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Gaze-evoked nystagmus

MedGen UID:
1808161
Concept ID:
C5574666
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Nystagmus, gaze-evoked
SNOMED CT: Gaze evoked nystagmus (1220537002); Gaze-evoked nystagmus (1220537002)
 
HPO: HP:0000640

Definition

Nystagmus made apparent by looking to the right or to the left. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVGaze-evoked nystagmus

Conditions with this feature

Azorean disease
MedGen UID:
9841
Concept ID:
C0024408
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and variable findings including pyramidal signs, a dystonic-rigid extrapyramidal syndrome, significant peripheral amyotrophy and generalized areflexia, progressive external ophthalmoplegia, action-induced facial and lingual fasciculations, and bulging eyes. Neurologic findings tend to evolve as the disorder progresses.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1
MedGen UID:
155703
Concept ID:
C0752120
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and eventual deterioration of bulbar functions. Early in the disease, affected individuals may have gait disturbance, slurred speech, difficulty with balance, brisk deep tendon reflexes, hypermetric saccades, nystagmus, and mild dysphagia. Later signs include slowing of saccadic velocity, development of up-gaze palsy, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and hypotonia. In advanced stages, muscle atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of proprioception, cognitive impairment (e.g., frontal executive dysfunction, impaired verbal memory), chorea, dystonia, and bulbar dysfunction are seen. Onset is typically in the third or fourth decade, although childhood onset and late-adult onset have been reported. Those with onset after age 60 years may manifest a pure cerebellar phenotype. Interval from onset to death varies from ten to 30 years; individuals with juvenile onset show more rapid progression and more severe disease. Anticipation is observed. An axonal sensory neuropathy detected by electrophysiologic testing is common; brain imaging typically shows cerebellar and brain stem atrophy.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2
MedGen UID:
155704
Concept ID:
C0752121
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, including nystagmus, slow saccadic eye movements, and in some individuals, ophthalmoparesis or parkinsonism. Pyramidal findings are present; deep tendon reflexes are brisk early on and absent later in the course. Age of onset is typically in the fourth decade with a ten- to 15-year disease duration.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5
MedGen UID:
155705
Concept ID:
C0752123
Disease or Syndrome
For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), see SCA1 (164400).
Episodic ataxia type 2
MedGen UID:
314039
Concept ID:
C1720416
Disease or Syndrome
Episodic ataxia is a genetically heterogeneous neurologic condition characterized by spells of incoordination and imbalance, often associated with progressive ataxia. Episodic ataxia type 2 is the most common form of EA (Jen et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of episodic ataxia, see EA1 (160120).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 27
MedGen UID:
373075
Concept ID:
C1836383
Disease or Syndrome
Disease with characteristics of early-onset tremor, dyskinesia and slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia. Fewer than 30 cases have been reported to date. This disease is caused by a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor 14 FGF14 gene (13q34). Prognosis is relatively good. Life-threatening status epilepticus and intractable seizure or severe dysphagia is rare.
Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia-saccadic intrusion syndrome
MedGen UID:
335442
Concept ID:
C1846492
Disease or Syndrome
VPS13D movement disorder is a hyperkinetic movement disorder (dystonia, chorea, and/or ataxia) of variable age of onset that can be associated with developmental delay. Onset ranges from birth to adulthood. Individuals can present in childhood with motor delays and gait instability. Cognitive impairment ranging from mild intellectual disability to developmental delay has been reported, and several individuals have normal cognitive function. Individuals have also presented as young adults with gait difficulties caused by spastic ataxia or ataxia. In addition to gait ataxia, affected individuals had limb ataxia, dysarthria, and eye movement abnormalities (macro-saccadic oscillations, nystagmus, and saccadic pursuit). Additional features reported in some individuals include peripheral neuropathy and/or seizures. The disorder progresses to spastic ataxia or generalized dystonia, which can lead to loss of independent ambulation.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17
MedGen UID:
337637
Concept ID:
C1846707
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 17 (SCA17) is characterized by ataxia, dementia, and involuntary movements, including chorea and dystonia. Psychiatric symptoms, pyramidal signs, and rigidity are common. The age of onset ranges from three to 55 years. Individuals with full-penetrance alleles develop neurologic and/or psychiatric symptoms by age 50 years. Ataxia and psychiatric abnormalities are frequently the initial findings, followed by involuntary movement, parkinsonism, dementia, and pyramidal signs. Brain MRI shows variable atrophy of the cerebrum, brain stem, and cerebellum. The clinical features correlate with the length of the polyglutamine expansion but are not absolutely predictive of the clinical course.
Episodic ataxia type 4
MedGen UID:
376222
Concept ID:
C1847843
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare form of hereditary episodic ataxia with characteristics of late-onset episodic ataxia, recurrent attacks of vertigo and diplopia.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28
MedGen UID:
339941
Concept ID:
C1853249
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 (SCA28) is characterized by young-adult onset, very slowly progressive gait and limb ataxia resulting in coordination and balance problems, dysarthria, ptosis, nystagmus, and ophthalmoparesis. In most individuals, SCA28 presents as a loss of coordination of lower limbs (unsteadiness, gait ataxia). Less frequently, ptosis/ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria, or upper-limb incoordination may occur as the initial finding. The course of the disease is slowly progressive without impairment of functional autonomy even decades after onset.
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive, with axonal neuropathy 2
MedGen UID:
340052
Concept ID:
C1853761
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by onset of ataxia between age three and 30 years after initial normal development, axonal sensorimotor neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, cerebellar atrophy, and elevated serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 11
MedGen UID:
388073
Concept ID:
C1858479
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia 11 (SPG11) is characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs frequently associated with the following: mild intellectual disability with learning difficulties in childhood and/or progressive cognitive decline; peripheral neuropathy; pseudobulbar involvement; and increased reflexes in the upper limbs. Less frequent findings include: cerebellar signs (ataxia, nystagmus, saccadic pursuit); retinal degeneration; pes cavus; scoliosis; and parkinsonism with characteristic brain MRI features that include thinning of the corpus callosum. Onset occurs mainly during infancy or adolescence (range: age 1-31 years) and in rare cases as late as age 60 years. Most affected individuals become wheelchair bound one or two decades after disease onset.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 2
MedGen UID:
349134
Concept ID:
C1859298
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-2 is an neurologic disorder characterized by onset of impaired motor development and ataxic gait in early childhood. Additional features often include loss of fine motor skills, dysarthria, nystagmus, cerebellar signs, and delayed cognitive development with intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Overall, the disorder is non- or slowly progressive, with survival into adulthood (summary by Jobling et al., 2015).
Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia
MedGen UID:
395301
Concept ID:
C1859598
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. The first manifestation is progressive gait imbalance (mean age of onset: 4.3 years; range: 2-10 years), followed by dysarthria, then upper-limb dysmetria with mild intention tremor. Oculomotor apraxia, usually noticed a few years after the onset of ataxia, progresses to external ophthalmoplegia. All affected individuals have generalized areflexia followed by a peripheral neuropathy and quadriplegia with loss of ambulation about seven to ten years after onset. Hands and feet are short and atrophic. Chorea and upper-limb dystonia are common. Intellect remains normal in some individuals; in others, different degrees of cognitive impairment have been observed.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 29
MedGen UID:
350085
Concept ID:
C1861732
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-29 (SCA29) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of delayed motor development and mild cognitive delay. Affected individuals develop a very slowly progressive or nonprogressive gait and limb ataxia associated with cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Additional variable features include nystagmus, dysarthria, and tremor (summary by Huang et al., 2012). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Episodic ataxia type 5
MedGen UID:
356142
Concept ID:
C1866039
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of hereditary episodic ataxia with characteristics of recurrent episodes of vertigo and ataxia lasting several hours.
Leukoencephalopathy-ataxia-hypodontia-hypomyelination syndrome
MedGen UID:
390993
Concept ID:
C2676243
Disease or Syndrome
POLR3-related leukodystrophy, a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with specific features on brain MRI, is characterized by varying combinations of four major clinical findings: Neurologic dysfunction, typically predominated by motor dysfunction (progressive cerebellar dysfunction, and to a lesser extent extrapyramidal [i.e., dystonia], pyramidal [i.e., spasticity] and cognitive dysfunctions). Abnormal dentition (delayed dentition, hypodontia, oligodontia, and abnormally placed or shaped teeth). Endocrine abnormalities such as short stature (in ~50% of individuals) with or without growth hormone deficiency, and more commonly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism manifesting as delayed, arrested, or absent puberty. Ocular abnormality in the form of myopia, typically progressing over several years and becoming severe. POLR3-related leukodystrophy and 4H leukodystrophy are the two recognized terms for five previously described overlapping clinical phenotypes (initially described as distinct entities before their molecular basis was known). These include: Hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome); Ataxia, delayed dentition, and hypomyelination (ADDH); Tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH); Leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO); Hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). Age of onset is typically in early childhood but later-onset cases have also been reported. An infant with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (neonatal progeroid syndrome) was recently reported to have pathogenic variants in POLR3A on exome sequencing. Confirmation of this as a very severe form of POLR3-related leukodystrophy awaits replication in other individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome.
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 30
MedGen UID:
424821
Concept ID:
C2936793
Disease or Syndrome
A rare disease with characteristics of slowly progressive and relatively pure ataxia described in 6 patients from one Australian family to date. The disease presents with oculomotor dysfunction, moderate dysarthria, and ataxia that progresses slowly and eventually leads to mobility impairment. Some patients have also reported mild hyperreflexia in the lower limbs. Rare manifestations include gaze-evoked nystagmus and dystonia. The causal gene has not yet been identified but it has been linked to chromosome 4q34.3-q35.1.
Cognitive impairment with or without cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
482045
Concept ID:
C3280415
Disease or Syndrome
SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy is characterized by developmental delay, seizure onset in the first 18 months of life (mean 4 months), and intractable epilepsy characterized by multiple seizure types (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, infantile spasms, and absence and focal seizures). Epilepsy syndromes can include Lennox-Gastaut syndrome, West syndrome, and epileptic encephalopathies (e.g., Dravet syndrome). Hypotonia and movement disorders including dystonia, ataxia, and choreoathetosis are common. Psychomotor development varies from normal prior to seizure onset (with subsequent slowing or regression after seizure onset) to abnormal from birth. Intellectual disability, present in all, ranges from mild to severe (in ~50% of affected individuals). Autistic features are noted in some. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) of unknown cause has been reported in approximately 10% of published cases. To date SCN8A-related epilepsy with encephalopathy has been reported in the literature in about 50 individuals.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 12
MedGen UID:
482082
Concept ID:
C3280452
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-12 is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of generalized seizures in infancy, delayed psychomotor development with mental retardation, and cerebellar ataxia. Some patients may also show spasticity (summary by Mallaret et al., 2014).
Cerebellar ataxia with neuropathy and bilateral vestibular areflexia syndrome
MedGen UID:
482853
Concept ID:
C3281223
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, and vestibular areflexia syndrome (CANVAS) is an autosomal recessive adult-onset, slowly progressive neurologic disorder characterized by imbalance due to cerebellar gait and limb ataxia, impaired vestibular function bilaterally, and non-length-dependent sensory neuropathy (summary by Szmulewicz et al., 2011).
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 13
MedGen UID:
766730
Concept ID:
C3553816
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-13 (SCAR13) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development beginning in infancy. Affected individuals show mildly to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech as well as gait and stance ataxia and hyperreflexia. Most individuals also have eye movement abnormalities. Brain MRI shows cerebellar atrophy and ventriculomegaly (Guergueltcheva et al., 2012).
Multiple system atrophy 1, susceptibility to
MedGen UID:
811503
Concept ID:
C3714927
Finding
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that manifests as a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder causing parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, and autonomic, urogenital, and pyramidal dysfunction in various combinations. Two main subtypes are recognized: 'subtype C,' characterized predominantly by cerebellar ataxia, and 'subtype P,' characterized predominantly by parkinsonism. MSA is characterized pathologically by the degeneration of striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar structures and glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) that consist of abnormally phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (SNCA; 163890) or tau (MAPT; 157140) (Gilman et al., 1998; Gilman et al., 2008; Scholz et al., 2009). 'Subtype C' of MSA has been reported to be more prevalent than 'subtype P' in the Japanese population (65-67% vs 33-35%), whereas 'subtype P' has been reported to be more prevalent than 'subtype C' in Europe (63% vs 34%) and North America (60% vs 13%, with 27% of cases unclassified) (summary by The Multiple-System Atrophy Research Collaboration, 2013). MSA is similar clinically and pathologically to Parkinson disease (PD; 168600) and Lewy body dementia (127750). See also PARK1 (168601), which is specifically caused by mutation in the SNCA gene. Pure autonomic failure manifests as orthostatic hypotension and other autonomic abnormalities without other neurologic involvement. Although there is some phenotypic overlap, the relationship of pure autonomic failure to MSA is unclear (Vanderhaeghen et al., 1970; Schatz, 1996).
Early-onset progressive neurodegeneration-blindness-ataxia-spasticity syndrome
MedGen UID:
815995
Concept ID:
C3809665
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-79B (SPG79B) is an autosomal recessive progressive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of spastic paraplegia and optic atrophy in the first decade of life. Additional features are variable, but may include peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar ataxia, and cognitive impairment (summary by Rydning et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder 1
MedGen UID:
861227
Concept ID:
C4012790
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia-telangiectasia-like disorder-1 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by progressive cerebellar degeneration resulting in ataxia and oculomotor apraxia. Laboratory studies of patient cells showed increased susceptibility to radiation, consistent with a defect in DNA repair. The disorder shares some phenotypic features of ataxia-telangiectasia (AT; 208900), but telangiectases and immune deficiency are not present in ATLD1 (summary by Hernandez et al., 1993 and Stewart et al., 1999). Genetic Heterogeneity of Ataxia-Telangiectasia-Like Disorder See also ATLD2 (615919), caused by mutation in the PCNA gene (176740) on chromosome 20p12.
Cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and dysequilibrium syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639436
Concept ID:
C4551552
Disease or Syndrome
VLDLR cerebellar hypoplasia (VLDLR-CH) is characterized by non-progressive congenital ataxia that is predominantly truncal and results in delayed ambulation, moderate-to-profound intellectual disability, dysarthria, strabismus, and seizures. Children either learn to walk very late (often after age 6 years) or never achieve independent ambulation. Brain MRI findings include hypoplasia of the inferior portion of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres, simplified gyration of the cerebral hemispheres, and small brain stem – particularly the pons.
Knobloch syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1642123
Concept ID:
C4551775
Disease or Syndrome
Knobloch syndrome-1 (KNO1) is an autosomal recessive developmental disorder primarily characterized by typical eye abnormalities, including high myopia, cataracts, dislocated lens, vitreoretinal degeneration, and retinal detachment, with occipital skull defects, which can range from occipital encephalocele to occult cutis aplasia (summary by Aldahmesh et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Knobloch Syndrome KNO2 (618458) is caused by mutation in the PAK2 gene (605022) on chromosome 3q29.
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 16
MedGen UID:
1631337
Concept ID:
C4693779
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-16 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia, nystagmus, and mildly delayed motor development in infancy. Affected individuals have motor disabilities, including ataxic or broad-based gait, hyperreflexia, intention tremor, dysmetria, and a mild pyramidal syndrome. Some patients have cognitive impairment, whereas others may have normal cognition or mild intellectual disability with speech difficulties. Brain imaging typically shows hypomyelination, leukodystrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Simons et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1D
MedGen UID:
1648387
Concept ID:
C4748058
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1D (PCH1D) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia and a motor neuronopathy apparent at birth or in infancy. Patients have respiratory insufficiency, feeding difficulties, and severely delayed or minimal gross motor development. Other features may include eye movement abnormalities, poor overall growth, contractures. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebellar atrophy with relative sparing of the brainstem (summary by Burns et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 27
MedGen UID:
1672866
Concept ID:
C5193058
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-27 (SCAR27) is an adult-onset neurologic disorder characterized by gait difficulties and other cerebellar signs, such as eye movement abnormalities, dysarthria, and difficulty writing. The disorder is progressive, and some patients may lose independent ambulation. Additional features include spasticity of the lower limbs and cognitive impairment. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy (summary by Eidhof et al., 2018).
Spastic paraplegia 80, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1682111
Concept ID:
C5193084
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-80 (SPG80) is an autosomal dominant juvenile-onset neurologic disorder characterized by onset of progressive spasticity and hyperreflexia affecting mainly the lower limbs and resulting in difficulty walking or loss of independent ambulation, sometimes as early as the second decade. Some patients may have cerebellar signs and mild cognitive impairment, but most have a pure form of the disorder (summary by Farazi Fard et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600).
Neurodegeneration with ataxia and late-onset optic atrophy
MedGen UID:
1779901
Concept ID:
C5543254
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with ataxia and late-onset optic atrophy (NDAXOA) is an autosomal dominant disorder with somewhat variable manifestations. Most affected individuals present in mid-adulthood with slowly progressive cerebellar and gait ataxia, optic atrophy, and myopathy or myalgia. Some patients may have a childhood history of neurologic features, including limited extraocular movements. Additional features can include cardiomyopathy, psychiatric disturbances, and peripheral sensory impairment (summary by Taylor et al., 1996 and Courage et al., 2017).
Spinocerebellar ataxia 49
MedGen UID:
1805601
Concept ID:
C5676950
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-49 (SCA49) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized initially by gait abnormalities, gaze-evoked nystagmus, and hyperreflexia. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from the second to seventh decades, even within the same family. The disorder is slowly progressive, and later features may include dysarthria, dysmetria, diplopia, pyramidal signs, and axonal peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy and myelination defects (Corral-Juan et al., 2022).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 32
MedGen UID:
1802496
Concept ID:
C5676978
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-32 (SCAR32) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of gait ataxia in the second or third decades of life. The disorder is slowly progressive. Other classic features include upper limb ataxia, oculomotor signs, dysphagia, and dysarthria. Some patients may have hyper- or hypokinetic movement abnormalities. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy (Rebelo et al., 2021).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Strupp M, Bisdorff A, Furman J, Hornibrook J, Jahn K, Maire R, Newman-Toker D, Magnusson M
J Vestib Res 2022;32(5):389-406. doi: 10.3233/VES-220201. PMID: 35723133Free PMC Article
Kim JS, Newman-Toker DE, Kerber KA, Jahn K, Bertholon P, Waterston J, Lee H, Bisdorff A, Strupp M
J Vestib Res 2022;32(3):205-222. doi: 10.3233/VES-210169. PMID: 35367974Free PMC Article
Zwergal A, Feil K, Schniepp R, Strupp M
Semin Neurol 2020 Feb;40(1):87-96. Epub 2019 Dec 30 doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3400315. PMID: 31887755

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Kim JS, Newman-Toker DE, Kerber KA, Jahn K, Bertholon P, Waterston J, Lee H, Bisdorff A, Strupp M
J Vestib Res 2022;32(3):205-222. doi: 10.3233/VES-210169. PMID: 35367974Free PMC Article
Kim HA, Lee H, Kim JS
Semin Neurol 2020 Feb;40(1):67-75. Epub 2020 Jan 14 doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3402737. PMID: 31935768
Zwergal A, Feil K, Schniepp R, Strupp M
Semin Neurol 2020 Feb;40(1):87-96. Epub 2019 Dec 30 doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3400315. PMID: 31887755
Choi JY, Lee SH, Kim JS
Curr Opin Neurol 2018 Feb;31(1):81-89. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000511. PMID: 29084063
Liang L, Chen T, Wu Y
Neurophysiol Clin 2016 Feb;46(1):27-34. Epub 2016 Mar 2 doi: 10.1016/j.neucli.2015.12.006. PMID: 26947625

Diagnosis

Strupp M, Bisdorff A, Furman J, Hornibrook J, Jahn K, Maire R, Newman-Toker D, Magnusson M
J Vestib Res 2022;32(5):389-406. doi: 10.3233/VES-220201. PMID: 35723133Free PMC Article
Kim JS, Newman-Toker DE, Kerber KA, Jahn K, Bertholon P, Waterston J, Lee H, Bisdorff A, Strupp M
J Vestib Res 2022;32(3):205-222. doi: 10.3233/VES-210169. PMID: 35367974Free PMC Article
Strupp ML, Straumann D, Helmchen C
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2021 Nov;238(11):1186-1195. Epub 2021 Nov 16 doi: 10.1055/a-1525-0030. PMID: 34784642
Zwergal A, Feil K, Schniepp R, Strupp M
Semin Neurol 2020 Feb;40(1):87-96. Epub 2019 Dec 30 doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3400315. PMID: 31887755
Choi JY, Lee SH, Kim JS
Curr Opin Neurol 2018 Feb;31(1):81-89. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000511. PMID: 29084063

Therapy

Kaur P, Kaur A, Sinha A, Khaliq W, Dumic I, Singh A
J Clin Pharmacol 2023 Dec;63(12):1324-1329. Epub 2023 Sep 2 doi: 10.1002/jcph.2330. PMID: 37571970
Wang Y, Tourkevich R, Bosley J, Gold DR, Newsome SD
J Neuroophthalmol 2021 Dec 1;41(4):e665-e671. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000001084. PMID: 33105411
Khan F, Sharma N, Ud Din M, Bansal V
Am J Case Rep 2020 Dec 31;21:e928272. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.928272. PMID: 33380716Free PMC Article
Ataç C, Kısabay A, Çetin Akkoç C, Saruhan G, Çelebisoy N
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2020 Aug;29(8):104937. Epub 2020 Jun 7 doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.104937. PMID: 32689600
Hankey GJ, Gubbay SS
Med J Aust 1989 Mar 6;150(5):277-8. doi: 10.5694/j.1326-5377.1989.tb136463.x. PMID: 2716626

Prognosis

Theeranaew W, Wang F, Ghasia FF, Wilmot G, Shaikh AG
Cerebellum 2022 Feb;21(1):55-63. Epub 2021 May 11 doi: 10.1007/s12311-021-01272-5. PMID: 33977497
Bögli SY, Straumann D, Schuknecht B, Bertolini G, Tarnutzer AA
Cerebellum 2021 Oct;20(5):751-759. doi: 10.1007/s12311-020-01118-6. PMID: 32076935
Lee SU, Kim HJ, Choi JY, Kim JK, Kim JS
Neurology 2019 Sep 10;93(11):e1085-e1092. Epub 2019 Aug 9 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008107. PMID: 31399495
Nerrant E, Tilikete C
J Neuroophthalmol 2017 Sep;37(3):332-340. doi: 10.1097/WNO.0000000000000507. PMID: 28410279
Strupp M, Kremmyda O, Adamczyk C, Böttcher N, Muth C, Yip CW, Bremova T
J Neurol 2014 Sep;261 Suppl 2(Suppl 2):S542-58. doi: 10.1007/s00415-014-7385-9. PMID: 25145891Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Strupp M, Bisdorff A, Furman J, Hornibrook J, Jahn K, Maire R, Newman-Toker D, Magnusson M
J Vestib Res 2022;32(5):389-406. doi: 10.3233/VES-220201. PMID: 35723133Free PMC Article
Theeranaew W, Wang F, Ghasia FF, Wilmot G, Shaikh AG
Cerebellum 2022 Feb;21(1):55-63. Epub 2021 May 11 doi: 10.1007/s12311-021-01272-5. PMID: 33977497
Bögli SY, Straumann D, Schuknecht B, Bertolini G, Tarnutzer AA
Cerebellum 2021 Oct;20(5):751-759. doi: 10.1007/s12311-020-01118-6. PMID: 32076935
Kim HA, Lee H, Kim JS
Semin Neurol 2020 Feb;40(1):67-75. Epub 2020 Jan 14 doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3402737. PMID: 31935768
Romano F, Tarnutzer AA, Straumann D, Ramat S, Bertolini G
J Physiol 2017 Mar 15;595(6):2161-2173. Epub 2017 Jan 17 doi: 10.1113/JP273204. PMID: 27981586Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Kaur P, Kaur A, Sinha A, Khaliq W, Dumic I, Singh A
J Clin Pharmacol 2023 Dec;63(12):1324-1329. Epub 2023 Sep 2 doi: 10.1002/jcph.2330. PMID: 37571970
Toudou-Daouda M, Alecu C, Chausson N, Aminou-Tassiou NR, Smadja L, Soumah D, Aghasaryan M, Al Tarcha T, Smadja D
J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jul;89:161-164. Epub 2021 May 12 doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2021.05.009. PMID: 34119262
Lee SU, Kim HJ, Choi JY, Kim JK, Kim JS
Neurology 2019 Sep 10;93(11):e1085-e1092. Epub 2019 Aug 9 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008107. PMID: 31399495
Sanchez K, Rowe FJ
Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Mar;96(2):e111-e118. Epub 2016 Nov 22 doi: 10.1111/aos.13307. PMID: 27874249

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