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Severe combined immunodeficiency due to CARMIL2 deficiency(IMD58)

MedGen UID:
1648422
Concept ID:
C4748304
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: IMMUNODEFICIENCY 58
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal recessive inheritance
MedGen UID:
141025
Concept ID:
C0441748
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in individuals with two pathogenic alleles, either homozygotes (two copies of the same mutant allele) or compound heterozygotes (whereby each copy of a gene has a distinct mutant allele).
 
Gene (location): CARMIL2 (16q22.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0029134
OMIM®: 618131
Orphanet: ORPHA542301

Definition

Immunodeficiency-58 is an autosomal recessive primary immunologic disorder characterized by early-onset skin lesions, including eczematous dermatitis, infectious abscesses, and warts, recurrent respiratory infections or allergies, and chronic persistent infections with candida, Molluscum contagiosum, mycobacteria, EBV, bacteria, and viruses. Some patients may have gastrointestinal involvement, including inflammatory bowel disease, EBV+ smooth muscle tumors, and esophagitis. Immunologic analysis shows defective T-cell function with decreased Treg cells and deficient CD3/CD28 costimulation responses in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. B-cell function may also be impaired (summary by Wang et al., 2016 and Alazami et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Fatigue
MedGen UID:
41971
Concept ID:
C0015672
Sign or Symptom
A subjective feeling of tiredness characterized by a lack of energy and motivation.
Verrucae
MedGen UID:
777120
Concept ID:
C3665596
Finding
Warts, benign growths on the skin or mucous membranes that cause cosmetic problems as well as pain and discomfort. Warts most often occur on the hands, feet, and genital areas.
Dysuria
MedGen UID:
3943
Concept ID:
C0013428
Sign or Symptom
Painful or difficult urination.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Colitis
MedGen UID:
40385
Concept ID:
C0009319
Disease or Syndrome
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disorder that affects the digestive system. This condition is characterized by abnormal inflammation of the inner surface (epithelium) of the rectum and colon. The rectum and colon make up most of the length of the large intestine. The inflammation usually causes open sores (ulcers) to develop in the large intestine. Ulcerative colitis usually appears between the age of 15 and 30, although it can develop at any age. The inflammation tends to flare up multiple times throughout a person's life, which causes recurring signs and symptoms.\n\nThe most common symptoms of ulcerative colitis are cramping abdominal pain and frequent diarrhea, often with blood, pus, or mucus in the stool. Other signs and symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite, bowel urgency, fatigue, and fevers. Chronic bleeding from the inflamed and ulcerated intestinal tissue can cause a shortage of red blood cells (anemia) in some affected individuals. People with this disorder have difficulty absorbing enough fluids and nutrients from their diet and often experience weight loss. Affected children usually grow more slowly than normal. Less commonly, ulcerative colitis causes problems with the skin, joints, eyes, kidneys, or liver, which are most likely due to abnormal inflammation.\n\nToxic megacolon is a rare complication of ulcerative colitis that can be life-threatening. Toxic megacolon involves a widening (dilation) of the colon and an overwhelming inflammatory response. Ulcerative colitis also increases the risk of developing colon cancer, especially in people whose entire colon is inflamed and in those who have had ulcerative colitis for 8 years or more.\n\nUlcerative colitis is one common form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Another type of IBD, Crohn's disease, also causes chronic inflammation of the intestines. Unlike ulcerative colitis, which affects only the inner surface of the large intestine, Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, and the inflammation extends deeper into the intestinal tissue.
Dysphagia
MedGen UID:
41440
Concept ID:
C0011168
Disease or Syndrome
Difficulty in swallowing.
Esophagitis
MedGen UID:
4549
Concept ID:
C0014868
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of the esophagus.
Chronic diarrhea
MedGen UID:
96036
Concept ID:
C0401151
Finding
The presence of chronic diarrhea, which is usually taken to mean diarrhea that has persisted for over 4 weeks.
Helicobacter pylori infection
MedGen UID:
208857
Concept ID:
C0850666
Disease or Syndrome
A recurrent infection of the GI tract with helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
Muscle spasm
MedGen UID:
52431
Concept ID:
C0037763
Sign or Symptom
Sudden and involuntary contractions of one or more muscles.
Bronchiectasis
MedGen UID:
14234
Concept ID:
C0006267
Disease or Syndrome
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi owing to localized and irreversible destruction and widening of the large airways.
Chronic bronchitis
MedGen UID:
3084
Concept ID:
C0008677
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic inflammation of the bronchi.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
MedGen UID:
9818
Concept ID:
C0024117
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, complex disorder associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. COPD is defined by irreversible airflow obstruction due to chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and/or small airways disease. Airflow obstruction is typically determined by reductions in quantitative spirometric indices, including forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV1) and the ratio of FEV1 to forced vital capacity (FVC) (Silverman et al., 2002; Celedon et al., 2004).
Recurrent upper respiratory tract infections
MedGen UID:
154380
Concept ID:
C0581381
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections as manifested by a history of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections (running ears - otitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis).
Recurrent pneumonia
MedGen UID:
195802
Concept ID:
C0694550
Disease or Syndrome
An increased susceptibility to pneumonia as manifested by a history of recurrent episodes of pneumonia.
Recurrent respiratory infections
MedGen UID:
812812
Concept ID:
C3806482
Finding
An increased susceptibility to respiratory infections as manifested by a history of recurrent respiratory infections.
Asthma
MedGen UID:
2109
Concept ID:
C0004096
Disease or Syndrome
Asthma is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to multiple stimuli, leading to narrowing of the air passages with resultant dyspnea, cough, and wheezing.
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
MedGen UID:
2426
Concept ID:
C0006845
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent or persistent superficial Candida infections of the skin, mucous membranes, and nails.
Molluscum contagiosum
MedGen UID:
10081
Concept ID:
C0026393
Disease or Syndrome
Molluscum contagiosum is a cutaneous viral infection that is commonly observed in both healthy and immunocompromised children. The infection is caused by a member of the Poxviridae family, the molluscum contagiosum virus. Molluscum contagiosum presents as single or multiple small white or flesh-colored papules that typically have a central umbilication. The central umbilication may be difficult to observe in young children and, instead, may bear an appearance similar to an acneiform eruption. The lesions vary in size (from 1 mm to 1 cm in diameter) and are painless, although a subset of patients report pruritus in the area of infection. On average, 11-20 papules appear on the body during the course of infection and generally remains a self-limiting disease. However, in immunosuppressed patients, molluscum contagiosum can be a severe infection with hundreds of lesions developing on the body. Extensive eruption is indicative of an advanced immunodeficiency state.
Seborrheic dermatitis
MedGen UID:
19912
Concept ID:
C0036508
Disease or Syndrome
Seborrheic dermatitis is a form of eczema which is closely related to dandruff. It causes dry or greasy peeling of the scalp, eyebrows, and face, and sometimes trunk.
Onychomycosis
MedGen UID:
11825
Concept ID:
C0040261
Disease or Syndrome
A fungal infection of the toenails or fingernails that tends to cause the nails to thicken, discolor, disfigure, and split.
Cutaneous abscess
MedGen UID:
450991
Concept ID:
C0149777
Pathologic Function
A circumscribed area of pus or necrotic debris in the skin.
Chronic otitis media
MedGen UID:
75751
Concept ID:
C0271441
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic otitis media refers to fluid, swelling, or infection of the middle ear that does not heal and may cause permanent damage to the ear.
Decreased T cell activation
MedGen UID:
339550
Concept ID:
C1846550
Finding
Decreased or impaired activation of T cells in response to a mitogen, cytokine, chemokine, cellular ligand, or an antigen for which it is specific.
Allergic rhinitis
MedGen UID:
382012
Concept ID:
C2607914
Disease or Syndrome
It is characterized by one or more symptoms including sneezing, itching, nasal congestion, and rhinorrhea.
Recurrent cutaneous abscess formation
MedGen UID:
867572
Concept ID:
C4021957
Finding
An increased susceptibility to cutaneous abscess formation, as manifested by a medical history of recurrent cutaneous abscesses.
Decreased circulating antibody level
MedGen UID:
892481
Concept ID:
C4048270
Finding
An abnormally decreased level of immunoglobulin in blood.
Decreased specific antibody response to vaccination
MedGen UID:
1692004
Concept ID:
C5139158
Finding
A reduced ability to synthesize postvaccination antibodies against toxoids and polysaccharides in vaccines, as measured by antibody titer determination following vaccination.
Nasal congestion
MedGen UID:
6523
Concept ID:
C0027424
Sign or Symptom
Reduced ability to pass air through the nasal cavity often leading to mouth breathing.
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
MedGen UID:
445425
Concept ID:
C2937365
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent episodes of ulceration of the oral mucosa, typically presenting as painful, sharply circumscribed fibrin-covered mucosal defects with a hyperemic border.
Ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
7002
Concept ID:
C0020757
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of the skin characterized the presence of excessive amounts of dry surface scales on the skin resulting from an abnormality of keratinization.
Atrophic scars
MedGen UID:
57875
Concept ID:
C0162154
Pathologic Function
Scars that form a depression compared to the level of the surrounding skin because of damage to the collagen, fat or other tissues below the skin.
Cold urticaria
MedGen UID:
472942
Concept ID:
C0221207
Disease or Syndrome
Urticaria may be caused by cold temperatures.
Scaling skin
MedGen UID:
472970
Concept ID:
C0237849
Finding
Refers to the loss of the outer layer of the epidermis in large, scale-like flakes.
Cutaneous photosensitivity
MedGen UID:
87601
Concept ID:
C0349506
Pathologic Function
An increased sensitivity of the skin to light. Photosensitivity may result in a rash upon exposure to the sun (which is known as photodermatosis). Photosensitivity can be diagnosed by phototests in which light is shone on small areas of skin.
Psoriasiform lesion
MedGen UID:
1382107
Concept ID:
C4476830
Finding
A skin lesions that resembles the lesions observed in psoriasis, viz., an erythematous plaque covered by fine silvery scales. Psoriasiform lesions can be observed in psoriasis as well as in other conditions including allergic contact dermatitis, seborrhoeic dermatitis, Atopic dermatitis, pityriasis rubra, and lichen simplex chronicus.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVSevere combined immunodeficiency due to CARMIL2 deficiency

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