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Charcot-marie-tooth disease, axonal, type 2DD(CMT2DD)

MedGen UID:
1648475
Concept ID:
C4747974
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH NEUROPATHY, TYPE 2DD
SNOMED CT: Autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2DD (1187620007); ATP1A1-related autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (1187620007); ATP1A1 (ATPase Na+/K+ transporting subunit alpha 1) related autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (1187620007)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
 
Gene (location): ATP1A1 (1p13.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0054833
OMIM®: 618036
Orphanet: ORPHA521414

Definition

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2DD is an autosomal dominant peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy mainly affecting the lower limbs. Affected individuals have gait impairment due to distal muscle weakness and atrophy. Some patients may also have involvement of the distal upper limbs, resulting in atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. The age at onset and severity of the disorder is highly variable, even within families, and those with earlier onset in late childhood or the teenage years tend to have a more severe disease course. Patients remain ambulatory even late in the disease, although some may require orthotic devices (summary by Lassuthova et al., 2018). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT type 2, see CMT2A (118210). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Pes cavus
MedGen UID:
675590
Concept ID:
C0728829
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of an unusually high plantar arch. Also called high instep, pes cavus refers to a distinctly hollow form of the sole of the foot when it is bearing weight.
Foot dorsiflexor weakness
MedGen UID:
356163
Concept ID:
C1866141
Finding
Weakness of the muscles responsible for dorsiflexion of the foot, that is, of the movement of the toes towards the shin. The foot dorsiflexors include the tibialis anterior, the extensor hallucis longus, the extensor digitorum longus, and the peroneus tertius muscles.
Areflexia
MedGen UID:
115943
Concept ID:
C0234146
Finding
Absence of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Steppage gait
MedGen UID:
98105
Concept ID:
C0427149
Finding
An abnormal gait pattern that arises from weakness of the pretibial and peroneal muscles due to a lower motor neuron lesion. Affected patients have footdrop and are unable to dorsiflex and evert the foot. The leg is lifted high on walking so that the toes clear the ground, and there may be a slapping noise when the foot strikes the ground again.
Hyporeflexia
MedGen UID:
195967
Concept ID:
C0700078
Finding
Reduction of neurologic reflexes such as the knee-jerk reaction.
Sensorimotor neuropathy
MedGen UID:
207266
Concept ID:
C1112256
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired distal vibration sensation
MedGen UID:
381262
Concept ID:
C1853767
Finding
A decrease in the ability to perceive vibration in the distal portions of the limbs.
Muscle spasm
MedGen UID:
52431
Concept ID:
C0037763
Sign or Symptom
Sudden and involuntary contractions of one or more muscles.
Distal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
140883
Concept ID:
C0427065
Finding
Reduced strength of the musculature of the distal extremities.
Distal amyotrophy
MedGen UID:
338530
Concept ID:
C1848736
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular atrophy affecting muscles in the distal portions of the extremities.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVCharcot-marie-tooth disease, axonal, type 2DD

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