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Protoporphyria, erythropoietic, 2(EPP2)

MedGen UID:
1645733
Concept ID:
C4693947
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: EPP2
 
Gene (location): CLPX (15q22.31)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0060729
OMIM®: 618015

Definition

Erythropoietic porphyria-2 is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder of heme biosynthesis, resulting in abnormal accumulation of the heme biosynthesis intermediate protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Affected individuals may have photosensitivity (summary by Yien et al., 2017) For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EPP, see EPP1 (177000). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Iron deficiency anemia
MedGen UID:
57668
Concept ID:
C0162316
Disease or Syndrome
Anemia caused by low iron intake, inefficient iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, or chronic blood loss.
Increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration
MedGen UID:
868608
Concept ID:
C4023007
Finding
Concentration of protoporphyrins in erythrocytes above the upper limit of normal.
Cutaneous photosensitivity
MedGen UID:
87601
Concept ID:
C0349506
Pathologic Function
An increased sensitivity of the skin to light. Photosensitivity may result in a rash upon exposure to the sun (which is known as photodermatosis). Photosensitivity can be diagnosed by phototests in which light is shone on small areas of skin.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Halloy F, Iyer PS, Ghidini A, Lysenko V, Barman-Aksözen J, Grubenmann CP, Jucker J, Wildner-Verhey van Wijk N, Ruepp MD, Minder EI, Minder AE, Schneider-Yin X, Theocharides APA, Schümperli D, Hall J
Cell Chem Biol 2021 Aug 19;28(8):1221-1234.e6. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2021.02.021. PMID: 33756123
Ardalan ZS, Chandran S, Vasudevan A, Angus PW, Grigg A, He S, Macdonald GA, Strasser SI, Tate CJ, Kennedy GA, Testro AG, Gow PJ
Liver Transpl 2019 Nov;25(11):1620-1633. Epub 2019 Sep 30 doi: 10.1002/lt.25632. PMID: 31469227
Balwani M
Mol Genet Metab 2019 Nov;128(3):298-303. Epub 2019 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.020. PMID: 30704898Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Balwani M, Bonkovsky HL, Levy C, Anderson KE, Bissell DM, Parker C, Takahashi F, Desnick RJ, Belongie K; Endeavor Investigators
N Engl J Med 2023 Apr 13;388(15):1376-1385. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2208754. PMID: 37043653
Balwani M
Mol Genet Metab 2019 Nov;128(3):298-303. Epub 2019 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.020. PMID: 30704898Free PMC Article
Ramanujam VS, Anderson KE
Curr Protoc Hum Genet 2015 Jul 1;86:17.20.1-17.20.26. doi: 10.1002/0471142905.hg1720s86. PMID: 26132003Free PMC Article
Schulenburg-Brand D, Katugampola R, Anstey AV, Badminton MN
Dermatol Clin 2014 Jul;32(3):369-84, ix. Epub 2014 May 5 doi: 10.1016/j.det.2014.03.001. PMID: 24891059
Lecha M, Puy H, Deybach JC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2009 Sep 10;4:19. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-4-19. PMID: 19744342Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Stölzel U, Doss MO, Schuppan D
Gastroenterology 2019 Aug;157(2):365-381.e4. Epub 2019 May 11 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.04.050. PMID: 31085196
Ramanujam VS, Anderson KE
Curr Protoc Hum Genet 2015 Jul 1;86:17.20.1-17.20.26. doi: 10.1002/0471142905.hg1720s86. PMID: 26132003Free PMC Article
Schulenburg-Brand D, Katugampola R, Anstey AV, Badminton MN
Dermatol Clin 2014 Jul;32(3):369-84, ix. Epub 2014 May 5 doi: 10.1016/j.det.2014.03.001. PMID: 24891059
Lecha M, Puy H, Deybach JC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2009 Sep 10;4:19. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-4-19. PMID: 19744342Free PMC Article
Br Med J 1979 Dec 8;2(6203):1456. PMID: 526809Free PMC Article

Therapy

Balwani M, Bonkovsky HL, Levy C, Anderson KE, Bissell DM, Parker C, Takahashi F, Desnick RJ, Belongie K; Endeavor Investigators
N Engl J Med 2023 Apr 13;388(15):1376-1385. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2208754. PMID: 37043653
Balwani M
Mol Genet Metab 2019 Nov;128(3):298-303. Epub 2019 Jan 24 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2019.01.020. PMID: 30704898Free PMC Article
Lala SM, Naik H, Balwani M
J Pediatr 2018 Nov;202:320-323.e2. Epub 2018 Jul 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.06.001. PMID: 30041937Free PMC Article
Kim ES, Garnock-Jones KP
Am J Clin Dermatol 2016 Apr;17(2):179-85. doi: 10.1007/s40257-016-0184-6. PMID: 26979527
Schulenburg-Brand D, Katugampola R, Anstey AV, Badminton MN
Dermatol Clin 2014 Jul;32(3):369-84, ix. Epub 2014 May 5 doi: 10.1016/j.det.2014.03.001. PMID: 24891059

Prognosis

Wensink D, Coenen S, Wilson JHP, Wagenmakers MAEM, Langendonk JG
Dig Liver Dis 2022 Apr;54(4):515-520. Epub 2021 Aug 30 doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2021.08.007. PMID: 34475006
Ventura P, Brancaleoni V, Di Pierro E, Graziadei G, Macrì A, Carmine Guida C, Nicolli A, Rossi MT, Granata F, Fiorentino V, Fustinoni S, Sala R, Pinton PC, Trevisan A, Marchini S, Cuoghi C, Marcacci M, Corradini E, Sorge F, Aurizi C, Savino MG, Cappellini MD, Pietrangelo A
Eur J Dermatol 2020 Oct 1;30(5):532-540. doi: 10.1684/ejd.2020.3880. PMID: 33021473
Lala SM, Naik H, Balwani M
J Pediatr 2018 Nov;202:320-323.e2. Epub 2018 Jul 2 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.06.001. PMID: 30041937Free PMC Article
Lecha M, Puy H, Deybach JC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2009 Sep 10;4:19. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-4-19. PMID: 19744342Free PMC Article
Cox TM
J Inherit Metab Dis 1997 Jun;20(2):258-69. doi: 10.1023/a:1005317124985. PMID: 9211198

Clinical prediction guides

Wensink D, Coenen S, Wilson JHP, Wagenmakers MAEM, Langendonk JG
Dig Liver Dis 2022 Apr;54(4):515-520. Epub 2021 Aug 30 doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2021.08.007. PMID: 34475006
Ventura P, Brancaleoni V, Di Pierro E, Graziadei G, Macrì A, Carmine Guida C, Nicolli A, Rossi MT, Granata F, Fiorentino V, Fustinoni S, Sala R, Pinton PC, Trevisan A, Marchini S, Cuoghi C, Marcacci M, Corradini E, Sorge F, Aurizi C, Savino MG, Cappellini MD, Pietrangelo A
Eur J Dermatol 2020 Oct 1;30(5):532-540. doi: 10.1684/ejd.2020.3880. PMID: 33021473
Yasuda M, Chen B, Desnick RJ
Mol Genet Metab 2019 Nov;128(3):320-331. Epub 2018 Nov 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.11.012. PMID: 30594473Free PMC Article
Ghosh MC, Zhang DL, Rouault TA
Neurobiol Dis 2015 Sep;81:66-75. Epub 2015 Mar 11 doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2015.02.026. PMID: 25771171Free PMC Article
Cox TM
J Inherit Metab Dis 1997 Jun;20(2):258-69. doi: 10.1023/a:1005317124985. PMID: 9211198

Recent systematic reviews

Heerfordt IM, Lerche CM, Philipsen PA, Wulf HC
Biomed Pharmacother 2023 Feb;158:114132. Epub 2022 Dec 14 doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2022.114132. PMID: 36525819
Noyman Y, Edel Y, Snast I, Sherman S, Kaftory R, Lapidoth M, Mimouni D, Hodak E, Levi A
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed 2021 Sep;37(5):374-379. Epub 2021 Feb 21 doi: 10.1111/phpp.12667. PMID: 33556208

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