U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Transketolase deficiency(SDDHD)

MedGen UID:
1814561
Concept ID:
C5700245
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Short stature, developmental delay, and congenital heart defects
SNOMED CT: Short stature, developmental delay, congenital heart defect syndrome (1237512003); TKT (transketolase) deficiency (1237512003)
 
Gene (location): TKT (3p21.1)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0014881
OMIM®: 617044
Orphanet: ORPHA488618

Definition

A rare disorder of pentose phosphate metabolism with characteristics of developmental delay and intellectual disability, delayed or absent speech, short stature and congenital heart defects (such as ventricular septal defect, atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale). Additional reported features include hypotonia, hyperactivity, stereotypic behaviour, ophthalmologic abnormalities (bilateral cataract, uveitis, strabismus), hearing impairment and variable facial dysmorphism among others. Laboratory analysis shows elevated plasma and urinary polyols (erythritol, arabitol and ribitol) and urinary sugar-phosphates (ribose-5-phosphate and xylulose/ribulose-5-phosphate). [from SNOMEDCT_US]

Clinical features

From HPO
Patent ductus arteriosus
MedGen UID:
4415
Concept ID:
C0013274
Congenital Abnormality
In utero, the ductus arteriosus (DA) serves to divert ventricular output away from the lungs and toward the placenta by connecting the main pulmonary artery to the descending aorta. A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in the first 3 days of life is a physiologic shunt in healthy term and preterm newborn infants, and normally is substantially closed within about 24 hours after bith and completely closed after about three weeks. Failure of physiologcal closure is referred to a persistent or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Depending on the degree of left-to-right shunting, PDA can have clinical consequences.
Patent foramen ovale
MedGen UID:
8891
Concept ID:
C0016522
Congenital Abnormality
Failure of the foramen ovale to seal postnatally, leaving a potential conduit between the left and right cardiac atria.
Atrial septal defect
MedGen UID:
6753
Concept ID:
C0018817
Congenital Abnormality
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital abnormality of the interatrial septum that enables blood flow between the left and right atria via the interatrial septum.
Ventricular septal defect
MedGen UID:
42366
Concept ID:
C0018818
Congenital Abnormality
A hole between the two bottom chambers (ventricles) of the heart. The defect is centered around the most superior aspect of the ventricular septum.
Proportionate short stature
MedGen UID:
163901
Concept ID:
C0878660
Finding
A kind of short stature in which different regions of the body are shortened to a comparable extent.
Motor stereotypies
MedGen UID:
21318
Concept ID:
C0038271
Individual Behavior
Use of the same abnormal action in response to certain triggers or at random. They may be used as a way to regulate one's internal state but must otherwise have no apparent functional purpose.
Self-injurious behavior
MedGen UID:
88371
Concept ID:
C0085271
Individual Behavior
Self-aggression.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Compulsive behaviors
MedGen UID:
109373
Concept ID:
C0600104
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Behavior that consists of repetitive acts, characterized by the feeling that one "has to" perform them, while being aware that these acts are not in line with one's overall goal.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
MedGen UID:
220387
Concept ID:
C1263846
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder that typically begins in childhood and is characterized by a short attention span (inattention), an inability to be calm and stay still (hyperactivity), and poor impulse control (impulsivity). Some people with ADHD have problems with only inattention or with hyperactivity and impulsivity, but most have problems related to all three features.\n\nIn people with ADHD, the characteristic behaviors are frequent and severe enough to interfere with the activities of daily living such as school, work, and relationships with others. Because of an inability to stay focused on tasks, people with inattention may be easily distracted, forgetful, avoid tasks that require sustained attention, have difficulty organizing tasks, or frequently lose items.\n\nHyperactivity is usually shown by frequent movement. Individuals with this feature often fidget or tap their foot when seated, leave their seat when it is inappropriate to do so (such as in the classroom), or talk a lot and interrupt others.\n\nImpulsivity can result in hasty actions without thought for the consequences. Individuals with poor impulse control may have difficulty waiting for their turn, deferring to others, or considering their actions before acting.\n\nIn most affected individuals, ADHD continues throughout life, but in about one-third of individuals, signs and symptoms of ADHD go away by adulthood.\n\nMore than two-thirds of all individuals with ADHD have additional conditions, including insomnia, mood or anxiety disorders, learning disorders, or substance use disorders. Affected individuals may also have autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired communication and social interaction, or Tourette syndrome, which is a disorder characterized by repetitive and involuntary movements or noises called tics.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Uveitis
MedGen UID:
52961
Concept ID:
C0042164
Disease or Syndrome
Inflammation of one or all portions of the uveal tract.
Developmental cataract
MedGen UID:
3202
Concept ID:
C0009691
Congenital Abnormality
A cataract that occurs congenitally as the result of a developmental defect, in contrast to the majority of cataracts that occur in adulthood as the result of degenerative changes of the lens.
Strabismus
MedGen UID:
21337
Concept ID:
C0038379
Disease or Syndrome
A misalignment of the eyes so that the visual axes deviate from bifoveal fixation. The classification of strabismus may be based on a number of features including the relative position of the eyes, whether the deviation is latent or manifest, intermittent or constant, concomitant or otherwise and according to the age of onset and the relevance of any associated refractive error.

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVTransketolase deficiency

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Tapias V, Jainuddin S, Ahuja M, Stack C, Elipenahli C, Vignisse J, Gerges M, Starkova N, Xu H, Starkov AA, Bettendorff L, Hushpulian DM, Smirnova NA, Gazaryan IG, Kaidery NA, Wakade S, Calingasan NY, Thomas B, Gibson GE, Dumont M, Beal MF
Hum Mol Genet 2018 Aug 15;27(16):2874-2892. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddy201. PMID: 29860433Free PMC Article
Rabbani N, Thornalley PJ
Diabetes Obes Metab 2011 Jul;13(7):577-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2011.01384.x. PMID: 21342411
Brady JA, Rock CL, Horneffer MR
J Am Diet Assoc 1995 May;95(5):541-4. doi: 10.1016/S0002-8223(95)00148-4. PMID: 7722187

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Mańkowska-Wierzbicka D, Michalak S, Karczewski J, Dobrowolska A, Wierzbicka A, Stelmach-Mardas M
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019 Oct;23(19):8501-8505. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201910_19163. PMID: 31646581

Diagnosis

Shayota BJ, Donti TR, Xiao J, Gijavanekar C, Kennedy AD, Hubert L, Rodan L, Vanderpluym C, Nowak C, Bjornsson HT, Ganetzky R, Berry GT, Pappan KL, Sutton VR, Sun Q, Elsea SH
Mol Genet Metab 2020 Sep-Oct;131(1-2):147-154. Epub 2020 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2020.07.013. PMID: 32828637Free PMC Article
Mańkowska-Wierzbicka D, Michalak S, Karczewski J, Dobrowolska A, Wierzbicka A, Stelmach-Mardas M
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2019 Oct;23(19):8501-8505. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201910_19163. PMID: 31646581
Boyle L, Wamelink MMC, Salomons GS, Roos B, Pop A, Dauber A, Hwa V, Andrew M, Douglas J, Feingold M, Kramer N, Saitta S, Retterer K, Cho MT, Begtrup A, Monaghan KG, Wynn J, Chung WK
Am J Hum Genet 2016 Jun 2;98(6):1235-1242. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2016.03.030. PMID: 27259054Free PMC Article
Kaasinen E, Rahikkala E, Koivunen P, Miettinen S, Wamelink MM, Aavikko M, Palin K, Myllyharju J, Moilanen JS, Pajunen L, Karhu A, Aaltonen LA
Eur J Med Genet 2014 Oct;57(10):543-51. Epub 2014 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.07.002. PMID: 25078763
Statius van Eps LW, Schouten H
Neth J Med 1985;28(10):408-15. PMID: 4080044

Therapy

Lonsdale D
J Am Coll Nutr 1988 Feb;7(1):61-7. doi: 10.1080/07315724.1988.10720221. PMID: 3343477

Clinical prediction guides

Kaasinen E, Rahikkala E, Koivunen P, Miettinen S, Wamelink MM, Aavikko M, Palin K, Myllyharju J, Moilanen JS, Pajunen L, Karhu A, Aaltonen LA
Eur J Med Genet 2014 Oct;57(10):543-51. Epub 2014 Jul 29 doi: 10.1016/j.ejmg.2014.07.002. PMID: 25078763

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...