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Nizon-Isidor syndrome(NIZIDS)

MedGen UID:
1715748
Concept ID:
C5394350
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: NIZIDS; NIZON-ISIDOR SYNDROME
 
Gene (location): MED12L (3q25.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030030
OMIM®: 618872

Definition

Nizon-Isidor syndrome (NIZIDS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, mildly delayed walking, poor speech and language, variably impaired intellectual development, and behavioral abnormalities, such as autistic features or attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some patients may have additional features, including nonspecific facial dysmorphism, gastrointestinal difficulties, distal hand anomalies, and thin corpus callosum on brain imaging (summary by Nizon et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Hypospadias
MedGen UID:
163083
Concept ID:
C0848558
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormal position of urethral meatus on the ventral penile shaft (underside) characterized by displacement of the urethral meatus from the tip of the glans penis to the ventral surface of the penis, scrotum, or perineum.
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Long fingers
MedGen UID:
346836
Concept ID:
C1858091
Finding
The middle finger is more than 2 SD above the mean for newborns 27 to 41 weeks EGA or above the 97th centile for children from birth to 16 years of age AND the five digits retain their normal length proportions relative to each other (i.e., it is not the case that the middle finger is the only lengthened digit), or, Fingers that appear disproportionately long compared to the palm of the hand.
Constipation
MedGen UID:
1101
Concept ID:
C0009806
Sign or Symptom
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of feces.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Gastroesophageal reflux
MedGen UID:
1368658
Concept ID:
C4317146
Finding
A condition in which the stomach contents leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus through the lower esophageal sphincter.
Aggressive behavior
MedGen UID:
1375
Concept ID:
C0001807
Individual Behavior
Behavior or an act aimed at harming a person, animal, or physical property (e.g., acts of physical violence; shouting, swearing, and using harsh language; slashing someone's tires).
Anxiety
MedGen UID:
1613
Concept ID:
C0003467
Finding
Intense feelings of nervousness, tension, or panic often arise in response to interpersonal stresses. There is worry about the negative effects of past unpleasant experiences and future negative possibilities. Individuals may feel fearful, apprehensive, or threatened by uncertainty, and they may also have fears of falling apart or losing control.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Sleep abnormality
MedGen UID:
52372
Concept ID:
C0037317
Sign or Symptom
An abnormal pattern in the quality, quantity, or characteristics of sleep.
Corpus callosum, agenesis of
MedGen UID:
104498
Concept ID:
C0175754
Congenital Abnormality
The corpus callosum is the largest fiber tract in the central nervous system and the major interhemispheric fiber bundle in the brain. Formation of the corpus callosum begins as early as 6 weeks' gestation, with the first fibers crossing the midline at 11 to 12 weeks' gestation, and completion of the basic shape by age 18 to 20 weeks (Schell-Apacik et al., 2008). Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is one of the most frequent malformations in brain with a reported incidence ranging between 0.5 and 70 in 10,000 births. ACC is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition, which can be observed either as an isolated condition or as a manifestation in the context of a congenital syndrome (see MOLECULAR GENETICS and Dobyns, 1996). Also see mirror movements-1 and/or agenesis of the corpus callosum (MRMV1; 157600). Schell-Apacik et al. (2008) noted that there is confusion in the literature regarding radiologic terminology concerning partial absence of the corpus callosum, where various designations have been used, including hypogenesis, hypoplasia, partial agenesis, or dysgenesis.
Hypoplasia of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
138005
Concept ID:
C0344482
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the corpus callosum.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
381392
Concept ID:
C1854301
Finding
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Thoracolumbar kyphosis
MedGen UID:
383679
Concept ID:
C1855418
Anatomical Abnormality
Hyperconvexity of the thoracolumbar spine producing a rounded or humped appearance.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
346841
Concept ID:
C1858120
Finding
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Narrow mouth
MedGen UID:
44435
Concept ID:
C0026034
Congenital Abnormality
Distance between the commissures of the mouth more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased width of the oral aperture (subjective).
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Open mouth
MedGen UID:
116104
Concept ID:
C0240379
Finding
A facial appearance characterized by a permanently or nearly permanently opened mouth.
Bulbous nose
MedGen UID:
66013
Concept ID:
C0240543
Finding
Increased volume and globular shape of the anteroinferior aspect of the nose.
Downslanted palpebral fissures
MedGen UID:
98391
Concept ID:
C0423110
Finding
The palpebral fissure inclination is more than two standard deviations below the mean.
Sparse eyebrow
MedGen UID:
371332
Concept ID:
C1832446
Finding
Decreased density/number of eyebrow hairs.
Triangular face
MedGen UID:
324383
Concept ID:
C1835884
Finding
Facial contour, as viewed from the front, triangular in shape, with breadth at the temples and tapering to a narrow chin.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
High, narrow palate
MedGen UID:
324787
Concept ID:
C1837404
Finding
The presence of a high and narrow palate.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Prominent nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
343051
Concept ID:
C1854113
Finding
Anterior positioning of the nasal root in comparison to the usual positioning for age.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Downturned corners of mouth
MedGen UID:
356471
Concept ID:
C1866195
Anatomical Abnormality
A morphological abnormality of the mouth in which the angle of the mouth is downturned. The oral commissures are positioned inferior to the midline labial fissure.
Upper eyelid edema
MedGen UID:
825252
Concept ID:
C3839407
Finding
Edema in the region of the upper eyelid.
Prominent fingertip pads
MedGen UID:
322758
Concept ID:
C1835807
Finding
A soft tissue prominence of the ventral aspects of the fingertips. The term "persistent fetal fingertip pads" is often used as a synonym, but should better not be used because it implies knowledge of history of the patient which often does not exist.
Hypermetropia
MedGen UID:
43780
Concept ID:
C0020490
Disease or Syndrome
An abnormality of refraction characterized by the ability to see objects in the distance clearly, while objects nearby appear blurry.
Hypertelorism
MedGen UID:
9373
Concept ID:
C0020534
Finding
Although hypertelorism means an excessive distance between any paired organs (e.g., the nipples), the use of the word has come to be confined to ocular hypertelorism. Hypertelorism occurs as an isolated feature and is also a feature of many syndromes, e.g., Opitz G syndrome (see 300000), Greig cephalopolysyndactyly (175700), and Noonan syndrome (163950) (summary by Cohen et al., 1995).
Myopia
MedGen UID:
44558
Concept ID:
C0027092
Disease or Syndrome
Nearsightedness, also known as myopia, is an eye condition that causes blurry distance vision. People who are nearsighted have more trouble seeing things that are far away (such as when driving) than things that are close up (such as when reading or using a computer). If it is not treated with corrective lenses or surgery, nearsightedness can lead to squinting, eyestrain, headaches, and significant visual impairment.\n\nNearsightedness usually begins in childhood or adolescence. It tends to worsen with age until adulthood, when it may stop getting worse (stabilize). In some people, nearsightedness improves in later adulthood.\n\nFor normal vision, light passes through the clear cornea at the front of the eye and is focused by the lens onto the surface of the retina, which is the lining of the back of the eye that contains light-sensing cells. People who are nearsighted typically have eyeballs that are too long from front to back. As a result, light entering the eye is focused too far forward, in front of the retina instead of on its surface. It is this change that causes distant objects to appear blurry. The longer the eyeball is, the farther forward light rays will be focused and the more severely nearsighted a person will be.\n\nNearsightedness is measured by how powerful a lens must be to correct it. The standard unit of lens power is called a diopter. Negative (minus) powered lenses are used to correct nearsightedness. The more severe a person's nearsightedness, the larger the number of diopters required for correction. In an individual with nearsightedness, one eye may be more nearsighted than the other.\n\nEye doctors often refer to nearsightedness less than -5 or -6 diopters as "common myopia." Nearsightedness of -6 diopters or more is commonly called "high myopia." This distinction is important because high myopia increases a person's risk of developing other eye problems that can lead to permanent vision loss or blindness. These problems include tearing and detachment of the retina, clouding of the lens (cataract), and an eye disease called glaucoma that is usually related to increased pressure within the eye. The risk of these other eye problems increases with the severity of the nearsightedness. The term "pathological myopia" is used to describe cases in which high myopia leads to tissue damage within the eye.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.
Iris coloboma
MedGen UID:
116097
Concept ID:
C0240063
Anatomical Abnormality
A coloboma of the iris.
Deeply set eye
MedGen UID:
473112
Concept ID:
C0423224
Finding
An eye that is more deeply recessed into the plane of the face than is typical.
Unilateral ptosis
MedGen UID:
401085
Concept ID:
C1866806
Finding
A unilateral form of ptosis.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Styne DM, Arslanian SA, Connor EL, Farooqi IS, Murad MH, Silverstein JH, Yanovski JA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar 1;102(3):709-757. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-2573. PMID: 28359099Free PMC Article
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Eur J Endocrinol 2014 Mar;170(3):G1-47. Epub 2014 Feb 25 doi: 10.1530/EJE-13-1020. PMID: 24569125
Verbalis JG, Goldsmith SR, Greenberg A, Korzelius C, Schrier RW, Sterns RH, Thompson CJ
Am J Med 2013 Oct;126(10 Suppl 1):S1-42. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.07.006. PMID: 24074529

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Varagur K, Sanka SA, Strahle JM
Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan;33(1):67-79. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.006. PMID: 34801143Free PMC Article
Keith KA, Reed LK, Nguyen A, Qaiser R
Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan;33(1):135-148. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.010. PMID: 34801137
Valdebran M, Wine Lee L
Curr Opin Pediatr 2020 Aug;32(4):498-505. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000925. PMID: 32692048
Poh TY, Mac Aogáin M, Chan AK, Yii AC, Yong VF, Tiew PY, Koh MS, Chotirmall SH
Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 Apr;11(4):285-298. Epub 2017 Mar 24 doi: 10.1080/17476348.2017.1305895. PMID: 28282995
Cereda A, Carey JC
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2012 Oct 23;7:81. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-7-81. PMID: 23088440Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Koster MJ, Samec MJ, Warrington KJ
J Clin Rheumatol 2023 Sep 1;29(6):298-306. Epub 2022 Oct 17 doi: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001905. PMID: 36251488
Keith KA, Reed LK, Nguyen A, Qaiser R
Neurosurg Clin N Am 2022 Jan;33(1):135-148. doi: 10.1016/j.nec.2021.09.010. PMID: 34801137
De Wel B, Claeys KG
Curr Opin Neurol 2021 Oct 1;34(5):714-720. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000963. PMID: 34914668
Geenen KR, Patel S, Thiele EA
Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Mar;63(3):259-262. Epub 2020 Oct 31 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14723. PMID: 33135153
Diñeiro M, Capín R, Cifuentes GÁ, Fernández-Vega B, Villota E, Otero A, Santiago A, Pruneda PC, Castillo D, Viejo-Díaz M, Hernando I, Durán NS, Álvarez R, Lago CG, Ordóñez GR, Fernández-Vega Á, Cabanillas R, Cadiñanos J
Acta Ophthalmol 2020 Dec;98(8):e1034-e1048. Epub 2020 Jun 1 doi: 10.1111/aos.14479. PMID: 32483926Free PMC Article

Therapy

Dou Z, Xia Y, Zhang J, Li Y, Zhang Y, Zhao L, Huang Z, Sun H, Wu L, Han D, Liu Y
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:728032. Epub 2021 Dec 23 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.728032. PMID: 35002950Free PMC Article
Saha S, Roy P, Corbitt C, Kakar SS
Cells 2021 Jun 28;10(7) doi: 10.3390/cells10071613. PMID: 34203240Free PMC Article
Geenen KR, Patel S, Thiele EA
Dev Med Child Neurol 2021 Mar;63(3):259-262. Epub 2020 Oct 31 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.14723. PMID: 33135153
Kagan R, Kellogg-Spadt S, Parish SJ
Drugs Aging 2019 Oct;36(10):897-908. doi: 10.1007/s40266-019-00700-w. PMID: 31452067Free PMC Article
Sosa-Reina MD, Nunez-Nagy S, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Pecos-Martín D, Monserrat J, Álvarez-Mon M
Biomed Res Int 2017;2017:2356346. Epub 2017 Sep 20 doi: 10.1155/2017/2356346. PMID: 29291206Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Fardeau C, Alafaleq M, Dhaenens CM, Dollfus H, Koné-Paut I, Grunewald O, Morel JB, Titah C, Saadoun D, Lazeran PO, Meunier I
Clin Genet 2023 Apr;103(4):453-458. Epub 2022 Dec 30 doi: 10.1111/cge.14286. PMID: 36543582
Košutova P, Mikolka P
Physiol Res 2021 Dec 30;70(Suppl4):S567-S583. doi: 10.33549/physiolres.934767. PMID: 35199544Free PMC Article
Tan Tanny SP, Beck C, King SK, Hawley A, Brooks JA, McLeod E, Hutson JM, Teague WJ
Pediatrics 2021 May;147(5) doi: 10.1542/peds.2020-029884. PMID: 33911029
Cristescu Teodor R, Mihaltan FD
Rom J Ophthalmol 2019 Jan-Mar;63(1):2-9. PMID: 31198891Free PMC Article
Park CY, Lee JK, Chuck RS
BMC Ophthalmol 2018 Oct 25;18(1):276. doi: 10.1186/s12886-018-0939-3. PMID: 30359246Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Yapijakis C, Pachis N, Sotiriadou T, Vaila C, Michopoulou V, Vassiliou S
In Vivo 2023 Jan-Feb;37(1):36-46. doi: 10.21873/invivo.13052. PMID: 36593018Free PMC Article
Balaji S, Johnson P, Dvorak AV, Kolind SH
Curr Opin Neurol 2022 Aug 1;35(4):467-474. Epub 2022 Jul 5 doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000001078. PMID: 35788545
Boßelmann CM
Seizure 2021 Nov;92:230-233. Epub 2021 Sep 27 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2021.09.019. PMID: 34607271
Nazerian P, Mueller C, Soeiro AM, Leidel BA, Salvadeo SAT, Giachino F, Vanni S, Grimm K, Oliveira MT Jr, Pivetta E, Lupia E, Grifoni S, Morello F; ADvISED Investigators
Circulation 2018 Jan 16;137(3):250-258. Epub 2017 Oct 13 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.117.029457. PMID: 29030346
Wijdicks EF, Bamlet WR, Maramattom BV, Manno EM, McClelland RL
Ann Neurol 2005 Oct;58(4):585-93. doi: 10.1002/ana.20611. PMID: 16178024

Recent systematic reviews

Freitas DA, Souza-Santos R, Carvalho LMA, Barros WB, Neves LM, Brasil P, Wakimoto MD
PLoS One 2020;15(12):e0242367. Epub 2020 Dec 15 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0242367. PMID: 33320867Free PMC Article
Sosa-Reina MD, Nunez-Nagy S, Gallego-Izquierdo T, Pecos-Martín D, Monserrat J, Álvarez-Mon M
Biomed Res Int 2017;2017:2356346. Epub 2017 Sep 20 doi: 10.1155/2017/2356346. PMID: 29291206Free PMC Article
Sorensen CJ, DeSanto K, Borgelt L, Phillips KT, Monte AA
J Med Toxicol 2017 Mar;13(1):71-87. Epub 2016 Dec 20 doi: 10.1007/s13181-016-0595-z. PMID: 28000146Free PMC Article
Fhon JR, Rodrigues RA, Neira WF, Huayta VM, Robazzi ML
Rev Esc Enferm USP 2016 Nov-Dec;50(6):1005-1013. doi: 10.1590/S0080-623420160000700018. PMID: 28198967
Canavan TN, Mathes EF, Frieden I, Shinkai K
J Am Acad Dermatol 2015 Feb;72(2):239-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2014.06.026. PMID: 25592340

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