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Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset

MedGen UID:
164077
Concept ID:
C0877017
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Generalized tonic-clonic seizures, secondary; Secondary generalized tonic clonic seizures; Secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures
SNOMED CT: Focal to bilateral tonic-clonic epileptic seizure (246544003); Focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure (246544003); FBTCS - focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizure (246544003)
 
HPO: HP:0007334

Definition

A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset is a focal-onset seizure which progresses into a bilateral tonic-clonic phase. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVBilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset

Conditions with this feature

Landau-Kleffner syndrome
MedGen UID:
79465
Concept ID:
C0282512
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN2A-related speech disorders and epilepsy are characterized by speech disorders in all affected individuals and a range of epilepsy syndromes present in about 90%. Severe speech disorders observed can include dysarthria and speech dyspraxia, and both receptive and expressive language delay/regression; more mildly affected individuals may display subtly impaired intelligibility of conversational speech. Epilepsy features include seizure onset usually between ages three and six years, focal epilepsy with language and/or global developmental regression, and electroencephalogram (EEG) showing continuous spike-and-wave discharges in sleep or very active centrotemporal discharges. Seizure types include seizures associated with aura of perioral paresthesia, focal or focal motor seizures (often evolving to generalized tonic-clonic), and atypical absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include: Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS), epileptic encephalopathy with continuous spike-and-wave during sleep (ECSWS), childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (CECTS), atypical childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (ACECTS), autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia (ADRESD), and infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy.
Lafora disease
MedGen UID:
155631
Concept ID:
C0751783
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonus epilepsy, Lafora type (also known as Lafora disease [LD]) is characterized by focal occipital seizures presenting as transient blindness or visual hallucinations and fragmentary, symmetric, or generalized myoclonus beginning in previously healthy individuals at age eight to 19 years (peak 14-16 years). Generalized tonic-clonic seizures, atypical absence seizures, atonic seizures, and focal seizures with impaired awareness may occur. The course of the disease is characterized by increasing frequency and intractability of seizures. Status epilepticus with any of the seizure types is common. Cognitive decline becomes apparent at or soon after the onset of seizures. Dysarthria and ataxia appear early while spasticity appears late. Emotional disturbance and confusion are common in the early stages of the disease and are followed by dementia. Most affected individuals die within ten years of onset, usually from status epilepticus or from complications related to nervous system degeneration.
Kabuki syndrome
MedGen UID:
162897
Concept ID:
C0796004
Congenital Abnormality
Kabuki syndrome (KS) is characterized by typical facial features (long palpebral fissures with eversion of the lateral third of the lower eyelid; arched and broad eyebrows; short columella with depressed nasal tip; large, prominent, or cupped ears), minor skeletal anomalies, persistence of fetal fingertip pads, mild-to-moderate intellectual disability, and postnatal growth deficiency. Other findings may include: congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, cleft lip and/or palate, gastrointestinal anomalies including anal atresia, ptosis and strabismus, and widely spaced teeth and hypodontia. Functional differences can include: increased susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disorders, seizures, endocrinologic abnormalities (including isolated premature thelarche in females), feeding problems, and hearing loss.
Seizures, benign familial infantile, 3
MedGen UID:
375105
Concept ID:
C1843140
Disease or Syndrome
Benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures is an autosomal dominant disorder in which afebrile seizures occur in clusters during the first year of life, without neurologic sequelae (Shevell et al., 1986). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of benign familial infantile seizures, see BFIS1 (601764).
Gaucher disease due to saposin C deficiency
MedGen UID:
350479
Concept ID:
C1864651
Disease or Syndrome
Any Gaucher disease in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PSAP gene.
Familial temporal lobe epilepsy 3
MedGen UID:
368898
Concept ID:
C1968848
Disease or Syndrome
Benign Rolandic epilepsy
MedGen UID:
432274
Concept ID:
C2363129
Disease or Syndrome
Benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) or sharp waves, also known as rolandic epilepsy, is the most common idiopathic childhood epilepsy syndrome (Neubauer et al., 1998). It is termed 'rolandic' epilepsy because of the characteristic features of partial seizures involving the region around the lower portion of the central gyrus of Rolando. This results in classic focal seizures that affect the vocal tract, beginning with guttural sounds at the larynx and sensorimotor symptoms that progress to the tongue, mouth, and face, resulting in hypersalivation and speech arrest. Seizures most often occur in sleep shortly before awakening. The disorder occurs more often in boys than in girls (3:2). Rolandic epilepsy is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder, affecting 0.2% of the population. Affected individuals may have learning disabilities or behavioral problems; however, the seizures and accompanying problems usually remit during adolescence (summary by Strug et al., 2009). See also focal epilepsy and speech disorder (FESD; 245570), which is caused by mutation in the GRIN2A gene (138253) on chromosome 16p13. Some patients with GRIN2A mutations show features consistent with a clinical diagnosis of BECTS. Some patients with DEPDC5 (614191) mutations may show features consistent with rolandic epilepsy (see FFEVF, 604364).
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy type 3
MedGen UID:
388595
Concept ID:
C2673257
Disease or Syndrome
Mutations in the KCTD7 gene cause a severe neurodegenerative phenotype characterized by onset of intractable myoclonic seizures before age 2 years and accompanied by developmental regression. The initial description was consistent with a form of progressive myoclonic epilepsy (designated here as EPM3), whereas a later report identified intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material, consistent with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (designated CLN14). Ultrastructural findings on skin biopsies thus appear to be variable. However, clinical features are generally consistent between reports (summary by Staropoli et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, see CLN1 (256730).
Cortical dysplasia-focal epilepsy syndrome
MedGen UID:
413258
Concept ID:
C2750246
Disease or Syndrome
Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome-1 (PTHSL1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, severe speech impairment or regression, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients have onset of seizures within the first years of life. Some patients may have cortical dysplasia on brain imaging (summary by Smogavec et al., 2016).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 11
MedGen UID:
462337
Concept ID:
C3150987
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-11 (DEE11) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first days, weeks, or months of life. Some patients may have later onset. Seizures comprise multiple types, including tonic, generalized, and myoclonic, and tend to be refractory to medication. However, some patients with onset of seizures before 3 months of age may respond to sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin. About half of patients become seizure-free in childhood. Affected individuals have global developmental delay, usually with severely impaired intellectual development, although some may be less severely affected and show autism spectrum disorder. Additional common features include microcephaly, hypotonia, and abnormal movements, such as dystonia, dyskinesias, and choreoathetotic movements. Brain imaging may show white matter defects. The phenotype is highly variable, even in patients with the same mutation (summary by Ogiwara et al., 2009; Howell et al., 2015; Wolff et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome
MedGen UID:
481870
Concept ID:
C3280240
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly-epilepsy-permanent neonatal diabetes syndrome is a rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (manifesting as intractable, myoclonic and/or tonic-clonic seizures), permanent, neonatal, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and severe global developmental delay. Muscular hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic facial features (including narrow forehead, anteverted nares, small mouth with deep philtrum, tented upper lip vermilion) are frequently associated. Brain MRI reveals cerebral atrophy with cortical gyral simplification and aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 13
MedGen UID:
482821
Concept ID:
C3281191
Disease or Syndrome
SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy is characterized by developmental delay, seizure onset in the first 18 months of life (mean 4 months), and intractable epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, infantile spasms, and absence and focal seizures). Epilepsy syndromes can include Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, West syndrome, and epileptic encephalopathies (e.g., Dravet syndrome). Hypotonia and movement disorders including dystonia, ataxia, and choreoathetosis are common. Psychomotor development varies from normal prior to seizure onset (with subsequent slowing or regression after seizure onset) to abnormal from birth. Intellectual disability, present in all, ranges from mild to severe (in ~50% of affected individuals). Autistic features are noted in some. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) of unknown cause has been reported in approximately 10% of published cases. To date SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy has been reported in the literature in about 50 individuals.
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 3
MedGen UID:
766272
Concept ID:
C3553358
Disease or Syndrome
Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 18
MedGen UID:
815954
Concept ID:
C3809624
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-18 (DEE18) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by lack of psychomotor development apparent from birth, dysmorphic facial features, and early onset of refractory seizures. Brain imaging shows a thick corpus callosum and persistent cavum septum pellucidum on brain imaging (summary by Basel-Vanagaite et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Familial temporal lobe epilepsy 6
MedGen UID:
816650
Concept ID:
C3810320
Disease or Syndrome
A temporal lobe epilepsy that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 3q25-q26.
Bilateral parasagittal parieto-occipital polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
862085
Concept ID:
C4013648
Disease or Syndrome
Polymicrogyria is a condition characterized by abnormal development of the brain before birth. The surface of the brain normally has many ridges or folds, called gyri. In people with polymicrogyria, the brain develops too many folds, and the folds are unusually small. The name of this condition literally means too many (poly-) small (micro-) folds (-gyria) in the surface of the brain.\n\nPolymicrogyria can affect part of the brain or the whole brain. When the condition affects one side of the brain, researchers describe it as unilateral. When it affects both sides of the brain, it is described as bilateral. The signs and symptoms associated with polymicrogyria depend on how much of the brain, and which particular brain regions, are affected.\n\nResearchers have identified multiple forms of polymicrogyria. The mildest form is known as unilateral focal polymicrogyria. This form of the condition affects a relatively small area on one side of the brain. It may cause minor neurological problems, such as mild seizures that can be easily controlled with medication. Some people with unilateral focal polymicrogyria do not have any problems associated with the condition.\n\nPolymicrogyria most often occurs as an isolated feature, although it can occur with other brain abnormalities. It is also a feature of several genetic syndromes characterized by intellectual disability and multiple birth defects. These include 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Adams-Oliver syndrome, Aicardi syndrome, Galloway-Mowat syndrome, Joubert syndrome, and Zellweger spectrum disorder.\n\nBilateral forms of polymicrogyria tend to cause more severe neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of these conditions can include recurrent seizures (epilepsy), delayed development, crossed eyes, problems with speech and swallowing, and muscle weakness or paralysis. The most severe form of the disorder, bilateral generalized polymicrogyria, affects the entire brain. This condition causes severe intellectual disability, problems with movement, and seizures that are difficult or impossible to control with medication.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 26
MedGen UID:
863556
Concept ID:
C4015119
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-26 (DEE26) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of variable types of seizures late in infancy or in the first years of life. Affected children show developmental delay with intellectual disability, poor speech, and behavioral abnormalities. EEG shows multifocal epileptic discharges, and may show hypsarrhythmia (summary by Torkamani et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 34
MedGen UID:
899149
Concept ID:
C4225257
Disease or Syndrome
SLC12A5-related epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (SLC12A5-EIMFS), reported to date in nine children, is characterized by onset of seizures before age six months and either developmental delay or developmental regression with seizure onset. Of these nine children, six had severe developmental delay with no progress of abilities and three made notable neurodevelopmental progress. Eight had postnatal microcephaly and hypotonia. In most children epilepsy begins as focal motor seizures (typically involving head and eye deviation) that become multifocal and intractable to conventional anti-seizure medication (ASM).
Familial temporal lobe epilepsy 8
MedGen UID:
909158
Concept ID:
C4225318
Disease or Syndrome
A temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance of complex partial seizures with occasional secondary generalization and that has material basis in heterozygous mutation in the GAL gene on chromosome 11q13.
Cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1626119
Concept ID:
C4539985
Disease or Syndrome
Benign familial neonatal-infantile seizures 1
MedGen UID:
1638448
Concept ID:
C4551769
Disease or Syndrome
Benign familial infantile seizures (BFIS) is a seizure disorder of early childhood with age at onset from 3 months up to 24 months. It is characterized by brief seizures beginning with slow deviation of the head and eyes to 1 side and progressing to generalized motor arrest and hypotonia, apnea and cyanosis, and limb jerks. Seizures usually occur in clusters over a day or several days. The ictal EEG shows focal parietal-temporal activity, whereas the interictal EEG is normal. Concurrent and subsequent psychomotor and neurologic development are normal (Franzoni et al., 2005). See also benign familial neonatal seizures (BFNS1; 121200). Deprez et al. (2009) provided a review of the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life, and included a diagnostic algorithm. Genetic Heterogeneity of Benign Familial Infantile Seizures The BFIS1 locus has been mapped to chromosome 19q. BFIS2 (605751) is caused by mutation in the PRRT2 gene on chromosome 16p11. BFIS3 (607745), which is caused by the mutations in the SCN2A gene (182390) on chromosome 2q24, has a slightly earlier age at onset and is sometimes termed benign familial 'neonatal-infantile' seizures. BFIS4 (612627) has been mapped to chromosome 1p. BFIS5 (617080) is caused by mutation in the SCN8A gene (600702) on chromosome 12q13. BFIS6 (see 610353) is caused by mutation in the CHRNA2 gene (118502) on chromosome 8p21.
Epilepsy, familial temporal lobe, 1
MedGen UID:
1643229
Concept ID:
C4551957
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF) is a focal epilepsy syndrome with auditory symptoms and/or receptive aphasia as prominent ictal manifestations. The most common auditory symptoms are simple unformed sounds including humming, buzzing, or ringing; less common forms are distortions (e.g., volume changes) or complex sounds (e.g., specific songs or voices). Ictal receptive aphasia consists of a sudden onset of inability to understand language in the absence of general confusion. Less commonly, other ictal symptoms may occur, including sensory symptoms (visual, olfactory, vertiginous, or cephalic) or motor, psychic, and autonomic symptoms. Most affected individuals have focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures, usually accompanied by "focal aware" and "focal impaired-awareness" seizures, with auditory symptoms as a major focal aware seizure manifestation. Some persons have seizures precipitated by sounds such as a ringing telephone. Age at onset is usually in adolescence or early adulthood (range: age 4-50 years). The clinical course of ADEAF is benign. Seizures are usually well controlled after initiation of medical therapy.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 61
MedGen UID:
1639392
Concept ID:
C4693688
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-61 (DEE61) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. There is profound global developmental delay with intellectual disability, inability to walk, poor voluntary movements, spasticity, microcephaly, cerebral atrophy, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Muona et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 15
MedGen UID:
1646555
Concept ID:
C4706313
Disease or Syndrome
A rare mitochondrial disease due to a defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis with onset in infancy or early childhood of muscular hypotonia, gait ataxia, mild bilateral pyramidal tract signs, developmental delay (affecting mostly speech and coordination) and subsequent intellectual disability. Short stature, obesity, microcephaly, strabismus, nystagmus, reduced visual acuity, lactic acidosis, and a brain neuropathology consistent with Leigh syndrome are also reported. Caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the MTFMT gene on chromosome 15q22.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 66
MedGen UID:
1648486
Concept ID:
C4748070
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-66 (DEE66) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Most seizures have focal origins; secondary generalization is common. Seizure control is difficult at first, but may become easier with time. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features or ophthalmologic defects. Brain imaging often shows cerebellar dysgenesis. A subset of patients have extraneurologic manifestations, including hematologic and distal limb abnormalities (summary by Olson et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Houge-Janssens syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
1677130
Concept ID:
C5193048
Disease or Syndrome
Houge-Janssens syndrome-3 (HJS3) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: patients may have hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and sometimes small brainstem. Many develop seizures, sometimes refractory, and some may have nonspecific dysmorphic features. Intellectual impairment can vary from mild to profound, and some patients may benefit from special education and respond well to speech therapy (summary by Reynhout et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HJS, see HJS1 (616355).
Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 2
MedGen UID:
1713823
Concept ID:
C5394296
Disease or Syndrome
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus-2 (PNDM2) is characterized by onset of insulin-requiring hyperglycemia within the first months of life that requires insulin therapy throughout life. Some patients additionally have marked developmental delay, muscle weakness, and epilepsy (Gloyn et al., 2004). The triad of developmental delay, epilepsy, and neonatal diabetes is known as DEND (Shimomura et al., 2007). Proks et al. (2006) stated that heterozygous activating mutations in KCNJ11 are the most common cause of PNDM and account for 26 to 64% of cases, and that neurologic features are found in 20% of patients with KCNJ11 mutations. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, see PNDM1 (606176).
Lissencephaly 10
MedGen UID:
1719546
Concept ID:
C5394354
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-10 (LIS10) is a neurologic disorder characterized by variably delayed development with mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development and language delay, as well as seizures, which are often intractable. There is a spectrum of severity, with some patients having normal early development and only borderline to mild cognitive impairment. Brain imaging shows features consistent with neuronal migration defects, including posterior-predominant lissencephaly, pachygyria, agyria, and subcortical band heterotopia (summary by Tsai et al., 2020). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794148
Concept ID:
C5561938
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome (FSGSNEDS) is characterized by global developmental delay and renal dysfunction manifest as proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome apparent from infancy or early childhood. Some patients present with renal disease, whereas others present with developmental delay and develop renal disease later in childhood. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but the course of the disease is variable: some patients have transient proteinuria and others require renal transplant. Neurodevelopmental features are also variable, with some patients having only mildly impaired intellectual development, and others having a severe developmental disorder associated with early-onset refractory seizures or epileptic encephalopathy. Additional features, including feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, are commonly observed (summary by Assoum et al., 2018 and Weng et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 98
MedGen UID:
1794227
Concept ID:
C5562017
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-98 (DEE98) is characterized by onset of seizures in the first decade (range infancy to late childhood) associated with variable global developmental delay. Other features may include hypotonia, spasticity, and quadriparesis. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific and variable abnormalities, including polymicrogyria. The severity is variable; some patients may die of refractory status epilepticus (summary by Vetro et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 102
MedGen UID:
1812769
Concept ID:
C5676991
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-102 (DEE102) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and severe to profoundly impaired intellectual development with inability to walk or speak. Most patients have onset of variable types of seizures within the first year of life, and the seizures tend to be refractory. Additional features include progressive microcephaly, visual impairment, axial hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities (Marafi et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823982
Concept ID:
C5774209
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities (NEDSMBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a core phenotype of moderate to profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, epilepsy, and periventricular calcifications (summary by Rosenhahn et al., 2022).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 108
MedGen UID:
1824026
Concept ID:
C5774253
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-108 (DEE108) is characterized by the onset of multiple types of seizures in the first 2 years of life. Affected individuals often have normal early development before the onset of seizures, after which they show developmental regression with loss of skills, particularly language; most are nonverbal or speak only a few words. Other features included mildly delayed walking, unsteady gait, hypotonia, and behavioral abnormalities, such as ADHD or autism (Spinelli et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

He Z, Li Y, Zhao X, Li B
Epilepsy Res 2022 Dec;188:107041. Epub 2022 Oct 29 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2022.107041. PMID: 36368227
Yamamoto T, Gil-Nagel A, Wheless JW, Kim JH, Wechsler RT
Epilepsy Behav 2022 Nov;136:108885. Epub 2022 Sep 21 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2022.108885. PMID: 36150304
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Pressler RM, Cilio MR, Mizrahi EM, Moshé SL, Nunes ML, Plouin P, Vanhatalo S, Yozawitz E, de Vries LS, Puthenveettil Vinayan K, Triki CC, Wilmshurst JM, Yamamoto H, Zuberi SM
Epilepsia 2021 Mar;62(3):615-628. Epub 2021 Feb 1 doi: 10.1111/epi.16815. PMID: 33522601
Krauss GL, Klein P, Brandt C, Lee SK, Milanov I, Milovanovic M, Steinhoff BJ, Kamin M
Lancet Neurol 2020 Jan;19(1):38-48. Epub 2019 Nov 14 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30399-0. PMID: 31734103
Burgess R, Wang S, McTague A, Boysen KE, Yang X, Zeng Q, Myers KA, Rochtus A, Trivisano M, Gill D; EIMFS Consortium, Sadleir LG, Specchio N, Guerrini R, Marini C, Zhang YH, Mefford HC, Kurian MA, Poduri AH, Scheffer IE
Ann Neurol 2019 Dec;86(6):821-831. doi: 10.1002/ana.25619. PMID: 31618474Free PMC Article
Dupont S
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2019 Mar 1;17(S1):25-30. doi: 10.1684/pnv.2019.0782. PMID: 30916648
Lin P, Tian X, Wang X
Seizure 2018 Oct;61:177-185. Epub 2018 Aug 12 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.08.010. PMID: 30179843

Diagnosis

Chowdhury FA, Silva R, Whatley B, Walker MC
Pract Neurol 2021 Dec;21(6):481-491. Epub 2021 Aug 17 doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2019-002341. PMID: 34404748
Pack AM
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2019 Apr;25(2):306-321. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000000707. PMID: 30921011
Dupont S
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2019 Mar 1;17(S1):25-30. doi: 10.1684/pnv.2019.0782. PMID: 30916648
Sculier C, Gaspard N
Seizure 2019 May;68:72-78. Epub 2018 Sep 29 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.09.018. PMID: 30482654
Fisher RS, Cross JH, French JA, Higurashi N, Hirsch E, Jansen FE, Lagae L, Moshé SL, Peltola J, Roulet Perez E, Scheffer IE, Zuberi SM
Epilepsia 2017 Apr;58(4):522-530. Epub 2017 Mar 8 doi: 10.1111/epi.13670. PMID: 28276060

Therapy

Wirrell EC, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Alsaadi T, Bogacz A, French JA, Hirsch E, Jain S, Kaneko S, Riney K, Samia P, Snead OC, Somerville E, Specchio N, Trinka E, Zuberi SM, Balestrini S, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Tinuper P
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1333-1348. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17237. PMID: 35503715
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
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Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):2991-3009. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab321. PMID: 34431999Free PMC Article
Hakami T
Neuropsychopharmacol Rep 2021 Sep;41(3):336-351. Epub 2021 Jul 23 doi: 10.1002/npr2.12196. PMID: 34296824Free PMC Article
Dupont S
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2019 Mar 1;17(S1):25-30. doi: 10.1684/pnv.2019.0782. PMID: 30916648

Prognosis

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Dupont S
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2019 Mar 1;17(S1):25-30. doi: 10.1684/pnv.2019.0782. PMID: 30916648
Sculier C, Gaspard N
Seizure 2019 May;68:72-78. Epub 2018 Sep 29 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.09.018. PMID: 30482654
Lin P, Tian X, Wang X
Seizure 2018 Oct;61:177-185. Epub 2018 Aug 12 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2018.08.010. PMID: 30179843
Lamberink HJ, Otte WM, Geerts AT, Pavlovic M, Ramos-Lizana J, Marson AG, Overweg J, Sauma L, Specchio LM, Tennison M, Cardoso TMO, Shinnar S, Schmidt D, Geleijns K, Braun KPJ
Lancet Neurol 2017 Jul;16(7):523-531. Epub 2017 May 5 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30114-X. PMID: 28483337

Clinical prediction guides

Xian J, Thalwitzer KM, McKee J, Sullivan KR, Brimble E, Fitch E, Toib J, Kaufman MC, deCampo D, Cunningham K, Pierce SR, Goss J, Rigby CS, Syrbe S, Boland M, Prosser B, Fitter N, Ruggiero SM, Helbig I
Brain 2023 Dec 1;146(12):5182-5197. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad287. PMID: 38015929Free PMC Article
Wu TQ, Kaboodvand N, McGinn RJ, Veit M, Davey Z, Datta A, Graber KD, Meador KJ, Fisher R, Buch V, Parvizi J
Brain 2023 Jul 3;146(7):2792-2802. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad121. PMID: 37137813Free PMC Article
Toffa DH, Touma L, El Meskine T, Bouthillier A, Nguyen DK
Seizure 2020 Dec;83:104-123. Epub 2020 Oct 10 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2020.09.027. PMID: 33120323
Burgess R, Wang S, McTague A, Boysen KE, Yang X, Zeng Q, Myers KA, Rochtus A, Trivisano M, Gill D; EIMFS Consortium, Sadleir LG, Specchio N, Guerrini R, Marini C, Zhang YH, Mefford HC, Kurian MA, Poduri AH, Scheffer IE
Ann Neurol 2019 Dec;86(6):821-831. doi: 10.1002/ana.25619. PMID: 31618474Free PMC Article
Lamberink HJ, Otte WM, Geerts AT, Pavlovic M, Ramos-Lizana J, Marson AG, Overweg J, Sauma L, Specchio LM, Tennison M, Cardoso TMO, Shinnar S, Schmidt D, Geleijns K, Braun KPJ
Lancet Neurol 2017 Jul;16(7):523-531. Epub 2017 May 5 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30114-X. PMID: 28483337

Recent systematic reviews

Nevitt SJ, Sudell M, Cividini S, Marson AG, Tudur Smith C
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2022 Apr 1;4(4):CD011412. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011412.pub4. PMID: 35363878Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Zaccara G, Striano P, Russo E, Del Giovane C, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
Drugs 2022 Feb;82(2):199-218. Epub 2022 Jan 21 doi: 10.1007/s40265-021-01661-4. PMID: 35061214Free PMC Article
Maguire MJ, Marson AG, Nevitt SJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 16;4(4):CD010682. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010682.pub3. PMID: 33860531Free PMC Article
Payne LE, Gagnon DJ, Riker RR, Seder DB, Glisic EK, Morris JG, Fraser GL
Crit Care 2017 Nov 14;21(1):276. doi: 10.1186/s13054-017-1856-1. PMID: 29137682Free PMC Article
Lamberink HJ, Otte WM, Geerts AT, Pavlovic M, Ramos-Lizana J, Marson AG, Overweg J, Sauma L, Specchio LM, Tennison M, Cardoso TMO, Shinnar S, Schmidt D, Geleijns K, Braun KPJ
Lancet Neurol 2017 Jul;16(7):523-531. Epub 2017 May 5 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30114-X. PMID: 28483337

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