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Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 28(SCAR28)

MedGen UID:
1712568
Concept ID:
C5394101
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: SCAR28; SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIA, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE 28
 
Gene (location): THG1L (5q33.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0032923
OMIM®: 618800

Definition

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-28 (SCAR28) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset in early childhood of mildly delayed motor development, gait ataxia, incoordination of fine motor movements, and dysarthria. Affected individuals may have features of spasticity and may show mildly impaired cognitive function. Brain imaging shows cerebellar vermis hypoplasia (summary by Walker et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Short stature
MedGen UID:
87607
Concept ID:
C0349588
Finding
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Dysarthria
MedGen UID:
8510
Concept ID:
C0013362
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
Intellectual disability, mild
MedGen UID:
10044
Concept ID:
C0026106
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Mild intellectual disability is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 50-69.
Abnormal pyramidal sign
MedGen UID:
68582
Concept ID:
C0234132
Sign or Symptom
Functional neurological abnormalities related to dysfunction of the pyramidal tract.
Gait ataxia
MedGen UID:
155642
Concept ID:
C0751837
Sign or Symptom
A type of ataxia characterized by the impairment of the ability to coordinate the movements required for normal walking. Gait ataxia is characteirzed by a wide-based staggering gait with a tendency to fall.
Cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
333548
Concept ID:
C1840379
Finding
Underdevelopment of the vermis of cerebellum.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Poor fine motor coordination
MedGen UID:
356863
Concept ID:
C1867864
Finding
An abnormality of the ability (skills) to perform a precise movement of small muscles with the intent to perform a specific act. Fine motor skills are required to mediate movements of the wrists, hands, fingers, feet, and toes.
Truncal titubation
MedGen UID:
382380
Concept ID:
C2674512
Finding
Tremor of the trunk in an anterior-posterior plane at 3-4 Hz.
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
18180
Concept ID:
C0029124
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy of the optic nerve. Optic atrophy results from the death of the retinal ganglion cell axons that comprise the optic nerve and manifesting as a pale optic nerve on fundoscopy.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Impaired smooth pursuit
MedGen UID:
325176
Concept ID:
C1837458
Finding
An impairment of the ability to track objects with the ocular smooth pursuit system, a class of rather slow eye movements that minimizes retinal target motion.
Gaze-evoked horizontal nystagmus
MedGen UID:
377895
Concept ID:
C1853394
Finding
Horizontal nystagmus made apparent by looking to the right or to the left.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Takahashi M, Okazaki H, Ohashi K, Ogura M, Ishibashi S, Okazaki S, Hirayama S, Hori M, Matsuki K, Yokoyama S, Harada-Shiba M
J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Oct 1;28(10):1009-1019. Epub 2021 May 16 doi: 10.5551/jat.RV17056. PMID: 33994405Free PMC Article
van Gassen KL, van der Heijden CD, de Bot ST, den Dunnen WF, van den Berg LH, Verschuuren-Bemelmans CC, Kremer HP, Veldink JH, Kamsteeg EJ, Scheffer H, van de Warrenburg BP
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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Chen J, Zhao Z, Shen H, Bing Q, Li N, Guo X, Hu J
BMC Neurol 2022 May 16;22(1):180. doi: 10.1186/s12883-022-02708-z. PMID: 35578252Free PMC Article
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Diagnosis

Traschütz A, Adarmes-Gómez AD, Anheim M, Baets J, Brais B, Gagnon C, Gburek-Augustat J, Doss S, Hanağası HA, Kamm C, Klivenyi P, Klockgether T, Klopstock T, Minnerop M, Münchau A, Renaud M, Santorelli FM, Schöls L, Thieme A, Vielhaber S, van de Warrenburg BP, Zanni G, Hilgers RD; PREPARE Consortium, Synofzik M
Ann Neurol 2023 Sep;94(3):470-485. Epub 2023 Jun 12 doi: 10.1002/ana.26712. PMID: 37243847
Chen J, Zhao Z, Shen H, Bing Q, Li N, Guo X, Hu J
BMC Neurol 2022 May 16;22(1):180. doi: 10.1186/s12883-022-02708-z. PMID: 35578252Free PMC Article
Liu X, Wang L, Chen J, Kang C, Li J
Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Dec 17;100(50):e28008. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000028008. PMID: 34918652Free PMC Article
Takahashi M, Okazaki H, Ohashi K, Ogura M, Ishibashi S, Okazaki S, Hirayama S, Hori M, Matsuki K, Yokoyama S, Harada-Shiba M
J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Oct 1;28(10):1009-1019. Epub 2021 May 16 doi: 10.5551/jat.RV17056. PMID: 33994405Free PMC Article
Tranchant C, Anheim M
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2016 Aug-Sep;172(8-9):524-529. Epub 2016 Jul 28 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2016.07.003. PMID: 27476418

Therapy

Traschütz A, Adarmes-Gómez AD, Anheim M, Baets J, Brais B, Gagnon C, Gburek-Augustat J, Doss S, Hanağası HA, Kamm C, Klivenyi P, Klockgether T, Klopstock T, Minnerop M, Münchau A, Renaud M, Santorelli FM, Schöls L, Thieme A, Vielhaber S, van de Warrenburg BP, Zanni G, Hilgers RD; PREPARE Consortium, Synofzik M
Ann Neurol 2023 Sep;94(3):470-485. Epub 2023 Jun 12 doi: 10.1002/ana.26712. PMID: 37243847

Prognosis

Chen J, Zhao Z, Shen H, Bing Q, Li N, Guo X, Hu J
BMC Neurol 2022 May 16;22(1):180. doi: 10.1186/s12883-022-02708-z. PMID: 35578252Free PMC Article
Takahashi M, Okazaki H, Ohashi K, Ogura M, Ishibashi S, Okazaki S, Hirayama S, Hori M, Matsuki K, Yokoyama S, Harada-Shiba M
J Atheroscler Thromb 2021 Oct 1;28(10):1009-1019. Epub 2021 May 16 doi: 10.5551/jat.RV17056. PMID: 33994405Free PMC Article
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Clinical prediction guides

Caporali L, Magri S, Legati A, Del Dotto V, Tagliavini F, Balistreri F, Nasca A, La Morgia C, Carbonelli M, Valentino ML, Lamantea E, Baratta S, Schöls L, Schüle R, Barboni P, Cascavilla ML, Maresca A, Capristo M, Ardissone A, Pareyson D, Cammarata G, Melzi L, Zeviani M, Peverelli L, Lamperti C, Marzoli SB, Fang M, Synofzik M, Ghezzi D, Carelli V, Taroni F
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van Gassen KL, van der Heijden CD, de Bot ST, den Dunnen WF, van den Berg LH, Verschuuren-Bemelmans CC, Kremer HP, Veldink JH, Kamsteeg EJ, Scheffer H, van de Warrenburg BP
Brain 2012 Oct;135(Pt 10):2994-3004. Epub 2012 Sep 10 doi: 10.1093/brain/aws224. PMID: 22964162
Mitui M, Campbell C, Coutinho G, Sun X, Lai CH, Thorstenson Y, Castellvi-Bel S, Fernandez L, Monros E, Carvalho BT, Porras O, Fontan G, Gatti RA
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