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Holoprosencephaly 12 with or without pancreatic agenesis(HPE12)

MedGen UID:
1684550
Concept ID:
C5193131
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: HOLOPROSENCEPHALY 12 WITH OR WITHOUT PANCREATIC AGENESIS; HPE12
 
Gene (location): CNOT1 (16q21)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032787
OMIM®: 618500

Definition

Holoprosencephaly-12 with or without pancreatic agenesis (HPE12) is a developmental disorder characterized by abnormal separation of the embryonic forebrain (HPE) resulting in dysmorphic facial features and often, but not always, impaired neurologic development. Most patients with this form of HPE also have congenital absence of the pancreas, resulting in early-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus and requiring pancreatic enzyme replacement. Other features may include hearing loss and absence of the gallbladder (summary by De Franco et al., 2019 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of holoprosencephaly, see HPE1 (236100). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Hitchhiker thumb
MedGen UID:
609206
Concept ID:
C0431887
Congenital Abnormality
With the hand relaxed and the thumb in the plane of the palm, the axis of the thumb forms an angle of at least 90 degrees with the long axis of the hand.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
4693
Concept ID:
C0015934
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Small for gestational age
MedGen UID:
65920
Concept ID:
C0235991
Finding
Smaller than normal size according to sex and gestational age related norms, defined as a weight below the 10th percentile for the gestational age.
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Isolated agenesis of gallbladder
MedGen UID:
82736
Concept ID:
C0266251
Congenital Abnormality
A developmental defect in which the gallbladder fails to form.
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency
MedGen UID:
75647
Concept ID:
C0267963
Disease or Syndrome
Impaired function of the exocrine pancreas associated with a reduced ability to digest foods because of lack of digestive enzymes.
Pancreatic aplasia
MedGen UID:
867582
Concept ID:
C4021967
Finding
Aplasia of the pancreas.
Conductive hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9163
Concept ID:
C0018777
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of vibrational conductance of sound to the inner ear leading to impairment of sensory perception of sound.
Sensorineural hearing loss disorder
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Microtia
MedGen UID:
57535
Concept ID:
C0152423
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the external ear.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Focal impaired awareness seizure
MedGen UID:
543022
Concept ID:
C0270834
Disease or Syndrome
Focal impaired awareness seizure (or focal seizure with impaired or lost awareness) is a type of focal-onset seizure characterized by some degree (which may be partial) of impairment of the person's awareness of themselves or their surroundings at any point during the seizure.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Lobar holoprosencephaly
MedGen UID:
96559
Concept ID:
C0431362
Congenital Abnormality
A type of holoprosencephaly in which most of the right and left cerebral hemispheres and lateral ventricles are separated but the most rostral aspect of the telencephalon, the frontal lobes, are fused, especially ventrally.
Absent septum pellucidum
MedGen UID:
96561
Concept ID:
C0431371
Congenital Abnormality
Absence of the septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius. The septum pellucidum is a thin, triangular double membrane separating the frontal horns of the right and left lateral ventricles of the brain. It extends between the anterior portion of the corpus callosum, and the body of the fornix and its width varies from 1.5 to 3.0 mm.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Semilobar holoprosencephaly
MedGen UID:
199694
Concept ID:
C0751617
Congenital Abnormality
A type of holoprosencephaly in which the left and right frontal and parietal lobes are fused and the interhemispheric fissure is only present posteriorly.
Muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
57735
Concept ID:
C0151786
Finding
Reduced strength of muscles.
Prominent occiput
MedGen UID:
381255
Concept ID:
C1853737
Finding
Increased convexity of the occiput (posterior part of the skull).
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Hypoplasia of the zygomatic bone
MedGen UID:
866886
Concept ID:
C4021242
Anatomical Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the zygomatic bone. That is, a reduction in size of the zygomatic bone, including the zygomatic process of the temporal bone of the skull, which forms part of the zygomatic arch.
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Diabetes mellitus type 1
MedGen UID:
41522
Concept ID:
C0011854
Disease or Syndrome
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), also designated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is a disorder of glucose homeostasis characterized by susceptibility to ketoacidosis in the absence of insulin therapy. It is a genetically heterogeneous autoimmune disease affecting about 0.3% of Caucasian populations (Todd, 1990). Genetic studies of T1D have focused on the identification of loci associated with increased susceptibility to this multifactorial phenotype. The classic phenotype of diabetes mellitus is polydipsia, polyphagia, and polyuria which result from hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis and secondary thirst. These derangements result in long-term complications that affect the eyes, kidneys, nerves, and blood vessels.
Elevated circulating alanine aminotransferase concentration
MedGen UID:
57740
Concept ID:
C0151905
Finding
An abnormally high concentration in the circulation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT).
Elevated gamma-glutamyltransferase level
MedGen UID:
1370086
Concept ID:
C4476869
Finding
Increased level of the enzyme gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). GGT is mainly present in kidney, liver, and pancreatic cells, but small amounts are present in other tissues.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Sloping forehead
MedGen UID:
346640
Concept ID:
C1857679
Finding
Inclination of the anterior surface of the forehead from the vertical more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently excessive posterior sloping of the forehead in a lateral view.
Long philtrum
MedGen UID:
351278
Concept ID:
C1865014
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD above the mean. Alternatively, an apparently increased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Diabetes insipidus
MedGen UID:
8349
Concept ID:
C0011848
Disease or Syndrome
A state of excessive water intake and hypotonic (dilute) polyuria. Diabetes insipidus may be due to failure of vasopressin (AVP) release (central or neurogenic diabetes insipidus) or to a failure of the kidney to respond to AVP (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus).
Hypotelorism
MedGen UID:
96107
Concept ID:
C0424711
Finding
Interpupillary distance less than 2 SD below the mean (alternatively, the appearance of an decreased interpupillary distance or closely spaced eyes).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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