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Hiatt-Neu-Cooper neurodevelopmental syndrome(HINCONS)

MedGen UID:
1785187
Concept ID:
C5543338
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: HIATT-NEU-COOPER NEURODEVELOPMENTAL SYNDROME; HINCONS
 
Gene (location): RALA (7p14.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0859142
OMIM®: 619311

Definition

Hiatt-Neu-Cooper neurodevelopmental syndrome (HINCONS) is characterized by global developmental delay with delayed walking or inability to walk and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have axial hypotonia and dysmorphic facies. Additional more variable features may include seizures, autistic or behavioral abnormalities, and brain abnormalities, such as dysplastic corpus callosum or polymicrogyria (summary by Hiatt et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clinodactyly
MedGen UID:
1644094
Concept ID:
C4551485
Congenital Abnormality
An angulation of a digit at an interphalangeal joint in the plane of the palm (finger) or sole (toe).
2-3 toe syndactyly
MedGen UID:
1645640
Concept ID:
C4551570
Congenital Abnormality
Syndactyly with fusion of toes two and three.
Low-set ears
MedGen UID:
65980
Concept ID:
C0239234
Congenital Abnormality
Upper insertion of the ear to the scalp below an imaginary horizontal line drawn between the inner canthi of the eye and extending posteriorly to the ear.
Posteriorly rotated ears
MedGen UID:
96566
Concept ID:
C0431478
Congenital Abnormality
A type of abnormal location of the ears in which the position of the ears is characterized by posterior rotation (the superior part of the ears is rotated towards the back of the head, and the inferior part of the ears towards the front).
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Anteverted nares
MedGen UID:
326648
Concept ID:
C1840077
Finding
Anteriorly-facing nostrils viewed with the head in the Frankfurt horizontal and the eyes of the observer level with the eyes of the subject. This gives the appearance of an upturned nose (upturned nasal tip).
Pointed chin
MedGen UID:
336193
Concept ID:
C1844505
Finding
A marked tapering of the lower face to the chin.
Wide nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
341441
Concept ID:
C1849367
Finding
Increased breadth of the nasal bridge (and with it, the nasal root).
Exaggerated cupid bow
MedGen UID:
376842
Concept ID:
C1850629
Finding
More pronounced paramedian peaks and median notch of the Cupid's bow.
Short philtrum
MedGen UID:
350006
Concept ID:
C1861324
Finding
Distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently decreased distance between nasal base and midline upper lip vermilion border.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Horizontal eyebrow
MedGen UID:
478649
Concept ID:
C3277019
Finding
An eyebrow that extends straight across the brow, without curve.
Ptosis
MedGen UID:
2287
Concept ID:
C0005745
Disease or Syndrome
The upper eyelid margin is positioned 3 mm or more lower than usual and covers the superior portion of the iris (objective); or, the upper lid margin obscures at least part of the pupil (subjective).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Johnson KA, Worbe Y, Foote KD, Butson CR, Gunduz A, Okun MS
Lancet Neurol 2023 Feb;22(2):147-158. Epub 2022 Oct 28 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00303-9. PMID: 36354027Free PMC Article
Lees CC, Romero R, Stampalija T, Dall'Asta A, DeVore GA, Prefumo F, Frusca T, Visser GHA, Hobbins JC, Baschat AA, Bilardo CM, Galan HL, Campbell S, Maulik D, Figueras F, Lee W, Unterscheider J, Valensise H, Da Silva Costa F, Salomon LJ, Poon LC, Ferrazzi E, Mari G, Rizzo G, Kingdom JC, Kiserud T, Hecher K
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;226(3):366-378. Epub 2022 Jan 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.11.1357. PMID: 35026129Free PMC Article
Butler MG, Miller JL, Forster JL
Curr Pediatr Rev 2019;15(4):207-244. doi: 10.2174/1573396315666190716120925. PMID: 31333129Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Müller HL, Tauber M, Lawson EA, Özyurt J, Bison B, Martinez-Barbera JP, Puget S, Merchant TE, van Santen HM
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2022 Apr 21;8(1):24. doi: 10.1038/s41572-022-00351-z. PMID: 35449162
DelRosso LM, Picchietti DL, Spruyt K, Bruni O, Garcia-Borreguero D, Kotagal S, Owens JA, Simakajornboon N, Ferri R; International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG)
Sleep Med Rev 2021 Apr;56:101406. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101406. PMID: 33341437
Costa LG, Cole TB, Dao K, Chang YC, Coburn J, Garrick JM
Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jun;210:107523. Epub 2020 Mar 9 doi: 10.1016/j.pharmthera.2020.107523. PMID: 32165138Free PMC Article
Goldmuntz E
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2020 Mar;184(1):64-72. Epub 2020 Feb 12 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31774. PMID: 32049433
Zollino M, Zweier C, Van Balkom ID, Sweetser DA, Alaimo J, Bijlsma EK, Cody J, Elsea SH, Giurgea I, Macchiaiolo M, Smigiel R, Thibert RL, Benoist I, Clayton-Smith J, De Winter CF, Deckers S, Gandhi A, Huisman S, Kempink D, Kruisinga F, Lamacchia V, Marangi G, Menke L, Mulder P, Nordgren A, Renieri A, Routledge S, Saunders CJ, Stembalska A, Van Balkom H, Whalen S, Hennekam RC
Clin Genet 2019 Apr;95(4):462-478. Epub 2019 Feb 18 doi: 10.1111/cge.13506. PMID: 30677142

Diagnosis

Raga S, Specchio N, Rheims S, Wilmshurst JM
Epileptic Disord 2021 Feb 1;23(1):40-52. doi: 10.1684/epd.2021.1244. PMID: 33632673
Zollino M, Zweier C, Van Balkom ID, Sweetser DA, Alaimo J, Bijlsma EK, Cody J, Elsea SH, Giurgea I, Macchiaiolo M, Smigiel R, Thibert RL, Benoist I, Clayton-Smith J, De Winter CF, Deckers S, Gandhi A, Huisman S, Kempink D, Kruisinga F, Lamacchia V, Marangi G, Menke L, Mulder P, Nordgren A, Renieri A, Routledge S, Saunders CJ, Stembalska A, Van Balkom H, Whalen S, Hennekam RC
Clin Genet 2019 Apr;95(4):462-478. Epub 2019 Feb 18 doi: 10.1111/cge.13506. PMID: 30677142
Harris J
Int Rev Psychiatry 2018 Feb;30(1):3-17. Epub 2018 Apr 18 doi: 10.1080/09540261.2018.1455646. PMID: 29667863
Lai MC, Baron-Cohen S
Lancet Psychiatry 2015 Nov;2(11):1013-27. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(15)00277-1. PMID: 26544750
Kalsner L, Chamberlain SJ
Pediatr Clin North Am 2015 Jun;62(3):587-606. Epub 2015 Apr 22 doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2015.03.004. PMID: 26022164Free PMC Article

Therapy

Lees CC, Romero R, Stampalija T, Dall'Asta A, DeVore GA, Prefumo F, Frusca T, Visser GHA, Hobbins JC, Baschat AA, Bilardo CM, Galan HL, Campbell S, Maulik D, Figueras F, Lee W, Unterscheider J, Valensise H, Da Silva Costa F, Salomon LJ, Poon LC, Ferrazzi E, Mari G, Rizzo G, Kingdom JC, Kiserud T, Hecher K
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Mar;226(3):366-378. Epub 2022 Jan 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2021.11.1357. PMID: 35026129Free PMC Article
Behnke J, Lemyre B, Czernik C, Zimmer KP, Ehrhardt H, Waitz M
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2019 Mar 8;116(11):177-183. doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2019.0177. PMID: 31014448Free PMC Article
Wachman EM, Schiff DM, Silverstein M
JAMA 2018 Apr 3;319(13):1362-1374. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.2640. PMID: 29614184
Margolis SS, Sell GL, Zbinden MA, Bird LM
Neurotherapeutics 2015 Jul;12(3):641-50. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0361-y. PMID: 26040994Free PMC Article
Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ
Lancet Neurol 2014 Mar;13(3):330-8. Epub 2014 Feb 17 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70278-3. PMID: 24556010Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Redline S, Cook K, Chervin RD, Ishman S, Baldassari CM, Mitchell RB, Tapia IE, Amin R, Hassan F, Ibrahim S, Ross K, Elden LM, Kirkham EM, Zopf D, Shah J, Otteson T, Naqvi K, Owens J, Young L, Furth S, Connolly H, Clark CAC, Bakker JP, Garetz S, Radcliffe J, Taylor HG, Rosen CL, Wang R; Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy Trial for Snoring (PATS) Study Team
JAMA 2023 Dec 5;330(21):2084-2095. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.22114. PMID: 38051326Free PMC Article
Yehia L, Keel E, Eng C
Annu Rev Med 2020 Jan 27;71:103-116. Epub 2019 Aug 21 doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-052218-125823. PMID: 31433956
Cogné B, Ehresmann S, Beauregard-Lacroix E, Rousseau J, Besnard T, Garcia T, Petrovski S, Avni S, McWalter K, Blackburn PR, Sanders SJ, Uguen K, Harris J, Cohen JS, Blyth M, Lehman A, Berg J, Li MH, Kini U, Joss S, von der Lippe C, Gordon CT, Humberson JB, Robak L, Scott DA, Sutton VR, Skraban CM, Johnston JJ, Poduri A, Nordenskjöld M, Shashi V, Gerkes EH, Bongers EMHF, Gilissen C, Zarate YA, Kvarnung M, Lally KP, Kulch PA, Daniels B, Hernandez-Garcia A, Stong N, McGaughran J, Retterer K, Tveten K, Sullivan J, Geisheker MR, Stray-Pedersen A, Tarpinian JM, Klee EW, Sapp JC, Zyskind J, Holla ØL, Bedoukian E, Filippini F, Guimier A, Picard A, Busk ØL, Punetha J, Pfundt R, Lindstrand A, Nordgren A, Kalb F, Desai M, Ebanks AH, Jhangiani SN, Dewan T, Coban Akdemir ZH, Telegrafi A, Zackai EH, Begtrup A, Song X, Toutain A, Wentzensen IM, Odent S, Bonneau D, Latypova X, Deb W; CAUSES Study, Redon S, Bilan F, Legendre M, Troyer C, Whitlock K, Caluseriu O, Murphree MI, Pichurin PN, Agre K, Gavrilova R, Rinne T, Park M, Shain C, Heinzen EL, Xiao R, Amiel J, Lyonnet S, Isidor B, Biesecker LG, Lowenstein D, Posey JE, Denommé-Pichon AS; Deciphering Developmental Disorders study, Férec C, Yang XJ, Rosenfeld JA, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Audebert-Bellanger S, Redon R, Stessman HAF, Nellaker C, Yang Y, Lupski JR, Goldstein DB, Eichler EE, Bolduc F, Bézieau S, Küry S, Campeau PM
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Mar 7;104(3):530-541. Epub 2019 Feb 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.010. PMID: 30827496Free PMC Article
Bond DM, Middleton P, Levett KM, van der Ham DP, Crowther CA, Buchanan SL, Morris J
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Mar 3;3(3):CD004735. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD004735.pub4. PMID: 28257562Free PMC Article
Alam S, Lux AL
Arch Dis Child 2012 Nov;97(11):985-92. Epub 2012 Sep 8 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2011-301119. PMID: 22962318

Clinical prediction guides

Velmans C, O'Donnell-Luria AH, Argilli E, Tran Mau-Them F, Vitobello A, Chan MC, Fung JL, Rech M, Abicht A, Aubert Mucca M, Carmichael J, Chassaing N, Clark R, Coubes C, Denommé-Pichon AS, de Dios JK, England E, Funalot B, Gerard M, Joseph M, Kennedy C, Kumps C, Willems M, van de Laar IMBH, Aarts-Tesselaar C, van Slegtenhorst M, Lehalle D, Leppig K, Lessmeier L, Pais LS, Paterson H, Ramanathan S, Rodan LH, Superti-Furga A, Chung BHY, Sherr E, Netzer C, Schaaf CP, Erger F
J Med Genet 2022 Jul;59(7):697-705. Epub 2021 Jul 28 doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107470. PMID: 34321323Free PMC Article
Sanchez-Jimeno C, Blanco-Kelly F, López-Grondona F, Losada-Del Pozo R, Moreno B, Rodrigo-Moreno M, Martinez-Cayuelas E, Riveiro-Alvarez R, Fenollar-Cortés M, Ayuso C, Rodríguez de Alba M, Lorda-Sanchez I, Almoguera B
Genes (Basel) 2021 Aug 30;12(9) doi: 10.3390/genes12091360. PMID: 34573342Free PMC Article
Weiss K, Lazar HP, Kurolap A, Martinez AF, Paperna T, Cohen L, Smeland MF, Whalen S, Heide S, Keren B, Terhal P, Irving M, Takaku M, Roberts JD, Petrovich RM, Schrier Vergano SA, Kenney A, Hove H, DeChene E, Quinonez SC, Colin E, Ziegler A, Rumple M, Jain M, Monteil D, Roeder ER, Nugent K, van Haeringen A, Gambello M, Santani A, Medne L, Krock B, Skraban CM, Zackai EH, Dubbs HA, Smol T, Ghoumid J, Parker MJ, Wright M, Turnpenny P, Clayton-Smith J, Metcalfe K, Kurumizaka H, Gelb BD, Baris Feldman H, Campeau PM, Muenke M, Wade PA, Lachlan K
Genet Med 2020 Feb;22(2):389-397. Epub 2019 Aug 7 doi: 10.1038/s41436-019-0612-0. PMID: 31388190Free PMC Article
Hickie IB, Scott EM, Cross SP, Iorfino F, Davenport TA, Guastella AJ, Naismith SL, Carpenter JS, Rohleder C, Crouse JJ, Hermens DF, Koethe D, Markus Leweke F, Tickell AM, Sawrikar V, Scott J
Med J Aust 2019 Nov;211 Suppl 9:S3-S46. doi: 10.5694/mja2.50383. PMID: 31679171
Cogné B, Ehresmann S, Beauregard-Lacroix E, Rousseau J, Besnard T, Garcia T, Petrovski S, Avni S, McWalter K, Blackburn PR, Sanders SJ, Uguen K, Harris J, Cohen JS, Blyth M, Lehman A, Berg J, Li MH, Kini U, Joss S, von der Lippe C, Gordon CT, Humberson JB, Robak L, Scott DA, Sutton VR, Skraban CM, Johnston JJ, Poduri A, Nordenskjöld M, Shashi V, Gerkes EH, Bongers EMHF, Gilissen C, Zarate YA, Kvarnung M, Lally KP, Kulch PA, Daniels B, Hernandez-Garcia A, Stong N, McGaughran J, Retterer K, Tveten K, Sullivan J, Geisheker MR, Stray-Pedersen A, Tarpinian JM, Klee EW, Sapp JC, Zyskind J, Holla ØL, Bedoukian E, Filippini F, Guimier A, Picard A, Busk ØL, Punetha J, Pfundt R, Lindstrand A, Nordgren A, Kalb F, Desai M, Ebanks AH, Jhangiani SN, Dewan T, Coban Akdemir ZH, Telegrafi A, Zackai EH, Begtrup A, Song X, Toutain A, Wentzensen IM, Odent S, Bonneau D, Latypova X, Deb W; CAUSES Study, Redon S, Bilan F, Legendre M, Troyer C, Whitlock K, Caluseriu O, Murphree MI, Pichurin PN, Agre K, Gavrilova R, Rinne T, Park M, Shain C, Heinzen EL, Xiao R, Amiel J, Lyonnet S, Isidor B, Biesecker LG, Lowenstein D, Posey JE, Denommé-Pichon AS; Deciphering Developmental Disorders study, Férec C, Yang XJ, Rosenfeld JA, Gilbert-Dussardier B, Audebert-Bellanger S, Redon R, Stessman HAF, Nellaker C, Yang Y, Lupski JR, Goldstein DB, Eichler EE, Bolduc F, Bézieau S, Küry S, Campeau PM
Am J Hum Genet 2019 Mar 7;104(3):530-541. Epub 2019 Feb 28 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.010. PMID: 30827496Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Parrella NF, Hill AT, Enticott PG, Barhoun P, Bower IS, Ford TC
Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2023 Sep;230:173607. Epub 2023 Aug 4 doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2023.173607. PMID: 37543051
Petriti U, Dudman DC, Scosyrev E, Lopez-Leon S
Syst Rev 2023 Jan 16;12(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s13643-023-02169-6. PMID: 36642718Free PMC Article
DelRosso LM, Picchietti DL, Spruyt K, Bruni O, Garcia-Borreguero D, Kotagal S, Owens JA, Simakajornboon N, Ferri R; International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group (IRLSSG)
Sleep Med Rev 2021 Apr;56:101406. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2020.101406. PMID: 33341437
Romero R, Conde-Agudelo A, Da Fonseca E, O'Brien JM, Cetingoz E, Creasy GW, Hassan SS, Nicolaides KH
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2018 Feb;218(2):161-180. Epub 2017 Nov 17 doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.11.576. PMID: 29157866Free PMC Article
Grandjean P, Landrigan PJ
Lancet Neurol 2014 Mar;13(3):330-8. Epub 2014 Feb 17 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70278-3. PMID: 24556010Free PMC Article

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