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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 70(EIEE70; DEE70)

MedGen UID:
1648407
Concept ID:
C4749023
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 70
 
Gene (location): PHACTR1 (6p24.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032663
OMIM®: 618298

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-70 (DEE70) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of epileptic spasms or seizures in the first months of life. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills; intellectual impairment ranges from moderate to severe (summary by Hamada et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Cryptorchidism
MedGen UID:
8192
Concept ID:
C0010417
Congenital Abnormality
Cryptorchidism, or failure of testicular descent, is a common human congenital abnormality with a multifactorial etiology that likely reflects the involvement of endocrine, environmental, and hereditary factors. Cryptorchidism can result in infertility and increases risk for testicular tumors. Testicular descent from abdomen to scrotum occurs in 2 distinct phases: the transabdominal phase and the inguinoscrotal phase (summary by Gorlov et al., 2002).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Spastic tetraparesis
MedGen UID:
658719
Concept ID:
C0575059
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic weakness affecting all four limbs.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Epileptic spasm
MedGen UID:
315948
Concept ID:
C1527366
Disease or Syndrome
A sudden flexion, extension, or mixed extension-flexion of predominantly proximal and truncal muscles that is usually more sustained than a myoclonic movement but not as sustained as a tonic seizure. Limited forms may occur
Severe global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
332436
Concept ID:
C1837397
Finding
A severe delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child.
Ventriculomegaly
MedGen UID:
480553
Concept ID:
C3278923
Finding
An increase in size of the ventricular system of the brain.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Cerebral cortical atrophy
MedGen UID:
1646740
Concept ID:
C4551583
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the cortex of the cerebrum.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Flexion contracture
MedGen UID:
83069
Concept ID:
C0333068
Anatomical Abnormality
A flexion contracture is a bent (flexed) joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively. It is thus a chronic loss of joint motion due to structural changes in muscle, tendons, ligaments, or skin that prevents normal movement of joints.
Poor head control
MedGen UID:
322809
Concept ID:
C1836038
Finding
Difficulty to maintain correct position of the head while standing or sitting.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
Polyhydramnios
MedGen UID:
6936
Concept ID:
C0020224
Pathologic Function
The presence of excess amniotic fluid in the uterus during pregnancy.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Nishimoto S, Shimakawa S, Fukui M, Ogino M, Tsuda-Kitahara H, Toshikawa H, Nomura S, Kunisada K, Kashiwagi M, Miyamoto R, Tamai H, Ashida A
Pediatr Int 2021 Dec;63(12):1495-1503. Epub 2021 Sep 28 doi: 10.1111/ped.14668. PMID: 33638247
Uliel-Sibony S, Chernuha V, Meirson H, Fattal-Valevski A
Childs Nerv Syst 2020 Oct;36(10):2511-2517. Epub 2020 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s00381-020-04772-7. PMID: 32829444
van Wegberg AMJ, MacDonald A, Ahring K, Bélanger-Quintana A, Blau N, Bosch AM, Burlina A, Campistol J, Feillet F, Giżewska M, Huijbregts SC, Kearney S, Leuzzi V, Maillot F, Muntau AC, van Rijn M, Trefz F, Walter JH, van Spronsen FJ
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 Oct 12;12(1):162. doi: 10.1186/s13023-017-0685-2. PMID: 29025426Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Sullivan J, Gunning B, Zafar M, Guerrini R, Gecz J, Kolc KL, Zhao Y, Gasior M, Aimetti AA, Samanta D
Epilepsy Res 2023 Mar;191:107112. Epub 2023 Feb 22 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2023.107112. PMID: 36870093
Poke G, Stanley J, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG
Neurology 2023 Mar 28;100(13):e1363-e1375. Epub 2022 Dec 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000206758. PMID: 36581463Free PMC Article
O'Donnell-Luria AH, Pais LS, Faundes V, Wood JC, Sveden A, Luria V, Abou Jamra R, Accogli A, Amburgey K, Anderlid BM, Azzarello-Burri S, Basinger AA, Bianchini C, Bird LM, Buchert R, Carre W, Ceulemans S, Charles P, Cox H, Culliton L, Currò A; Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) Study, Demurger F, Dowling JJ, Duban-Bedu B, Dubourg C, Eiset SE, Escobar LF, Ferrarini A, Haack TB, Hashim M, Heide S, Helbig KL, Helbig I, Heredia R, Héron D, Isidor B, Jonasson AR, Joset P, Keren B, Kok F, Kroes HY, Lavillaureix A, Lu X, Maas SM, Maegawa GHB, Marcelis CLM, Mark PR, Masruha MR, McLaughlin HM, McWalter K, Melchinger EU, Mercimek-Andrews S, Nava C, Pendziwiat M, Person R, Ramelli GP, Ramos LLP, Rauch A, Reavey C, Renieri A, Rieß A, Sanchez-Valle A, Sattar S, Saunders C, Schwarz N, Smol T, Srour M, Steindl K, Syrbe S, Taylor JC, Telegrafi A, Thiffault I, Trauner DA, van der Linden H Jr, van Koningsbruggen S, Villard L, Vogel I, Vogt J, Weber YG, Wentzensen IM, Widjaja E, Zak J, Baxter S, Banka S, Rodan LH
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Jun 6;104(6):1210-1222. Epub 2019 May 9 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.021. PMID: 31079897Free PMC Article
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Nagarajan B, Gowda VK, Yoganathan S, Sharawat IK, Srivastava K, Vora N, Badheka R, Danda S, Kalane U, Kaur A, Madaan P, Mehta S, Negi S, Panda PK, Rajadhyaksha S, Saini AG, Saini L, Shah S, Srinivasan VM, Suthar R, Thomas M, Vyas S, Sankhyan N, Sahu JK
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1383-1404. Epub 2023 Aug 25 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12811. PMID: 37583270Free PMC Article
Poke G, Stanley J, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG
Neurology 2023 Mar 28;100(13):e1363-e1375. Epub 2022 Dec 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000206758. PMID: 36581463Free PMC Article
Coursimault J, Guerrot AM, Morrow MM, Schramm C, Zamora FM, Shanmugham A, Liu S, Zou F, Bilan F, Le Guyader G, Bruel AL, Denommé-Pichon AS, Faivre L, Tran Mau-Them F, Tessarech M, Colin E, El Chehadeh S, Gérard B, Schaefer E, Cogne B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Doummar D, Valence S, Héron D, Keren B, Mignot C, Coutton C, Devillard F, Alaix AS, Amiel J, Colleaux L, Munnich A, Poirier K, Rio M, Rondeau S, Barcia G, Callewaert B, Dheedene A, Kumps C, Vergult S, Menten B, Chung WK, Hernan R, Larson A, Nori K, Stewart S, Wheless J, Kresge C, Pletcher BA, Caumes R, Smol T, Sigaudy S, Coubes C, Helm M, Smith R, Morrison J, Wheeler PG, Kritzer A, Jouret G, Afenjar A, Deleuze JF, Olaso R, Boland A, Poitou C, Frebourg T, Houdayer C, Saugier-Veber P, Nicolas G, Lecoquierre F
Hum Genet 2022 Jan;141(1):65-80. Epub 2021 Nov 8 doi: 10.1007/s00439-021-02383-z. PMID: 34748075
van Wegberg AMJ, MacDonald A, Ahring K, Bélanger-Quintana A, Blau N, Bosch AM, Burlina A, Campistol J, Feillet F, Giżewska M, Huijbregts SC, Kearney S, Leuzzi V, Maillot F, Muntau AC, van Rijn M, Trefz F, Walter JH, van Spronsen FJ
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2017 Oct 12;12(1):162. doi: 10.1186/s13023-017-0685-2. PMID: 29025426Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Therapy

Sullivan J, Gunning B, Zafar M, Guerrini R, Gecz J, Kolc KL, Zhao Y, Gasior M, Aimetti AA, Samanta D
Epilepsy Res 2023 Mar;191:107112. Epub 2023 Feb 22 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2023.107112. PMID: 36870093
Pong AW, Xu KJ, Klein P
Curr Opin Neurol 2023 Apr 1;36(2):77-85. Epub 2023 Feb 10 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001144. PMID: 36762638
Elkommos S, Mula M
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2022 Dec;23(18):2023-2034. Epub 2022 Sep 27 doi: 10.1080/14656566.2022.2128670. PMID: 36154780
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Peariso K, Arya R, Glauser T, Abend NS, Barcia Aguilar C, Amengual-Gual M, Anderson A, Appavu BL, Brenton JN, Carpenter J, Chapman KE, Clark J, Gaillard WD, Gaínza-Lein M, Goldstein J, Goodkin H, Grinspan Z, Guerriero RM, Horn PS, Huh L, Kahoud R, Kelley SA, Kossoff EH, Kapur K, Lai YC, Marquis BO, McDonough T, Mikati MA, Morgan L, Novotny E, Ostendorf AP, Payne ET, Piantino J, Riviello J, Sands T, Stafstrom CE, Tasker RC, Tchapyjnikov D, Vasquez A, Wainwright MS, Wilfong A, Williams K, Loddenkemper T; for Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG)
Neurology 2023 Aug 1;101(5):e546-e557. Epub 2023 Jun 9 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207472. PMID: 37295955Free PMC Article
Bar C, Breuillard D, Kuchenbuch M, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Isnard H, Rolland A, Doummar D, Fluss J, Afenjar A, Berquin P, De Saint Martin A, Dupont S, Goldenberg A, Lederer D, Lesca G, Maurey H, Meyer P, Mignot C, Nica A, Odent S, Poisson A, Scalais E, Sekhara T, Vrielynck P, Barcia G, Nabbout R
Epilepsy Behav 2022 Jan;126:108471. Epub 2021 Dec 13 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.108471. PMID: 34915430
Cloppenborg T, van Schooneveld M, Hagemann A, Hopf JL, Kalbhenn T, Otte WM, Polster T, Bien CG, Braun KPJ
Neurology 2022 Jan 18;98(3):e225-e235. Epub 2021 Nov 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013065. PMID: 34795046
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article
Zupanc ML
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2003 Nov;4(11):2039-48. doi: 10.1517/14656566.4.11.2039. PMID: 14596657

Clinical prediction guides

Strzelczyk A, Lagae L, Wilmshurst JM, Brunklaus A, Striano P, Rosenow F, Schubert-Bast S
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1256-1270. Epub 2023 Oct 11 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12832. PMID: 37750463Free PMC Article
Nagarajan B, Gowda VK, Yoganathan S, Sharawat IK, Srivastava K, Vora N, Badheka R, Danda S, Kalane U, Kaur A, Madaan P, Mehta S, Negi S, Panda PK, Rajadhyaksha S, Saini AG, Saini L, Shah S, Srinivasan VM, Suthar R, Thomas M, Vyas S, Sankhyan N, Sahu JK
Epilepsia Open 2023 Dec;8(4):1383-1404. Epub 2023 Aug 25 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12811. PMID: 37583270Free PMC Article
Peariso K, Arya R, Glauser T, Abend NS, Barcia Aguilar C, Amengual-Gual M, Anderson A, Appavu BL, Brenton JN, Carpenter J, Chapman KE, Clark J, Gaillard WD, Gaínza-Lein M, Goldstein J, Goodkin H, Grinspan Z, Guerriero RM, Horn PS, Huh L, Kahoud R, Kelley SA, Kossoff EH, Kapur K, Lai YC, Marquis BO, McDonough T, Mikati MA, Morgan L, Novotny E, Ostendorf AP, Payne ET, Piantino J, Riviello J, Sands T, Stafstrom CE, Tasker RC, Tchapyjnikov D, Vasquez A, Wainwright MS, Wilfong A, Williams K, Loddenkemper T; for Pediatric Status Epilepticus Research Group (pSERG)
Neurology 2023 Aug 1;101(5):e546-e557. Epub 2023 Jun 9 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207472. PMID: 37295955Free PMC Article
Alharbi HM, Pinchefsky EF, Tran MA, Salazar Cerda CI, Parokaran Varghese J, Kamino D, Widjaja E, Mamak E, Ly L, Nevalainen P, Hahn CD, Tam EWY
Neurology 2023 May 9;100(19):e1976-e1984. Epub 2023 Mar 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207202. PMID: 36990719Free PMC Article
Guerrini R, Mei D, Kerti-Szigeti K, Pepe S, Koenig MK, Von Allmen G, Cho MT, McDonald K, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Powis Z, Rodan L, Nabbout R, Barcia G, Rosenfeld JA, Bacino CA, Mignot C, Power LH, Harris CJ, Marjanovic D, Møller RS, Hammer TB; DDD Study, Keski Filppula R, Vieira P, Hildebrandt C, Sacharow S; Undiagnosed Diseases Network, Maragliano L, Benfenati F, Lachlan K, Benneche A, Petit F, de Sainte Agathe JM, Hallinan B, Si Y, Wentzensen IM, Zou F, Narayanan V, Matsumoto N, Boncristiano A, la Marca G, Kato M, Anderson K, Barba C, Sturiale L, Garozzo D, Bei R; ATP6V1A collaborators, Masuelli L, Conti V, Novarino G, Fassio A
Brain 2022 Aug 27;145(8):2687-2703. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac145. PMID: 35675510Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Stefanos-Yakoub I, Wingeier K, Held U, Latal B, Wirrell E, Smith ML, Ramantani G
Epilepsia 2024 Feb;65(2):251-265. Epub 2023 Dec 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17834. PMID: 38031640
Paprocka J, Kaminiów K, Yetkin O, Tekturk P, Baykan B, Leiz S, Kluger G, Striano P
Seizure 2024 Mar;116:14-23. Epub 2022 Dec 8 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2022.12.001. PMID: 36526544
Rondão MBA, Hsu BRRHS, Centeno RS, de Aguiar PHP
Seizure 2023 Aug;110:58-68. Epub 2023 Jun 3 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2023.04.020. PMID: 37327751
Salvati A, Bonaventura E, Sesso G, Pasquariello R, Sicca F
Seizure 2021 Oct;91:425-436. Epub 2021 Jul 21 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2021.07.020. PMID: 34325301
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article

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