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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 98(DEE98)

MedGen UID:
1794227
Concept ID:
C5562017
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE98; DEVELOPMENTAL AND EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY 98
 
Gene (location): ATP1A2 (1q23.2)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030472
OMIM®: 619605

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-98 (DEE98) is characterized by onset of seizures in the first decade (range infancy to late childhood) associated with variable global developmental delay. Other features may include hypotonia, spasticity, and quadriparesis. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific and variable abnormalities, including polymicrogyria. The severity is variable; some patients may die of refractory status epilepticus (summary by Vetro et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Sleep apnea
MedGen UID:
11458
Concept ID:
C0037315
Disease or Syndrome
An intermittent cessation of airflow at the mouth and nose during sleep is known as sleep apnea. Apneas that last at least 10 seconds are considered significant, but individuals with sleep apnea may experience apneas lasting from 20 seconds up to 2 or 3 minutes. Patients may have up to 15 events per hour of sleep.
Clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
66708
Concept ID:
C0234535
Disease or Syndrome
A clonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterized by sustained rhythmic jerking, that is regularly repetitive.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure
MedGen UID:
141670
Concept ID:
C0494475
Sign or Symptom
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure is a seizure defined by a tonic (bilateral increased tone, lasting seconds to minutes) and then a clonic (bilateral sustained rhythmic jerking) phase.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Cerebellar atrophy
MedGen UID:
196624
Concept ID:
C0740279
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar atrophy is defined as a cerebellum with initially normal structures, in a posterior fossa with normal size, which displays enlarged fissures (interfolial spaces) in comparison to the foliae secondary to loss of tissue. Cerebellar atrophy implies irreversible loss of tissue and result from an ongoing progressive disease until a final stage is reached or a single injury, e.g. an intoxication or infectious event.
Focal-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
199670
Concept ID:
C0751495
Disease or Syndrome
A focal-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating within networks limited to one hemisphere. They may be discretely localized or more widely distributed, and may originate in subcortical structures.
Bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset
MedGen UID:
164077
Concept ID:
C0877017
Disease or Syndrome
A bilateral tonic-clonic seizure with focal onset is a focal-onset seizure which progresses into a bilateral tonic-clonic phase.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.
Reduced eye contact
MedGen UID:
303190
Concept ID:
C1445953
Finding
A reduced frequency or duration of eye contact.
Thick corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
371993
Concept ID:
C1835194
Finding
Increased vertical dimension of the corpus callosum. This feature can be visualized by sagittal sections on magnetic resonance tomography imaging of the brain.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
EEG with burst suppression
MedGen UID:
369943
Concept ID:
C1969156
Finding
The burst suppression pattern in electroencephalography refers to a characteristic periodic pattern of low voltage (<10 microvolts) suppressed background and a relatively shorter pattern of higher amplitude slow, sharp, and spiking complexes.
Perisylvian polymicrogyria
MedGen UID:
481305
Concept ID:
C3279675
Finding
Polymicrogyria (an excessive number of small gyri or convolutions) that is maximal in perisylvian regions (the regions that surround the Sylvian fissures), which may be symmetric or asymmetric and may extend beyond perisylvian regions. The Sylvian fissures often extend posteriorly and superiorly.
Refractory status epilepticus
MedGen UID:
1713873
Concept ID:
C5397872
Disease or Syndrome
Refractory status epilepticus is defined as status epilepticus continuing despite two appropriately selected and dosed antiepileptic drugs, including a benzodiazepine.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Secondary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
608952
Concept ID:
C0431352
Finding
Head circumference which falls below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender because of insufficient head growth after birth.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):265-281. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00807-y. PMID: 33754312Free PMC Article
McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 10;1(1):CD001905. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001905.pub3. PMID: 29320603Free PMC Article
Nicolaidis C, Kripke CC, Raymaker D
Med Clin North Am 2014 Sep;98(5):1169-91. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2014.06.011. PMID: 25134878Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Koh HY, Smith L, Wiltrout KN, Podury A, Chourasia N, D'Gama AM, Park M, Knight D, Sexton EL, Koh JJ, Oby B, Pinsky R, Shao DD, French CE, Shao W, Rockowitz S, Sliz P, Zhang B, Mahida S, Moufawad El Achkar C, Yuskaitis CJ, Olson HE, Sheidley BR, Poduri AH; BCH Neurology Referral and Phenotyping Group
JAMA Netw Open 2023 Jul 3;6(7):e2324380. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.24380. PMID: 37471090Free PMC Article
Alharbi HM, Pinchefsky EF, Tran MA, Salazar Cerda CI, Parokaran Varghese J, Kamino D, Widjaja E, Mamak E, Ly L, Nevalainen P, Hahn CD, Tam EWY
Neurology 2023 May 9;100(19):e1976-e1984. Epub 2023 Mar 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207202. PMID: 36990719Free PMC Article
Mo A, Snyder LG, Babington O, Chung WK, Sahin M, Srivastava S
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 May;64(5):654-661. Epub 2021 Oct 26 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15100. PMID: 34704275Free PMC Article
Schon KR, Horvath R, Wei W, Calabrese C, Tucci A, Ibañez K, Ratnaike T, Pitceathly RDS, Bugiardini E, Quinlivan R, Hanna MG, Clement E, Ashton E, Sayer JA, Brennan P, Josifova D, Izatt L, Fratter C, Nesbitt V, Barrett T, McMullen DJ, Smith A, Deshpande C, Smithson SF, Festenstein R, Canham N, Caulfield M, Houlden H, Rahman S, Chinnery PF; Genomics England Research Consortium
BMJ 2021 Nov 3;375:e066288. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-066288. PMID: 34732400Free PMC Article
McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 10;1(1):CD001905. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001905.pub3. PMID: 29320603Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Coursimault J, Guerrot AM, Morrow MM, Schramm C, Zamora FM, Shanmugham A, Liu S, Zou F, Bilan F, Le Guyader G, Bruel AL, Denommé-Pichon AS, Faivre L, Tran Mau-Them F, Tessarech M, Colin E, El Chehadeh S, Gérard B, Schaefer E, Cogne B, Isidor B, Nizon M, Doummar D, Valence S, Héron D, Keren B, Mignot C, Coutton C, Devillard F, Alaix AS, Amiel J, Colleaux L, Munnich A, Poirier K, Rio M, Rondeau S, Barcia G, Callewaert B, Dheedene A, Kumps C, Vergult S, Menten B, Chung WK, Hernan R, Larson A, Nori K, Stewart S, Wheless J, Kresge C, Pletcher BA, Caumes R, Smol T, Sigaudy S, Coubes C, Helm M, Smith R, Morrison J, Wheeler PG, Kritzer A, Jouret G, Afenjar A, Deleuze JF, Olaso R, Boland A, Poitou C, Frebourg T, Houdayer C, Saugier-Veber P, Nicolas G, Lecoquierre F
Hum Genet 2022 Jan;141(1):65-80. Epub 2021 Nov 8 doi: 10.1007/s00439-021-02383-z. PMID: 34748075
Schon KR, Horvath R, Wei W, Calabrese C, Tucci A, Ibañez K, Ratnaike T, Pitceathly RDS, Bugiardini E, Quinlivan R, Hanna MG, Clement E, Ashton E, Sayer JA, Brennan P, Josifova D, Izatt L, Fratter C, Nesbitt V, Barrett T, McMullen DJ, Smith A, Deshpande C, Smithson SF, Festenstein R, Canham N, Caulfield M, Houlden H, Rahman S, Chinnery PF; Genomics England Research Consortium
BMJ 2021 Nov 3;375:e066288. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-066288. PMID: 34732400Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):265-281. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00807-y. PMID: 33754312Free PMC Article
D'Antonio F, Pagani G, Familiari A, Khalil A, Sagies TL, Malinger G, Leibovitz Z, Garel C, Moutard ML, Pilu G, Bhide A, Acharya G, Leombroni M, Manzoli L, Papageorghiou A, Prefumo F
Pediatrics 2016 Sep;138(3) doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0445. PMID: 27581855
Pierre G
Arch Dis Child 2013 Aug;98(8):618-24. Epub 2013 May 22 doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2012-302840. PMID: 23698595

Therapy

Juliá-Palacios N, Olivella M, Sigatullina Bondarenko M, Ibáñez-Micó S, Muñoz-Cabello B, Alonso-Luengo O, Soto-Insuga V, García-Navas D, Cuesta-Herraiz L, Andreo-Lillo P, Aguilera-Albesa S, Hedrera-Fernández A, González Alguacil E, Sánchez-Carpintero R, Martín Del Valle F, Jiménez González E, Cean Cabrera L, Medina-Rivera I, Perez-Ordoñez M, Colomé R, Lopez L, Engracia Cazorla M, Fornaguera M, Ormazabal A, Alonso-Colmenero I, Illescas KS, Balsells-Mejía S, Mari-Vico R, Duffo Viñas M, Cappuccio G, Terrone G, Romano R, Manti F, Mastrangelo M, Alfonsi C, de Siqueira Barros B, Nizon M, Gjerulfsen CE, Muro VL, Karall D, Zeiner F, Masnada S, Peterlongo I, Oyarzábal A, Santos-Gómez A, Altafaj X, García-Cazorla Á
Brain 2024 May 3;147(5):1653-1666. doi: 10.1093/brain/awae041. PMID: 38380699
Schon KR, Horvath R, Wei W, Calabrese C, Tucci A, Ibañez K, Ratnaike T, Pitceathly RDS, Bugiardini E, Quinlivan R, Hanna MG, Clement E, Ashton E, Sayer JA, Brennan P, Josifova D, Izatt L, Fratter C, Nesbitt V, Barrett T, McMullen DJ, Smith A, Deshpande C, Smithson SF, Festenstein R, Canham N, Caulfield M, Houlden H, Rahman S, Chinnery PF; Genomics England Research Consortium
BMJ 2021 Nov 3;375:e066288. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-066288. PMID: 34732400Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):265-281. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00807-y. PMID: 33754312Free PMC Article
McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 10;1(1):CD001905. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001905.pub3. PMID: 29320603Free PMC Article
Nicolaidis C, Kripke CC, Raymaker D
Med Clin North Am 2014 Sep;98(5):1169-91. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2014.06.011. PMID: 25134878Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Luiza Benevides M, de Moraes HT, Granados DMM, Bonadia LC, Sauma L, Augusta Montenegro M, Guerreiro MM, Lopes-Cendes Í, Carolina Coan A
Epilepsy Behav 2024 Jun;155:109762. Epub 2024 Apr 18 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2024.109762. PMID: 38636144
Koh HY, Smith L, Wiltrout KN, Podury A, Chourasia N, D'Gama AM, Park M, Knight D, Sexton EL, Koh JJ, Oby B, Pinsky R, Shao DD, French CE, Shao W, Rockowitz S, Sliz P, Zhang B, Mahida S, Moufawad El Achkar C, Yuskaitis CJ, Olson HE, Sheidley BR, Poduri AH; BCH Neurology Referral and Phenotyping Group
JAMA Netw Open 2023 Jul 3;6(7):e2324380. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.24380. PMID: 37471090Free PMC Article
Vasilica AM, Winsor A, Chari A, Scott R, Baldeweg T, Tisdall M
Epilepsy Res 2023 May;192:107132. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2023.107132. PMID: 37023554
Cloppenborg T, van Schooneveld M, Hagemann A, Hopf JL, Kalbhenn T, Otte WM, Polster T, Bien CG, Braun KPJ
Neurology 2022 Jan 18;98(3):e225-e235. Epub 2021 Nov 18 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000013065. PMID: 34795046
Schon KR, Horvath R, Wei W, Calabrese C, Tucci A, Ibañez K, Ratnaike T, Pitceathly RDS, Bugiardini E, Quinlivan R, Hanna MG, Clement E, Ashton E, Sayer JA, Brennan P, Josifova D, Izatt L, Fratter C, Nesbitt V, Barrett T, McMullen DJ, Smith A, Deshpande C, Smithson SF, Festenstein R, Canham N, Caulfield M, Houlden H, Rahman S, Chinnery PF; Genomics England Research Consortium
BMJ 2021 Nov 3;375:e066288. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-066288. PMID: 34732400Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Alharbi HM, Pinchefsky EF, Tran MA, Salazar Cerda CI, Parokaran Varghese J, Kamino D, Widjaja E, Mamak E, Ly L, Nevalainen P, Hahn CD, Tam EWY
Neurology 2023 May 9;100(19):e1976-e1984. Epub 2023 Mar 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207202. PMID: 36990719Free PMC Article
Mo A, Snyder LG, Babington O, Chung WK, Sahin M, Srivastava S
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 May;64(5):654-661. Epub 2021 Oct 26 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15100. PMID: 34704275Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):265-281. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00807-y. PMID: 33754312Free PMC Article
McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 10;1(1):CD001905. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001905.pub3. PMID: 29320603Free PMC Article
D'Antonio F, Pagani G, Familiari A, Khalil A, Sagies TL, Malinger G, Leibovitz Z, Garel C, Moutard ML, Pilu G, Bhide A, Acharya G, Leombroni M, Manzoli L, Papageorghiou A, Prefumo F
Pediatrics 2016 Sep;138(3) doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-0445. PMID: 27581855

Recent systematic reviews

Vasilica AM, Winsor A, Chari A, Scott R, Baldeweg T, Tisdall M
Epilepsy Res 2023 May;192:107132. Epub 2023 Mar 30 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2023.107132. PMID: 37023554
Batson S, Shankar R, Conry J, Boggs J, Radtke R, Mitchell S, Barion F, Murphy J, Danielson V
J Neurol 2022 Jun;269(6):2874-2891. Epub 2022 Jan 16 doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-10967-6. PMID: 35034187Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):265-281. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00807-y. PMID: 33754312Free PMC Article
Lukmanji S, Manji SA, Kadhim S, Sauro KM, Wirrell EC, Kwon CS, Jetté N
Epilepsy Behav 2019 Sep;98(Pt A):238-248. Epub 2019 Aug 6 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.07.037. PMID: 31398688
McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 10;1(1):CD001905. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001905.pub3. PMID: 29320603Free PMC Article

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