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Vissers-Bodmer syndrome(VIBOS)

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Gene (location): CNOT1 (16q21)
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0033618
OMIM®: 619033


Vissers-Bodmer syndrome (VIBOS) is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, motor delay, and behavioral abnormalities apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: some individuals have only mild learning difficulties, whereas others have severe cognitive impairment with IQ in the 50s. Many patients have behavioral abnormalities, including autism spectrum disorder, ADD, ADHD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and impulsivity. Other common features include growth impairment abnormalities, hypotonia, and distal skeletal defects, such as foot and hand deformities. Less common features include seizures, brain abnormalities on MRI, feeding problems, and joint hypermobility. Most individuals have dysmorphic facial features, but there is no recognizable gestalt (summary by Vissers et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Tapered finger
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
The gradual reduction in girth of the finger from proximal to distal.
Fetal growth restriction
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
An abnormal restriction of fetal growth with fetal weight below the tenth percentile for gestational age.
Tall stature
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
A height above that which is expected according to age and gender norms.
Short stature
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
A height below that which is expected according to age and gender norms. Although there is no universally accepted definition of short stature, many refer to "short stature" as height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender (or below the 3rd percentile for age and gender dependent norms).
Decreased body weight
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Abnormally low body weight.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Dysarthric speech is a general description referring to a neurological speech disorder characterized by poor articulation. Depending on the involved neurological structures, dysarthria may be further classified as spastic, flaccid, ataxic, hyperkinetic and hypokinetic, or mixed.
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Sleep disturbance
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Sign or Symptom
An abnormality of sleep including such phenomena as 1) insomnia/hypersomnia, 2) non-restorative sleep, 3) sleep schedule disorder, 4) excessive daytime somnolence, 5) sleep apnea, and 6) restlessness.
Holoprosencephaly sequence
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
Nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly is an abnormality of brain development that also affects the head and face. Normally, the brain divides into two halves (hemispheres) during early development. Holoprosencephaly occurs when the brain fails to divide properly into the right and left hemispheres. This condition is called nonsyndromic to distinguish it from other types of holoprosencephaly caused by genetic syndromes, chromosome abnormalities, or substances that cause birth defects (teratogens). The severity of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly varies widely among affected individuals, even within the same family.\n\nNonsyndromic holoprosencephaly can be grouped into four types according to the degree of brain division. From most to least severe, the types are known as alobar, semi-lobar, lobar, and middle interhemispheric variant (MIHV). In the most severe forms of nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly, the brain does not divide at all. These affected individuals have one central eye (cyclopia) and a tubular nasal structure (proboscis) located above the eye. Most babies with severe nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly die before birth or soon after. In the less severe forms, the brain is partially divided and the eyes are usually set close together (hypotelorism). The life expectancy of these affected individuals varies depending on the severity of symptoms.\n\nPeople with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly often have a small head (microcephaly), although they can develop a buildup of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus) that causes increased head size (macrocephaly). Other features may include an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate) with or without a split in the upper lip (cleft lip), one central front tooth instead of two (a single maxillary central incisor), and a flat nasal bridge. The eyeballs may be abnormally small (microphthalmia) or absent (anophthalmia).\n\nSome individuals with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly have a distinctive pattern of facial features, including a narrowing of the head at the temples, outside corners of the eyes that point upward (upslanting palpebral fissures), large ears, a short nose with upturned nostrils, and a broad and deep space between the nose and mouth (philtrum). In general, the severity of facial features is directly related to the severity of the brain abnormalities. However, individuals with mildly affected facial features can have severe brain abnormalities. Some people do not have apparent structural brain abnormalities but have some of the facial features associated with this condition. These individuals are considered to have a form of the disorder known as microform holoprosencephaly and are typically identified after the birth of a severely affected family member.\n\nMost people with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly have developmental delay and intellectual disability. Affected individuals also frequently have a malfunctioning pituitary gland, which is a gland located at the base of the brain that produces several hormones. Because pituitary dysfunction leads to the partial or complete absence of these hormones, it can cause a variety of disorders. Most commonly, people with nonsyndromic holoprosencephaly and pituitary dysfunction develop diabetes insipidus, a condition that disrupts the balance between fluid intake and urine excretion. Dysfunction in other parts of the brain can cause seizures, feeding difficulties, and problems regulating body temperature, heart rate, and breathing. The sense of smell may be diminished (hyposmia) or completely absent (anosmia) if the part of the brain that processes smells is underdeveloped or missing.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Motor delay
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
A type of Developmental delay characterized by a delay in acquiring motor skills.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, has been defined as an IQ score below 70.
Decreased head circumference
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
An abnormally reduced head circumference in a growing child. Head circumference is measured with a nonelastic tape and comprises the distance from above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head. The measured HC is then plotted on an appropriate growth chart. Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference (HC) that is great than two standard deviations below the mean of age- and gender-matched population based samples. Severe microcephaly is defined with an HC that is three standard deviations below the mean.
Generalized hypotonia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Generalized muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone).
Abnormal facial shape
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
An abnormal morphology (form) of the face or its components.
Premature birth
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Pathologic Function
The birth of a baby of less than 37 weeks of gestational age.

Professional guidelines


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Recent clinical studies


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Bayoumy AB, Mulder CJJ, Mol JJ, Tushuizen ME
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Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

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