H, Gburek-Augustat J, Preisel M, Schlump JU, Laufs M, Mammadova D, Wurst C, Prager C, Löhr-Nilles C, Martin P, Garbade SF, Platzer K, Benkel-Herrenbrueck I, Egler K, Fazeli W, Lemke JR, Runkel E, Klein B, Linden T, Schröter J, Steffeck H, Thies B, von Deimling F, Illsinger S, Borggraefe I, Classen G, Wieczorek D, Ramantani G, Koelker S, Hoffmann GF, Ries M, Helbig I, Syrbe S
Neurology 2023 Aug 29;101(9):e879-e891. Epub 2023 Jul 5 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207550. PMID: 37407264Free PMC Article
Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article
Carvalho A, Brites C, Mochida G, Ventura P, Fernandes A, Lage ML, Taguchi T, Brandi I, Silva A, Franceschi G, Lucena P, Lucena R
Brain Dev 2019 Aug;41(7):587-594. Epub 2019 Mar 23 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2019.03.005. PMID: 30914212
El Ters NM, Vesoulis ZA, Liao SM, Smyser CD, Mathur AM
Early Hum Dev 2018 Apr;119:68-72. Epub 2018 Mar 23 doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.02.010. PMID: 29579560Free PMC Article
Robertson CM, Finer NN, Grace MG
J Pediatr 1989 May;114(5):753-60. doi: 10.1016/s0022-3476(89)80132-5. PMID: 2469789

Recent systematic reviews

Miroševič Š, Khandelwal S, Sušjan P, Žakelj N, Gosar D, Forstnerič V, Lainšček D, Jerala R, Osredkar D
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 19;23(20) doi: 10.3390/ijms232012564. PMID: 36293418Free PMC Article

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