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Global developmental delay with or without impaired intellectual development(GDDI)

MedGen UID:
1675328
Concept ID:
C5193032
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: GDDI; GLOBAL DEVELOPMENTAL DELAY WITH OR WITHOUT IMPAIRED INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT
 
Gene (location): CUX1 (7q22.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032680
OMIM®: 618330

Clinical features

From HPO
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Widened subarachnoid space
MedGen UID:
375826
Concept ID:
C1846151
Finding
An increase in size of the anatomic space between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Lateral ventricle dilatation
MedGen UID:
383904
Concept ID:
C1856409
Pathologic Function
Poor fine motor coordination
MedGen UID:
356863
Concept ID:
C1867864
Finding
An abnormality of the ability (skills) to perform a precise movement of small muscles with the intent to perform a specific act. Fine motor skills are required to mediate movements of the wrists, hands, fingers, feet, and toes.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Frontal bossing
MedGen UID:
67453
Concept ID:
C0221354
Congenital Abnormality
Bilateral bulging of the lateral frontal bone prominences with relative sparing of the midline.
Pectus excavatum
MedGen UID:
781174
Concept ID:
C2051831
Finding
A defect of the chest wall characterized by a depression of the sternum, giving the chest ("pectus") a caved-in ("excavatum") appearance.
Plagiocephaly
MedGen UID:
1825944
Concept ID:
C2081594
Finding
Asymmetric head shape, which is usually a combination of unilateral occipital flattening with ipsilateral frontal prominence, leading to rhomboid cranial shape.
Congenital pulmonary sequestration
MedGen UID:
892881
Concept ID:
C4020703
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of a piece lung tissue which is not attached to the pulmonary blood supply and does not communicate with the other lung tissue (not connected to the standard bronchial airways and not performing a function in respiration).
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Oligodontia
MedGen UID:
904670
Concept ID:
C4082304
Congenital Abnormality
The absence of six or more teeth from the normal series by a failure to develop.
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Yang L, Shu X, Mao S, Wang Y, Du X, Zou C
Genes (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;12(7) doi: 10.3390/genes12070987. PMID: 34203304Free PMC Article
Rawlinson WD, Boppana SB, Fowler KB, Kimberlin DW, Lazzarotto T, Alain S, Daly K, Doutré S, Gibson L, Giles ML, Greenlee J, Hamilton ST, Harrison GJ, Hui L, Jones CA, Palasanthiran P, Schleiss MR, Shand AW, van Zuylen WJ
Lancet Infect Dis 2017 Jun;17(6):e177-e188. Epub 2017 Mar 11 doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(17)30143-3. PMID: 28291720
O'Shea TM
Clin Obstet Gynecol 2008 Dec;51(4):816-28. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181870ba7. PMID: 18981805Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gómez-Roig MD, Pascal R, Cahuana MJ, García-Algar O, Sebastiani G, Andreu-Fernández V, Martínez L, Rodríguez G, Iglesia I, Ortiz-Arrabal O, Mesa MD, Cabero MJ, Guerra L, Llurba E, Domínguez C, Zanini MJ, Foraster M, Larqué E, Cabañas F, Lopez-Azorín M, Pérez A, Loureiro B, Pallás-Alonso CR, Escuder-Vieco D, Vento M
Fetal Diagn Ther 2021;48(4):245-257. Epub 2021 Mar 18 doi: 10.1159/000514884. PMID: 33735860
Sacchi C, Marino C, Nosarti C, Vieno A, Visentin S, Simonelli A
JAMA Pediatr 2020 Aug 1;174(8):772-781. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1097. PMID: 32453414Free PMC Article
Rogers EE, Hintz SR
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O'Shea TM
Clin Obstet Gynecol 2008 Dec;51(4):816-28. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181870ba7. PMID: 18981805Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Choo YY, Agarwal P, How CH, Yeleswarapu SP
Singapore Med J 2019 Mar;60(3):119-123. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2019025. PMID: 30997518Free PMC Article
Vasudevan P, Suri M
Clin Med (Lond) 2017 Dec;17(6):558-561. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.17-6-558. PMID: 29196358Free PMC Article
Marrus N, Hall L
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O'Shea TM
Clin Obstet Gynecol 2008 Dec;51(4):816-28. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181870ba7. PMID: 18981805Free PMC Article

Therapy

Samanta D
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Apr;105:3-9. Epub 2019 Nov 30 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2019.10.009. PMID: 32057594
Lucas BR, Elliott EJ, Coggan S, Pinto RZ, Jirikowic T, McCoy SW, Latimer J
BMC Pediatr 2016 Nov 29;16(1):193. doi: 10.1186/s12887-016-0731-6. PMID: 27899082Free PMC Article
Bailey RL, West KP Jr, Black RE
Ann Nutr Metab 2015;66 Suppl 2:22-33. Epub 2015 Jun 2 doi: 10.1159/000371618. PMID: 26045325
Colver A, Fairhurst C, Pharoah PO
Lancet 2014 Apr 5;383(9924):1240-9. Epub 2013 Nov 20 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61835-8. PMID: 24268104
Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ
Lancet 2006 May 6;367(9521):1521-32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68653-4. PMID: 16679166

Prognosis

Fakhro KA
Adv Neurobiol 2020;24:83-96. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_3. PMID: 32006357
Rogers EE, Hintz SR
Semin Perinatol 2016 Dec;40(8):497-509. Epub 2016 Nov 16 doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2016.09.002. PMID: 27865437
Picciolini O, Porro M, Cattaneo E, Castelletti S, Masera G, Mosca F, Bedeschi MF
Ital J Pediatr 2016 Jun 3;42(1):56. doi: 10.1186/s13052-016-0256-5. PMID: 27260152Free PMC Article
O'Shea TM
Clin Obstet Gynecol 2008 Dec;51(4):816-28. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181870ba7. PMID: 18981805Free PMC Article
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Clinical prediction guides

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JAMA Pediatr 2020 Aug 1;174(8):772-781. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1097. PMID: 32453414Free PMC Article
Fakhro KA
Adv Neurobiol 2020;24:83-96. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-30402-7_3. PMID: 32006357
Callahan PM, Terry AV Jr
Handb Exp Pharmacol 2015;228:161-89. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-16522-6_5. PMID: 25977082
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Clin Obstet Gynecol 2008 Dec;51(4):816-28. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0b013e3181870ba7. PMID: 18981805Free PMC Article
Amaral DG, Schumann CM, Nordahl CW
Trends Neurosci 2008 Mar;31(3):137-45. Epub 2008 Feb 6 doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2007.12.005. PMID: 18258309

Recent systematic reviews

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Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 May 13;16(1):219. doi: 10.1186/s13023-021-01850-0. PMID: 33985586Free PMC Article
Lange S, Probst C, Gmel G, Rehm J, Burd L, Popova S
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BMC Pediatr 2016 Nov 29;16(1):193. doi: 10.1186/s12887-016-0731-6. PMID: 27899082Free PMC Article
Moeschler JB, Shevell M; Committee on Genetics
Pediatrics 2014 Sep;134(3):e903-18. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-1839. PMID: 25157020Free PMC Article

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