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Cardioacrofacial dysplasia 1(CAFD1)

MedGen UID:
1777656
Concept ID:
C5436885
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: CAFD1; CARDIOACROFACIAL DYSPLASIA 1
 
Gene (location): PRKACA (19p13.12)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030876
OMIM®: 619142

Definition

Cardioacrofacial dysplasia-1 (CAFD1) is characterized by congenital cardiac defects, primarily common atrium or atrioventricular septal defect; limb anomalies, including short limbs, brachydactyly, and postaxial polydactyly; and dysmorphic facial features (Palencia-Campos et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cardioacrofacial Dysplasia CAFD2 (619143) is caused by mutation in the PRKACB gene (176892) on chromosome 1p31. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Postaxial polydactyly
MedGen UID:
67394
Concept ID:
C0220697
Disease or Syndrome
Polydactyly refers to the occurrence of supernumerary digits and is the most frequent of congenital hand and foot deformities. Based on the location of the extra digits, polydactyly can be classified into preaxial, involving the thumb or great toe; postaxial, affecting the fifth digit; and central, involving the 3 central digits. Postaxial polydactyly (PAP) is further subclassified into 2 types: in type A, a well-formed extra digit articulates with the fifth or a sixth metacarpal, whereas in type B, a rudimentary, poorly developed extra digit is present (summary by Umm-e-Kalsoom et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Postaxial Polydactyly Other forms of postaxial polydactyly type A include PAPA2 (602085) on chromosome 13q21; PAPA3 (607324) on chromosome 19p13; PAPA4 (608562) on chromosome 7q22; PAPA5 (263450) on chromosome 13q13; PAPA6 (615226), caused by mutation in the ZNF141 gene (194648) on chromosome 4p16; PAPA7 (617642), caused by mutation in the IQCE gene (617631) on chromosome 7p22; PAPA8 (618123), caused by mutation in the GLI1 gene (165220) on chromosome 12q13; PAPA9 (618219), caused by mutation in the FAM98A gene (617273) on chromosome 8q22; and PAPA10 (618498), caused by mutation in the KIAA0825 gene (617266) on chromosome 5q15.
Limb undergrowth
MedGen UID:
116086
Concept ID:
C0239399
Finding
Limb shortening because of underdevelopment of one or more bones of the extremities.
Genu valgum
MedGen UID:
154364
Concept ID:
C0576093
Anatomical Abnormality
The legs angle inward, such that the knees are close together and the ankles far apart.
Complete atrioventricular canal
MedGen UID:
65132
Concept ID:
C0221215
Congenital Abnormality
A congenital heart defect characterized by a specific combination of heart defects with a common atrioventricular valve, primum atrial septal defect and inlet ventricular septal defect.
Atrioventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
501123
Concept ID:
C1389018
Congenital Abnormality
The term 'atrioventricular septal defect' (AVSD) covers a spectrum of congenital heart malformations characterized by a common atrioventricular junction coexisting with deficient atrioventricular septation. In ostium primum atrial septal defect (ASD) there are separate atrioventricular valvar orifices despite a common junction, whereas in complete AVSD the valve itself is also shared (summary by Craig, 2006). AVSD, also designated endocardial cushion defect or atrioventricular canal defect (AVCD), is known to occur in either a nonsyndromic (isolated) form or, more commonly, as part of a malformation syndrome. The 2 syndromes most frequently associated with AVSD are Down syndrome (190685), in which AVSD is the most frequent congenital heart defect, and Ivemark syndrome (208530) (summary by Carmi et al., 1992). Genetic Heterogeneity of Isolated Atrioventricular Septal Defect An AVSD susceptibility locus (AVSD1) maps to chromosome 1p31-p21; AVSD2 (606217) is caused by mutation in the CRELD1 gene (607170) on chromosome 3p25; AVSD4 (614430) is caused by mutation in the GATA4 gene (600576) on chromosome 8p23.1; and AVSD5 (614474) is caused by mutation in the GATA6 gene (601656) on chromosome 18q11. A form of AVSD, designated AVSD3, was thought to be caused by mutation in the GJA1 gene (121014.0011), but this variant has been reclassified as a variant of unknown significance. Somatic mutations in the HAND1 gene (602406) have been identified in tissue samples from patients with AVSDs.
Hypoplasia of the maxilla
MedGen UID:
66804
Concept ID:
C0240310
Congenital Abnormality
Abnormally small dimension of the Maxilla. Usually creating a malocclusion or malalignment between the upper and lower teeth or resulting in a deficient amount of projection of the base of the nose and lower midface region.
Long thorax
MedGen UID:
108393
Concept ID:
C0575484
Finding
Increased inferior to superior extent of the thorax.
Diastema
MedGen UID:
3800
Concept ID:
C0011998
Finding
Increased space between two adjacent teeth in the same dental arch.
Conical tooth
MedGen UID:
82730
Concept ID:
C0266037
Congenital Abnormality
An abnormal conical form of the teeth, that is, a tooth whose sides converge or taper together incisally.
Overhanging nasal tip
MedGen UID:
604869
Concept ID:
C0426430
Finding
Positioning of the nasal tip inferior to the nasal base.
Long face
MedGen UID:
324419
Concept ID:
C1836047
Finding
Facial height (length) is more than 2 standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, an apparent increase in the height (length) of the face (subjective).
Midface retrusion
MedGen UID:
339938
Concept ID:
C1853242
Anatomical Abnormality
Posterior positions and/or vertical shortening of the infraorbital and perialar regions, or increased concavity of the face and/or reduced nasolabial angle.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Accessory oral frenulum
MedGen UID:
867439
Concept ID:
C4021814
Congenital Abnormality
Extra fold of tissue extending from the alveolar ridge to the inner surface of the upper or lower lip.
Nail dysplasia
MedGen UID:
331737
Concept ID:
C1834405
Congenital Abnormality
The presence of developmental dysplasia of the nail.

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