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Congenital myopathy 20(CMYP20)

MedGen UID:
1841029
Concept ID:
C5830393
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: CMYP20
 
Gene (location): RYR3 (15q13.3-14)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0957215
OMIM®: 620310

Definition

Congenital myopathy-20 (CMYP20) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that shows wide phenotypic variability. Some patients present in early childhood with proximal muscle weakness affecting the lower and upper limbs resulting in difficulties running and climbing, whereas others present soon after birth with congenital limb or distal contractures. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features and global developmental delay. Skeletal muscle biopsy may show nemaline rods (Nilipour et al., 2018; Pehlivan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Clubfoot
MedGen UID:
3130
Concept ID:
C0009081
Congenital Abnormality
Clubfoot is a congenital limb deformity defined as fixation of the foot in cavus, adductus, varus, and equinus (i.e., inclined inwards, axially rotated outwards, and pointing downwards) with concomitant soft tissue abnormalities (Cardy et al., 2007). Clubfoot may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome (e.g., diastrophic dysplasia, 222600). Clubfoot has been reported with deficiency of long bones and mirror-image polydactyly (Gurnett et al., 2008; Klopocki et al., 2012).
Scapular winging
MedGen UID:
66822
Concept ID:
C0240953
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormal protrusion of the scapula away from the surface of the back.
Ulnar deviation of the hand
MedGen UID:
66031
Concept ID:
C0241521
Finding
Divergence of the longitudinal axis of the hand at the wrist in a posterior (ulnar) direction (i.e., towards the little finger).
Toe joint contracture
MedGen UID:
592351
Concept ID:
C0409361
Acquired Abnormality
Lack of full passive range of motion (restrictions in flexion, extension, or other movements) of a toe joint resulting from structural changes of non-bony tissues, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules and/or skin.
Short finger
MedGen UID:
334977
Concept ID:
C1844548
Anatomical Abnormality
Abnormally short finger associated with developmental hypoplasia.
Failure to thrive
MedGen UID:
746019
Concept ID:
C2315100
Disease or Syndrome
Failure to thrive (FTT) refers to a child whose physical growth is substantially below the norm.
Chronic diarrhea
MedGen UID:
96036
Concept ID:
C0401151
Finding
The presence of chronic diarrhea, which is usually taken to mean diarrhea that has persisted for over 4 weeks.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Delayed speech and language development
MedGen UID:
105318
Concept ID:
C0454644
Finding
A degree of language development that is significantly below the norm for a child of a specified age.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hip dislocation
MedGen UID:
42455
Concept ID:
C0019554
Injury or Poisoning
Displacement of the femur from its normal location in the hip joint.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Scoliosis
MedGen UID:
11348
Concept ID:
C0036439
Disease or Syndrome
The presence of an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
Proximal muscle weakness
MedGen UID:
113169
Concept ID:
C0221629
Finding
A lack of strength of the proximal muscles.
Gowers sign
MedGen UID:
65865
Concept ID:
C0234182
Finding
A phenomenon whereby patients are not able to stand up without the use of the hands owing to weakness of the proximal muscles of the lower limbs.
Difficulty climbing stairs
MedGen UID:
68676
Concept ID:
C0239067
Finding
Reduced ability to climb stairs.
Congenital contracture
MedGen UID:
83066
Concept ID:
C0332878
Congenital Abnormality
One or more flexion contractures (a bent joint that cannot be straightened actively or passively) that are present at birth.
Weakness of facial musculature
MedGen UID:
98103
Concept ID:
C0427055
Disease or Syndrome
Reduced strength of one or more muscles innervated by the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve).
Muscular atrophy
MedGen UID:
892680
Concept ID:
C0541794
Pathologic Function
The presence of skeletal muscular atrophy (which is also known as amyotrophy).
Difficulty running
MedGen UID:
108251
Concept ID:
C0560346
Finding
Reduced ability to run.
Frequent falls
MedGen UID:
163408
Concept ID:
C0850703
Finding
Elbow contracture
MedGen UID:
331445
Concept ID:
C1833142
Anatomical Abnormality
A limitation in the passive range of motion of the elbow resulting from loss of elasticity in the periarticular tissues owing to structural changes of non-bony tissues, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, joint capsules or skin.
Centrally nucleated skeletal muscle fibers
MedGen UID:
330782
Concept ID:
C1842170
Finding
An abnormality in which the nuclei of sarcomeres take on an abnormally central localization (or in which this feature is found in an increased proportion of muscle cells).
Increased variability in muscle fiber diameter
MedGen UID:
336019
Concept ID:
C1843700
Finding
An abnormally high degree of muscle fiber size variation. This phenotypic feature can be observed upon muscle biopsy.
Type 1 muscle fiber predominance
MedGen UID:
344274
Concept ID:
C1854387
Finding
An abnormal predominance of type I muscle fibers (in general, this feature can only be observed on muscle biopsy).
Nemaline bodies
MedGen UID:
814369
Concept ID:
C3808039
Finding
Nemaline rods are abnormal bodies that can occur in skeletal muscle fibers. The rods can be observed on histological analysis of muscle biopsy tissue or upon electron microscopy, where they appear either as extensions of sarcomeric Z-lines, in random array without obvious attachment to Z-lines (often in areas devoid of sarcomeres) or in large clusters localized at the sarcolemma or intermyofibrillar spaces.
High palate
MedGen UID:
66814
Concept ID:
C0240635
Congenital Abnormality
Height of the palate more than 2 SD above the mean (objective) or palatal height at the level of the first permanent molar more than twice the height of the teeth (subjective).
Epicanthus
MedGen UID:
151862
Concept ID:
C0678230
Congenital Abnormality
Epicanthus is a condition in which a fold of skin stretches from the upper to the lower eyelid, partially covering the inner canthus. Usher (1935) noted that epicanthus is a normal finding in the fetus of all races. Epicanthus also occurs in association with hereditary ptosis (110100).
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Prominent forehead
MedGen UID:
373291
Concept ID:
C1837260
Finding
Forward prominence of the entire forehead, due to protrusion of the frontal bone.
Narrow face
MedGen UID:
373334
Concept ID:
C1837463
Finding
Bizygomatic (upper face) and bigonial (lower face) width are both more than 2 standard deviations below the mean (objective); or, an apparent reduction in the width of the upper and lower face (subjective).
Broad forehead
MedGen UID:
338610
Concept ID:
C1849089
Finding
Width of the forehead or distance between the frontotemporales is more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or apparently increased distance between the two sides of the forehead.
Echogenic intracardiac focus
MedGen UID:
869212
Concept ID:
C4023634
Finding
A finding of a focus of increased echogenicity upon prenatal ultrasound examination of the fetus. The foci may be present in one or both ventricles. Echogenic intracardiac focus (EICF) is defined as a focus of echogenicity comparable to bone, in the region of the papillary muscle in either or both ventricles of the fetal heart.
Blue sclerae
MedGen UID:
154236
Concept ID:
C0542514
Finding
An abnormal bluish coloration of the sclera.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Kwong AK, Zhang Y, Ho RS, Gao Y, Ling X, Tsang MH, Luk HM, Chung BH, Bönnemann CG, Javed A, Chan SH
Neuromuscul Disord 2023 May;33(5):371-381. Epub 2023 Mar 12 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2023.03.003. PMID: 37023487
Savarese M, Vihola A, Oates EC, Barresi R, Fiorillo C, Tasca G, Jokela M, Sarkozy A, Luo S, Díaz-Manera J, Ehrstedt C, Rojas-García R, Sáenz A, Muelas N, Lonardo F, Fodstad H, Qureshi T, Johari M, Välipakka S, Luque H, Petiot P, de Munain AL, Pane M, Mercuri E, Torella A, Nigro V, Astrea G, Santorelli FM, Bruno C, Kuntzer T, Illa I, Vílchez JJ, Julien C, Ferreiro A, Malandrini A, Zhao CB, Casar-Borota O, Davis M, Muntoni F, Hackman P, Udd B
Genet Med 2020 Dec;22(12):2029-2040. Epub 2020 Aug 11 doi: 10.1038/s41436-020-0914-2. PMID: 32778822
Scully MA, Farrell PM, Ciafaloni E, Griggs RC, Kwon JM
Ann Neurol 2015 Feb;77(2):189-97. Epub 2014 Dec 13 doi: 10.1002/ana.24316. PMID: 25425541

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Megarbane A, Bizzari S, Deepthi A, Sabbagh S, Mansour H, Chouery E, Hmaimess G, Jabbour R, Mehawej C, Alame S, Hani A, Hasbini D, Ghanem I, Koussa S, Al-Ali MT, Obeid M, Talea DB, Lefranc G, Lévy N, Leturcq F, El Hayek S, Delague V, Urtizberea JA
J Neuromuscul Dis 2022;9(1):193-210. doi: 10.3233/JND-210652. PMID: 34602496Free PMC Article
Deneubourg C, Ramm M, Smith LJ, Baron O, Singh K, Byrne SC, Duchen MR, Gautel M, Eskelinen EL, Fanto M, Jungbluth H
Autophagy 2022 Mar;18(3):496-517. Epub 2021 Aug 19 doi: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1943177. PMID: 34130600Free PMC Article
Williams CA, Wadey C, Pieles G, Stuart G, Taylor RS, Long L
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Oct 28;10(10):CD013400. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013400.pub2. PMID: 33112424Free PMC Article
Ashrafi MR, Amanat M, Garshasbi M, Kameli R, Nilipour Y, Heidari M, Rezaei Z, Tavasoli AR
Expert Rev Neurother 2020 Jan;20(1):65-84. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1699060. PMID: 31829048
Oates EC, Jones KJ, Donkervoort S, Charlton A, Brammah S, Smith JE 3rd, Ware JS, Yau KS, Swanson LC, Whiffin N, Peduto AJ, Bournazos A, Waddell LB, Farrar MA, Sampaio HA, Teoh HL, Lamont PJ, Mowat D, Fitzsimons RB, Corbett AJ, Ryan MM, O'Grady GL, Sandaradura SA, Ghaoui R, Joshi H, Marshall JL, Nolan MA, Kaur S, Punetha J, Töpf A, Harris E, Bakshi M, Genetti CA, Marttila M, Werlauff U, Streichenberger N, Pestronk A, Mazanti I, Pinner JR, Vuillerot C, Grosmann C, Camacho A, Mohassel P, Leach ME, Foley AR, Bharucha-Goebel D, Collins J, Connolly AM, Gilbreath HR, Iannaccone ST, Castro D, Cummings BB, Webster RI, Lazaro L, Vissing J, Coppens S, Deconinck N, Luk HM, Thomas NH, Foulds NC, Illingworth MA, Ellard S, McLean CA, Phadke R, Ravenscroft G, Witting N, Hackman P, Richard I, Cooper ST, Kamsteeg EJ, Hoffman EP, Bushby K, Straub V, Udd B, Ferreiro A, North KN, Clarke NF, Lek M, Beggs AH, Bönnemann CG, MacArthur DG, Granzier H, Davis MR, Laing NG
Ann Neurol 2018 Jun;83(6):1105-1124. doi: 10.1002/ana.25241. PMID: 29691892Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Megarbane A, Bizzari S, Deepthi A, Sabbagh S, Mansour H, Chouery E, Hmaimess G, Jabbour R, Mehawej C, Alame S, Hani A, Hasbini D, Ghanem I, Koussa S, Al-Ali MT, Obeid M, Talea DB, Lefranc G, Lévy N, Leturcq F, El Hayek S, Delague V, Urtizberea JA
J Neuromuscul Dis 2022;9(1):193-210. doi: 10.3233/JND-210652. PMID: 34602496Free PMC Article
Savarese M, Sarparanta J, Vihola A, Jonson PH, Johari M, Rusanen S, Hackman P, Udd B
Acta Myol 2020 Dec;39(4):245-265. Epub 2020 Dec 1 doi: 10.36185/2532-1900-028. PMID: 33458580Free PMC Article
Ashrafi MR, Amanat M, Garshasbi M, Kameli R, Nilipour Y, Heidari M, Rezaei Z, Tavasoli AR
Expert Rev Neurother 2020 Jan;20(1):65-84. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1699060. PMID: 31829048
Oates EC, Jones KJ, Donkervoort S, Charlton A, Brammah S, Smith JE 3rd, Ware JS, Yau KS, Swanson LC, Whiffin N, Peduto AJ, Bournazos A, Waddell LB, Farrar MA, Sampaio HA, Teoh HL, Lamont PJ, Mowat D, Fitzsimons RB, Corbett AJ, Ryan MM, O'Grady GL, Sandaradura SA, Ghaoui R, Joshi H, Marshall JL, Nolan MA, Kaur S, Punetha J, Töpf A, Harris E, Bakshi M, Genetti CA, Marttila M, Werlauff U, Streichenberger N, Pestronk A, Mazanti I, Pinner JR, Vuillerot C, Grosmann C, Camacho A, Mohassel P, Leach ME, Foley AR, Bharucha-Goebel D, Collins J, Connolly AM, Gilbreath HR, Iannaccone ST, Castro D, Cummings BB, Webster RI, Lazaro L, Vissing J, Coppens S, Deconinck N, Luk HM, Thomas NH, Foulds NC, Illingworth MA, Ellard S, McLean CA, Phadke R, Ravenscroft G, Witting N, Hackman P, Richard I, Cooper ST, Kamsteeg EJ, Hoffman EP, Bushby K, Straub V, Udd B, Ferreiro A, North KN, Clarke NF, Lek M, Beggs AH, Bönnemann CG, MacArthur DG, Granzier H, Davis MR, Laing NG
Ann Neurol 2018 Jun;83(6):1105-1124. doi: 10.1002/ana.25241. PMID: 29691892Free PMC Article
Hoffman JI, Kaplan S
J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Jun 19;39(12):1890-900. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01886-7. PMID: 12084585

Therapy

Karaa A, Bertini E, Carelli V, Cohen BH, Enns GM, Falk MJ, Goldstein A, Gorman GS, Haas R, Hirano M, Klopstock T, Koenig MK, Kornblum C, Lamperti C, Lehman A, Longo N, Molnar MJ, Parikh S, Phan H, Pitceathly RDS, Saneto R, Scaglia F, Servidei S, Tarnopolsky M, Toscano A, Van Hove JLK, Vissing J, Vockley J, Finman JS, Brown DA, Shiffer JA, Mancuso M; MMPOWER-3 Trial Investigators
Neurology 2023 Jul 18;101(3):e238-e252. Epub 2023 Jun 2 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207402. PMID: 37268435Free PMC Article
Thornton CA, Moxley RT 3rd, Eichinger K, Heatwole C, Mignon L, Arnold WD, Ashizawa T, Day JW, Dent G, Tanner MK, Duong T, Greene EP, Herbelin L, Johnson NE, King W, Kissel JT, Leung DG, Lott DJ, Norris DA, Pucillo EM, Schell W, Statland JM, Stinson N, Subramony SH, Xia S, Bishop KM, Bennett CF
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):218-228. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00001-7. PMID: 36804094
Adaikina A, Derraik JGB, Power LC, Grady GO, Munns CF, Hofman PL, Gusso S
Neuromuscul Disord 2022 Oct;32(10):820-828. Epub 2022 Jul 28 doi: 10.1016/j.nmd.2022.07.398. PMID: 35973877
Williams CA, Wadey C, Pieles G, Stuart G, Taylor RS, Long L
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Oct 28;10(10):CD013400. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013400.pub2. PMID: 33112424Free PMC Article
Jungbluth H, Treves S, Zorzato F, Sarkozy A, Ochala J, Sewry C, Phadke R, Gautel M, Muntoni F
Nat Rev Neurol 2018 Mar;14(3):151-167. Epub 2018 Feb 2 doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2017.191. PMID: 29391587

Prognosis

Thornton CA, Moxley RT 3rd, Eichinger K, Heatwole C, Mignon L, Arnold WD, Ashizawa T, Day JW, Dent G, Tanner MK, Duong T, Greene EP, Herbelin L, Johnson NE, King W, Kissel JT, Leung DG, Lott DJ, Norris DA, Pucillo EM, Schell W, Statland JM, Stinson N, Subramony SH, Xia S, Bishop KM, Bennett CF
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):218-228. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00001-7. PMID: 36804094
Deneubourg C, Ramm M, Smith LJ, Baron O, Singh K, Byrne SC, Duchen MR, Gautel M, Eskelinen EL, Fanto M, Jungbluth H
Autophagy 2022 Mar;18(3):496-517. Epub 2021 Aug 19 doi: 10.1080/15548627.2021.1943177. PMID: 34130600Free PMC Article
Williams CA, Wadey C, Pieles G, Stuart G, Taylor RS, Long L
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Oct 28;10(10):CD013400. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013400.pub2. PMID: 33112424Free PMC Article
Oates EC, Jones KJ, Donkervoort S, Charlton A, Brammah S, Smith JE 3rd, Ware JS, Yau KS, Swanson LC, Whiffin N, Peduto AJ, Bournazos A, Waddell LB, Farrar MA, Sampaio HA, Teoh HL, Lamont PJ, Mowat D, Fitzsimons RB, Corbett AJ, Ryan MM, O'Grady GL, Sandaradura SA, Ghaoui R, Joshi H, Marshall JL, Nolan MA, Kaur S, Punetha J, Töpf A, Harris E, Bakshi M, Genetti CA, Marttila M, Werlauff U, Streichenberger N, Pestronk A, Mazanti I, Pinner JR, Vuillerot C, Grosmann C, Camacho A, Mohassel P, Leach ME, Foley AR, Bharucha-Goebel D, Collins J, Connolly AM, Gilbreath HR, Iannaccone ST, Castro D, Cummings BB, Webster RI, Lazaro L, Vissing J, Coppens S, Deconinck N, Luk HM, Thomas NH, Foulds NC, Illingworth MA, Ellard S, McLean CA, Phadke R, Ravenscroft G, Witting N, Hackman P, Richard I, Cooper ST, Kamsteeg EJ, Hoffman EP, Bushby K, Straub V, Udd B, Ferreiro A, North KN, Clarke NF, Lek M, Beggs AH, Bönnemann CG, MacArthur DG, Granzier H, Davis MR, Laing NG
Ann Neurol 2018 Jun;83(6):1105-1124. doi: 10.1002/ana.25241. PMID: 29691892Free PMC Article
Hoffman JI, Kaplan S
J Am Coll Cardiol 2002 Jun 19;39(12):1890-900. doi: 10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01886-7. PMID: 12084585

Clinical prediction guides

Karaa A, Bertini E, Carelli V, Cohen BH, Enns GM, Falk MJ, Goldstein A, Gorman GS, Haas R, Hirano M, Klopstock T, Koenig MK, Kornblum C, Lamperti C, Lehman A, Longo N, Molnar MJ, Parikh S, Phan H, Pitceathly RDS, Saneto R, Scaglia F, Servidei S, Tarnopolsky M, Toscano A, Van Hove JLK, Vissing J, Vockley J, Finman JS, Brown DA, Shiffer JA, Mancuso M; MMPOWER-3 Trial Investigators
Neurology 2023 Jul 18;101(3):e238-e252. Epub 2023 Jun 2 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207402. PMID: 37268435Free PMC Article
Thornton CA, Moxley RT 3rd, Eichinger K, Heatwole C, Mignon L, Arnold WD, Ashizawa T, Day JW, Dent G, Tanner MK, Duong T, Greene EP, Herbelin L, Johnson NE, King W, Kissel JT, Leung DG, Lott DJ, Norris DA, Pucillo EM, Schell W, Statland JM, Stinson N, Subramony SH, Xia S, Bishop KM, Bennett CF
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):218-228. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(23)00001-7. PMID: 36804094
Gurgel-Giannetti J, Souza LS, Yamamoto GL, Belisario M, Lazar M, Campos W, Pavanello RCM, Zatz M, Reed U, Zanoteli E, Oliveira AB, Lehtokari VL, Casella EB, Machado-Costa MC, Wallgren-Pettersson C, Laing NG, Nigro V, Vainzof M
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Oct 9;23(19) doi: 10.3390/ijms231911995. PMID: 36233295Free PMC Article
Amburgey K, Acker M, Saeed S, Amin R, Beggs AH, Bönnemann CG, Brudno M, Constantinescu A, Dastgir J, Diallo M, Genetti CA, Glueck M, Hewson S, Hum C, Jain MS, Lawlor MW, Meyer OH, Nelson L, Sultanum N, Syed F, Tran T, Wang CH, Dowling JJ
Neurology 2021 Mar 9;96(10):e1425-e1436. Epub 2021 Jan 4 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011458. PMID: 33397769Free PMC Article
Oates EC, Jones KJ, Donkervoort S, Charlton A, Brammah S, Smith JE 3rd, Ware JS, Yau KS, Swanson LC, Whiffin N, Peduto AJ, Bournazos A, Waddell LB, Farrar MA, Sampaio HA, Teoh HL, Lamont PJ, Mowat D, Fitzsimons RB, Corbett AJ, Ryan MM, O'Grady GL, Sandaradura SA, Ghaoui R, Joshi H, Marshall JL, Nolan MA, Kaur S, Punetha J, Töpf A, Harris E, Bakshi M, Genetti CA, Marttila M, Werlauff U, Streichenberger N, Pestronk A, Mazanti I, Pinner JR, Vuillerot C, Grosmann C, Camacho A, Mohassel P, Leach ME, Foley AR, Bharucha-Goebel D, Collins J, Connolly AM, Gilbreath HR, Iannaccone ST, Castro D, Cummings BB, Webster RI, Lazaro L, Vissing J, Coppens S, Deconinck N, Luk HM, Thomas NH, Foulds NC, Illingworth MA, Ellard S, McLean CA, Phadke R, Ravenscroft G, Witting N, Hackman P, Richard I, Cooper ST, Kamsteeg EJ, Hoffman EP, Bushby K, Straub V, Udd B, Ferreiro A, North KN, Clarke NF, Lek M, Beggs AH, Bönnemann CG, MacArthur DG, Granzier H, Davis MR, Laing NG
Ann Neurol 2018 Jun;83(6):1105-1124. doi: 10.1002/ana.25241. PMID: 29691892Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Minervini G, Franco R, Marrapodi MM, Fiorillo L, Cervino G, Cicciù M
J Oral Rehabil 2023 Jul;50(7):627-634. Epub 2023 Apr 19 doi: 10.1111/joor.13458. PMID: 37021601
Jeffery TC, Chang AB, Conwell LS
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2023 Jan 10;1(1):CD002010. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002010.pub5. PMID: 36625789Free PMC Article
Williams CA, Wadey C, Pieles G, Stuart G, Taylor RS, Long L
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Oct 28;10(10):CD013400. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013400.pub2. PMID: 33112424Free PMC Article
Martins-Filho PR, Souza Tavares CS, Araújo Carvalho AC, Reis MCDS, Santos HP Jr, Santos VS
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Sep;110:20-24. Epub 2020 May 25 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.05.007. PMID: 32646676
McMillan M, Clarke M, Parrella A, Fell DB, Amirthalingam G, Marshall HS
Obstet Gynecol 2017 Mar;129(3):560-573. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000001888. PMID: 28178054

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