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Microcephaly 20, primary, autosomal recessive(MCPH20)

MedGen UID:
1641618
Concept ID:
C4693572
Congenital Abnormality
Synonyms: MCPH20; MICROCEPHALY 20, PRIMARY, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE
 
Gene (location): KIF14 (1q32.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0054761
OMIM®: 617914

Clinical features

From HPO
Renal hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120571
Concept ID:
C0266295
Congenital Abnormality
Hypoplasia of the kidney.
Uterine hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120575
Concept ID:
C0266399
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the uterus.
Vaginal atresia
MedGen UID:
232948
Concept ID:
C1321884
Congenital Abnormality
Congenital occlusion of the vagina or adhesion of the walls of the vagina causing occlusion.
Bilateral renal agenesis
MedGen UID:
296299
Concept ID:
C1609433
Disease or Syndrome
A bilateral form of agenesis of the kidney.
Hyperechogenic kidneys
MedGen UID:
477530
Concept ID:
C3275899
Finding
An increase in amplitude of waves returned in ultrasonography of the kidney, which is generally displayed as increased brightness of the signal.
Ureteral agenesis
MedGen UID:
868560
Concept ID:
C4022959
Finding
Failure of the ureter to undergo development.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Arrhinencephaly
MedGen UID:
36258
Concept ID:
C0078982
Congenital Abnormality
A defect of development of the brain characterized by congenital absence of the part of the brain that includes the olfactory bulbs, tracts, and other structures associated with the sense of smell.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Cerebellar hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
120578
Concept ID:
C0266470
Congenital Abnormality
Cerebellar hypoplasia is a descriptive term implying a cerebellum with a reduced volume, but a normal shape and is stable over time.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.
Small cerebral cortex
MedGen UID:
325187
Concept ID:
C1837503
Finding
Reduced size of the cerebral cortex.
Delayed gross motor development
MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling.
Poor speech
MedGen UID:
341172
Concept ID:
C1848207
Finding
Microlissencephaly
MedGen UID:
365439
Concept ID:
C1956147
Congenital Abnormality
Severe microcephaly and lissencephaly with granular surfaces with immature cortical plate, reduced in thickness, with focal polymicrogyria and immature small neurons with rare processes, intermingled with a considerable number of glial elements.
Simplified gyral pattern
MedGen UID:
413664
Concept ID:
C2749675
Finding
An abnormality of the cerebral cortex with fewer gyri but with normal cortical thickness. This pattern is usually often associated with congenital microcephaly.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Microphthalmia
MedGen UID:
10033
Concept ID:
C0026010
Congenital Abnormality
Microphthalmia is an eye abnormality that arises before birth. In this condition, one or both eyeballs are abnormally small. In some affected individuals, the eyeball may appear to be completely missing; however, even in these cases some remaining eye tissue is generally present. Such severe microphthalmia should be distinguished from another condition called anophthalmia, in which no eyeball forms at all. However, the terms anophthalmia and severe microphthalmia are often used interchangeably. Microphthalmia may or may not result in significant vision loss.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have a condition called coloboma. Colobomas are missing pieces of tissue in structures that form the eye. They may appear as notches or gaps in the colored part of the eye called the iris; the retina, which is the specialized light-sensitive tissue that lines the back of the eye; the blood vessel layer under the retina called the choroid; or in the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. Colobomas may be present in one or both eyes and, depending on their size and location, can affect a person's vision.\n\nPeople with microphthalmia may also have other eye abnormalities, including clouding of the lens of the eye (cataract) and a narrowed opening of the eye (narrowed palpebral fissure). Additionally, affected individuals may have an abnormality called microcornea, in which the clear front covering of the eye (cornea) is small and abnormally curved.\n\nBetween one-third and one-half of affected individuals have microphthalmia as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body. These forms of the condition are described as syndromic. When microphthalmia occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Optic nerve hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
137901
Concept ID:
C0338502
Disease or Syndrome
Underdevelopment of the optic nerve.
Blindness
MedGen UID:
99138
Concept ID:
C0456909
Disease or Syndrome
Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception defined as a profound reduction in visual perception. On the 6m visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 3/60. On the 20ft visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 20/400. On the decimal visual acuity scale, blindness is defined as less than 0.05. Blindness is typically characterized by a visual field of no greater than 10 degrees in radius around central fixation.

Recent clinical studies

Diagnosis

Fernández-Jaén A, Álvarez S, So EY, Ouchi T, Jiménez de la Peña M, Duat A, Fernández-Mayoralas DM, Fernández-Perrone AL, Albert J, Calleja-Pérez B
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2016 May;20(3):421-5. Epub 2016 Feb 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.02.009. PMID: 26947546Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Kumar A, Girimaji SC, Duvvari MR, Blanton SH
Am J Hum Genet 2009 Feb;84(2):286-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.01.017. PMID: 19215732Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Fernández-Jaén A, Álvarez S, So EY, Ouchi T, Jiménez de la Peña M, Duat A, Fernández-Mayoralas DM, Fernández-Perrone AL, Albert J, Calleja-Pérez B
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2016 May;20(3):421-5. Epub 2016 Feb 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2016.02.009. PMID: 26947546Free PMC Article
Wang N, Lu H, Chen W, Gan M, Cao X, Zhang J, Chen L
Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014;7(8):4895-903. Epub 2014 Jul 15 PMID: 25197360Free PMC Article
Muhammad F, Mahmood Baig S, Hansen L, Sajid Hussain M, Anjum Inayat I, Aslam M, Anver Qureshi J, Toilat M, Kirst E, Wajid M, Nürnberg P, Eiberg H, Tommerup N, Kjaer KW
Am J Med Genet A 2009 May;149A(5):926-30. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32749. PMID: 19353628
Kumar A, Girimaji SC, Duvvari MR, Blanton SH
Am J Hum Genet 2009 Feb;84(2):286-90. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.01.017. PMID: 19215732Free PMC Article

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