U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government


Send to:

Choose Destination


MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Abscesses
SNOMED CT: Abscess morphology (44132006); Abscess (128477000); Abscess (44132006)
HPO: HP:0025615
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005227


An inflammatory process characterized by the accumulation of pus within a newly formed tissue cavity which is the result of a bacterial, fungal, or parasitic infection or the presence of a foreign body. [from NCI]

Conditions with this feature

Lazy leukocyte syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Periodic fever, immunodeficiency, and thrombocytopenia syndrome (PFITS) is an autosomal recessive immunologic disorder with variable manifestations. Common features include early-onset recurrent respiratory infections, stomatitis, and cutaneous infections. Organisms usually include bacteria such as pneumococcus, Staphylococcus, and H. influenzae, but severe viral infections, including varicella, may also occur. Laboratory investigations may show neutropenia, neutrophilia, leukocytosis, or lymphopenia, although levels of immune cells may also be normal. Detailed studies often show impaired neutrophil chemotaxis associated with increased or abnormal F-actin levels, and impaired, normal, or even increased oxidative burst, depending on the stimulus. B- and T-cell abnormalities have also been observed. Some patients develop autoimmune manifestations, including chronic thrombocytopenia, anemia, and periodic fevers, associated with activation of the inflammasome. Early death may occur; however, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be curative (summary by Kuhns et al., 2016, Standing et al., 2017, and Pfajfer et al., 2018).
Pyogenic bacterial infections due to MyD88 deficiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-68 (IMD68) is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency characterized by severe systemic and invasive bacterial infections beginning in infancy or early childhood. The most common organisms implicated are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas, although other organisms may be observed. IMD68 is life-threatening in infancy and early childhood. The first invasive infection typically occurs before 2 years of age, with meningitis and upper respiratory infections being common manifestations. The mortality rate in early childhood is high, with most deaths occurring before 8 years of age. Affected individuals have an impaired inflammatory response to infection, including lack of fever and neutropenia, although erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein may be elevated. General immunologic workup tends to be normal, with normal levels of B cells, T cells, and NK cells. However, more detailed studies indicate impaired cytokine response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IL1B (147720) stimulation; response to TNFA (191160) is usually normal. Patients have good antibody responses to most vaccinations. Viral, fungal, and parasitic infections are generally not observed. Early detection is critical in early childhood because prophylactic treatment with IVIg or certain antibiotics is effective; the disorder tends to improve naturally around adolescence. At the molecular level, IMD68 results from impaired function of selective Toll receptor (see TLR4, 603030)/IL1R (see IL1R1; 147810) signaling pathways that ultimately activate NFKB (164011) to produce cytokines (summary by Picard et al., 2010). See also IMD67 (607676), caused by mutation in the IRAK4 gene (602170), which shows a similar phenotype to IMD68. As the MYD88 and IRAK4 genes interact in the same intracellular signaling pathway, the clinical and cellular features are almost indistinguishable (summary by Picard et al., 2010).
Sterile multifocal osteomyelitis with periostitis and pustulosis
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis-2 with periostitis and pustulosis (CRMO2) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic autoinflammatory disorder characterized by onset of symptoms in early infancy. Affected individuals present with joint swelling and pain, pustular rash, oral mucosal lesions, and fetal distress. The disorder progresses in severity to generalized severe pustulosis or ichthyosiform lesions and diffuse bone lesions. Radiographic studies show widening of the anterior rib ends, periosteal elevation along multiple long bones, multifocal osteolytic lesions, heterotopic ossification, and metaphyseal erosions of the long bones. Laboratory studies show elevation of inflammatory markers. The disorder results from unopposed activation of the IL1 inflammatory signaling pathway. Treatment with the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist anakinra may result in clinical improvement (Aksentijevich et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CRMO, see 609628.
Severe combined immunodeficiency due to LCK deficiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-22 (IMD22) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of recurrent bacterial, viral, and fungal respiratory, gastrointestinal, and skin infections in infancy or early childhood. Immunologic workup shows severe T-cell lymphopenia, particularly affecting the CD4+ subset, and impaired proximal TCR intracellular signaling and activation. Although NK cells and B cells are normal, some patients may have hypogammaglobulinemia secondary to the T-cell defect. There are variable manifestations, likely due to the severity of the particular LCK mutation: patients may develop prominent skin lesions resembling epidermodysplasia verruciformis, gastrointestinal inflammation, and virus-induced malignancy. The disease can be fatal in childhood, but hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) may be curative (Hauck et al., 2012; Li et al., 2016; Keller et al., 2023).
Immunodeficiency 23
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
IMD23 is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by onset of recurrent infections, usually respiratory or cutaneous, in early childhood. Immune workup usually shows neutropenia, lymphopenia, eosinophilia, and increased serum IgE or IgA. Neutrophil chemotactic defects have also been reported. Infectious agents include bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Many patients develop atopic dermatitis, eczema, and other signs of autoinflammation. Affected individuals may also show developmental delay or cognitive impairment of varying severity (summary by Bjorksten and Lundmark, 1976 and Zhang et al., 2014).
Granulomatous disease, chronic, autosomal recessive, 5
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency disorder of phagocytes (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and eosinophils) resulting from impaired killing of bacteria and fungi. CGD is characterized by severe recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and dysregulated inflammatory responses resulting in granuloma formation and other inflammatory disorders such as colitis. Infections typically involve the lung (pneumonia), lymph nodes (lymphadenitis), liver (abscess), bone (osteomyelitis), and skin (abscesses or cellulitis). Granulomas typically involve the genitourinary system (bladder) and gastrointestinal tract (often the pylorus initially, and later the esophagus, jejunum, ileum, cecum, rectum, and perirectal area). Some males with X-linked CGD have McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome as the result of a contiguous gene deletion. While CGD may present anytime from infancy to late adulthood, the vast majority of affected individuals are diagnosed before age five years. Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis and therapy has greatly improved overall survival.
Immunodeficiency 81
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Immunodeficiency-81 (IMD81) is an autosomal recessive complex disorder with onset of recurrent infections, including fungal infections, in early infancy, associated with T-cell, neutrophil, and NK dysfunction. B cells may also show maturation abnormalities. Other features include autoimmune hemolytic anemia and abnormal platelet aggregation, indicating a complex disorder with a wide range of hematopoietic disturbances. The disorder is caused by a defect in intracellular signaling pathways (summary by Lev et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines


Di Saverio S, Podda M, De Simone B, Ceresoli M, Augustin G, Gori A, Boermeester M, Sartelli M, Coccolini F, Tarasconi A, De' Angelis N, Weber DG, Tolonen M, Birindelli A, Biffl W, Moore EE, Kelly M, Soreide K, Kashuk J, Ten Broek R, Gomes CA, Sugrue M, Davies RJ, Damaskos D, Leppäniemi A, Kirkpatrick A, Peitzman AB, Fraga GP, Maier RV, Coimbra R, Chiarugi M, Sganga G, Pisanu A, De' Angelis GL, Tan E, Van Goor H, Pata F, Di Carlo I, Chiara O, Litvin A, Campanile FC, Sakakushev B, Tomadze G, Demetrashvili Z, Latifi R, Abu-Zidan F, Romeo O, Segovia-Lohse H, Baiocchi G, Costa D, Rizoli S, Balogh ZJ, Bendinelli C, Scalea T, Ivatury R, Velmahos G, Andersson R, Kluger Y, Ansaloni L, Catena F
World J Emerg Surg 2020 Apr 15;15(1):27. doi: 10.1186/s13017-020-00306-3. PMID: 32295644Free PMC Article
Mitchell RB, Archer SM, Ishman SL, Rosenfeld RM, Coles S, Finestone SA, Friedman NR, Giordano T, Hildrew DM, Kim TW, Lloyd RM, Parikh SR, Shulman ST, Walner DL, Walsh SA, Nnacheta LC
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2019 Feb;160(2):187-205. doi: 10.1177/0194599818807917. PMID: 30921525
Lardière-Deguelte S, Ragot E, Amroun K, Piardi T, Dokmak S, Bruno O, Appere F, Sibert A, Hoeffel C, Sommacale D, Kianmanesh R
J Visc Surg 2015 Sep;152(4):231-43. Epub 2015 Mar 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jviscsurg.2015.01.013. PMID: 25770745

Recent clinical studies


Mameli C, Genoni T, Madia C, Doneda C, Penagini F, Zuccotti G
Childs Nerv Syst 2019 Jul;35(7):1117-1128. Epub 2019 May 6 doi: 10.1007/s00381-019-04182-4. PMID: 31062139
Chen M, Low DCY, Low SYY, Muzumdar D, Seow WT
Childs Nerv Syst 2018 Oct;34(10):1871-1880. Epub 2018 Jul 3 doi: 10.1007/s00381-018-3886-7. PMID: 29968000
Sonneville R, Ruimy R, Benzonana N, Riffaud L, Carsin A, Tadié JM, Piau C, Revest M, Tattevin P; ESCMID Study Group for Infectious Diseases of the Brain (ESGIB)
Clin Microbiol Infect 2017 Sep;23(9):614-620. Epub 2017 May 10 doi: 10.1016/j.cmi.2017.05.004. PMID: 28501669
Tompkins M, Panuncialman I, Lucas P, Palumbo M
J Emerg Med 2010 Sep;39(3):384-90. Epub 2010 Jan 8 doi: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.11.001. PMID: 20060254
Galioto NJ
Am Fam Physician 2008 Jan 15;77(2):199-202. PMID: 18246890


Giordano D, Pernice C
N Engl J Med 2022 Jul 21;387(3):260. doi: 10.1056/NEJMicm2119678. PMID: 35857662
Bowman JK
Prim Care 2022 Mar;49(1):39-45. Epub 2022 Jan 5 doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2021.10.002. PMID: 35125157
Thompson DT, Hrabe JE
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2021 Jun;50(2):475-488. Epub 2021 Apr 23 doi: 10.1016/j.gtc.2021.02.014. PMID: 34024453
Bonfield CM, Sharma J, Dobson S
J Infect 2015 Jun;71 Suppl 1:S42-6. Epub 2015 Apr 24 doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2015.04.012. PMID: 25917804
Shields D, Robinson P, Crowley TP
Int J Surg 2012;10(9):466-9. Epub 2012 Sep 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2012.08.016. PMID: 22960467


Coccolini F, Fugazzola P, Sartelli M, Cicuttin E, Sibilla MG, Leandro G, De' Angelis GL, Gaiani F, Di Mario F, Tomasoni M, Catena F, Ansaloni L
Acta Biomed 2018 Dec 17;89(9-S):119-134. doi: 10.23750/abm.v89i9-S.7905. PMID: 30561405Free PMC Article
Cope AL, Francis N, Wood F, Chestnutt IG
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Sep 27;9(9):CD010136. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD010136.pub3. PMID: 30259968Free PMC Article
Lemiengre MB, van Driel ML, Merenstein D, Liira H, Mäkelä M, De Sutter AI
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Sep 10;9(9):CD006089. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006089.pub5. PMID: 30198548Free PMC Article
Del Fabbro M, Corbella S, Sequeira-Byron P, Tsesis I, Rosen E, Lolato A, Taschieri S
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Oct 19;10(10):CD005511. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005511.pub3. PMID: 27759881Free PMC Article
Kimball AB, Okun MM, Williams DA, Gottlieb AB, Papp KA, Zouboulis CC, Armstrong AW, Kerdel F, Gold MH, Forman SB, Korman NJ, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Crowley JJ, Lynde C, Reguiai Z, Prens EP, Alwawi E, Mostafa NM, Pinsky B, Sundaram M, Gu Y, Carlson DM, Jemec GB
N Engl J Med 2016 Aug 4;375(5):422-34. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1504370. PMID: 27518661


Wang JL, Hsu CR, Wu CY, Lin HH
Sci Rep 2023 May 16;13(1):7922. doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-34889-z. PMID: 37193729Free PMC Article
Muramatsu KI, Nagasawa H, Murai Y, Sakurada M, Jitsuiki K, Yanagawa Y
Am J Emerg Med 2020 Sep;38(9):1972.e1-1972.e3. Epub 2020 May 7 doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2020.04.096. PMID: 32444294
Babic M, Simpfendorfer CS, Berbari EF
Curr Opin Infect Dis 2019 Jun;32(3):265-271. doi: 10.1097/QCO.0000000000000544. PMID: 31021957
Herregods MC
Verh K Acad Geneeskd Belg 2011;73(3-4):153-61. PMID: 22482194
D'Souza N
BMJ Clin Evid 2011 Jan 7;2011 PMID: 21477397Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Guliciuc M, Porav-Hodade D, Chibelean BC, Voidazan ST, Ghirca VM, Maier AC, Marinescu M, Firescu D
Medicina (Kaunas) 2023 Mar 17;59(3) doi: 10.3390/medicina59030597. PMID: 36984597Free PMC Article
Smith KL, Hughes R, Myrex P
Am Fam Physician 2023 Jan;107(1):35-41. PMID: 36689967
Hwang JH, Kim BW, Kim SR, Kim JH
J Obstet Gynaecol 2022 Jan;42(1):97-102. Epub 2021 Feb 25 doi: 10.1080/01443615.2020.1867965. PMID: 33629630
Tsui WM, Chan YK, Wong CT, Lo YF, Yeung YW, Lee YW
Semin Liver Dis 2011 Feb;31(1):33-48. Epub 2011 Feb 22 doi: 10.1055/s-0031-1272833. PMID: 21344349
Wong CH, Khin LW, Heng KS, Tan KC, Low CO
Crit Care Med 2004 Jul;32(7):1535-41. doi: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000129486.35458.7d. PMID: 15241098

Recent systematic reviews

Lemiengre MB, van Driel ML, Merenstein D, Liira H, Mäkelä M, De Sutter AI
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Sep 10;9(9):CD006089. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006089.pub5. PMID: 30198548Free PMC Article
Wong SJ, Levi J
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2018 Jul;110:123-129. Epub 2018 May 8 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.05.006. PMID: 29859573
Loh R, Phua M, Shaw CL
J Laryngol Otol 2018 Feb;132(2):96-104. Epub 2017 Sep 7 doi: 10.1017/S0022215117001840. PMID: 28879826
Brouwer MC, Coutinho JM, van de Beek D
Neurology 2014 Mar 4;82(9):806-13. Epub 2014 Jan 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000000172. PMID: 24477107
Shields D, Robinson P, Crowley TP
Int J Surg 2012;10(9):466-9. Epub 2012 Sep 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ijsu.2012.08.016. PMID: 22960467

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...