U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Isolated Pierre-Robin syndrome(PRBNS)

MedGen UID:
19310
Concept ID:
C0031900
Congenital Abnormality; Finding
Synonyms: Glossoptosis, micrognathia, and cleft palate; Pierre Robin Syndrome; Pierre Robin's sequence; Pierre-Robin sequence; Rare disease with Pierre Robin syndrome; Robin sequence
SNOMED CT: Pierre Robin association (4602007); Robin sequence (4602007); Micrognathia-glossoptosis syndrome (4602007); Pierre Robin syndrome (4602007)
Modes of inheritance:
Autosomal dominant inheritance
MedGen UID:
141047
Concept ID:
C0443147
Intellectual Product
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in heterozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, an autosomal dominant disorder is caused when a single copy of the mutant allele is present. Males and females are affected equally, and can both transmit the disorder with a risk of 50% for each child of inheriting the mutant allele.
Non-Mendelian inheritance
MedGen UID:
109109
Concept ID:
C0600599
Genetic Function
Source: Orphanet
A mode of inheritance that depends on genetic determinants in more than one gene.
Unknown inheritance
MedGen UID:
989040
Concept ID:
CN307042
Finding
Source: Orphanet
Hereditary clinical entity whose mode of inheritance is unknown.
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
HPO: HP:0000201
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0009869
OMIM®: 261800
Orphanet: ORPHA718

Definition

Pierre Robin sequence is a craniofacial anomaly comprising mandibular hypoplasia, cleft secondary palate, and glossoptosis leading to life-threatening obstructive apnea and feeding difficulaties during the neonatal period (summary by Tan et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Pierre Robin sequence is a set of abnormalities affecting the head and face, consisting of a small lower jaw (micrognathia), a tongue that is placed further back than normal (glossoptosis), and blockage (obstruction) of the airways. Most people with Pierre Robin sequence are also born with an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate). This feature is not generally considered necessary for diagnosis of the condition, although there is some disagreement among doctors.

Some people have the features of Pierre Robin sequence as part of a syndrome that affects other organs and tissues in the body, such as Stickler syndrome or campomelic dysplasia. These instances are described as syndromic. When Pierre Robin sequence occurs by itself, it is described as nonsyndromic or isolated. Approximately 20 to 40 percent of cases of Pierre Robin sequence are isolated.

This condition is described as a "sequence" because one of its features, underdevelopment of the lower jaw (mandible), sets off a sequence of events before birth that cause the other signs and symptoms. Specifically, having an abnormally small jaw affects placement of the tongue, and the abnormally positioned tongue can block the airways. In addition, micrognathia and glossoptosis affect formation of the palate during development before birth, which often leads to cleft palate.

The combination of features characteristic of Pierre Robin sequence can lead to difficulty breathing and problems eating early in life. As a result, some affected babies have an inability to grow and gain weight at the expected rate (failure to thrive). In some children with Pierre Robin sequence, growth of the mandible catches up, and as adults these individuals have normal-sized chins.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/isolated-pierre-robin-sequence

Clinical features

From HPO
Cor pulmonale
MedGen UID:
18765
Concept ID:
C0034072
Disease or Syndrome
Right-sided heart failure resulting from chronic hypertension in the pulmonary arteries and right ventricle.
Feeding difficulties in infancy
MedGen UID:
436211
Concept ID:
C2674608
Finding
Impaired feeding performance of an infant as manifested by difficulties such as weak and ineffective sucking, brief bursts of sucking, and falling asleep during sucking. There may be difficulties with chewing or maintaining attention.
Micrognathia
MedGen UID:
44428
Concept ID:
C0025990
Congenital Abnormality
Developmental hypoplasia of the mandible.
Upper airway obstruction
MedGen UID:
149266
Concept ID:
C0740852
Finding
Increased resistance to the passage of air in the upper airway.
Neonatal respiratory distress
MedGen UID:
924182
Concept ID:
C4281993
Finding
Respiratory difficulty as newborn.
Isolated Pierre-Robin syndrome
MedGen UID:
19310
Concept ID:
C0031900
Congenital Abnormality
Pierre Robin sequence is a craniofacial anomaly comprising mandibular hypoplasia, cleft secondary palate, and glossoptosis leading to life-threatening obstructive apnea and feeding difficulaties during the neonatal period (summary by Tan et al., 2013).
Glossoptosis
MedGen UID:
78623
Concept ID:
C0267048
Disease or Syndrome
Posterior displacement of the tongue into the pharynx, i.e., a tongue that is mislocalised posteriorly.
Cleft palate
MedGen UID:
756015
Concept ID:
C2981150
Congenital Abnormality
Cleft palate is a developmental defect of the palate resulting from a failure of fusion of the palatine processes and manifesting as a separation of the roof of the mouth (soft and hard palate).

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVIsolated Pierre-Robin syndrome
Follow this link to review classifications for Isolated Pierre-Robin syndrome in Orphanet.

Conditions with this feature

Isolated Pierre-Robin syndrome
MedGen UID:
19310
Concept ID:
C0031900
Congenital Abnormality
Pierre Robin sequence is a craniofacial anomaly comprising mandibular hypoplasia, cleft secondary palate, and glossoptosis leading to life-threatening obstructive apnea and feeding difficulaties during the neonatal period (summary by Tan et al., 2013).
Velocardiofacial syndrome
MedGen UID:
65085
Concept ID:
C0220704
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS.
Marshall syndrome
MedGen UID:
82694
Concept ID:
C0265235
Disease or Syndrome
Marshall syndrome (MRSHS) is characterized by midfacial hypoplasia, cleft palate, ocular anomalies including high myopia and cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, short stature with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and arthropathy. In contrast to Stickler syndrome type II, it has less severe eye findings but striking ocular hypertelorism, more pronounced maxillary hypoplasia, and ectodermal abnormalities (summary by Shanske et al., 1997 and Ala-Kokko and Shanske, 2009).
Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome
MedGen UID:
120537
Concept ID:
C0265342
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebrocostomandibular syndrome (CCMS) is characterized mainly by severe micrognathia, rib defects, and mental retardation. A spectrum of rib gap defects have been reported ranging from a few dorsal rib segments to complete absence of ossification. In about half of the 65 reported cases to date, there is cerebral involvement including mental retardation, microcephaly, and histologic anomalies. Both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive forms of the disorder have been described (Zeevaert et al., 2009). See CDG2G (611209) for a cerebrocostomandibular-like syndrome.
Osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis
MedGen UID:
96590
Concept ID:
C0432268
Disease or Syndrome
Most females with osteopathia striata with cranial sclerosis (OS-CS) present with macrocephaly and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, epicanthal folds, depressed nasal bridge, and prominent jaw). Approximately half have associated features including orofacial clefting and hearing loss, and a minority have some degree of developmental delay (usually mild). Radiographic findings of cranial sclerosis, sclerosis of long bones, and metaphyseal striations (in combination with macrocephaly) can be considered pathognomonic. Males can present with a mild or severe phenotype. Mildly affected males have clinical features similar to affected females, including macrocephaly, characteristic facial features, orofacial clefting, hearing loss, and mild-to-moderate learning delays. Mildly affected males are more likely than females to have congenital or musculoskeletal anomalies. Radiographic findings include cranial sclerosis and sclerosis of the long bones; Metaphyseal striations are more common in males who are mosaic for an AMER1 pathogenic variant. The severe phenotype manifests in males as a multiple-malformation syndrome, lethal in mid-to-late gestation, or in the neonatal period. Congenital malformations include skeletal defects (e.g., polysyndactyly, absent or hypoplastic fibulae), congenital heart disease, and brain, genitourinary, and gastrointestinal anomalies. Macrocephaly is not always present and longitudinal metaphyseal striations have not been observed in severely affected males, except for those who are mosaic for the AMER1 pathogenic variant.
Toriello-Carey syndrome
MedGen UID:
163225
Concept ID:
C0796184
Disease or Syndrome
Toriello-Carey syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable systemic manifestations, most commonly including mental retardation, agenesis of the corpus callosum, postnatal growth delay, cardiac defects, usually septal defects, distal limb defects, and urogenital anomalies in affected males. Patients have facial dysmorphic features, micrognathia, including full cheeks, hypertelorism, flattened nasal bridge, anteverted nares, and short neck. Not all features are found in all patients and some patients may have additional features such as anal anomalies or hernias (summary by Toriello et al., 2003). In a review of the Toriello-Carey syndrome, Toriello et al. (2016) stated that while corpus callosum abnormalities and micrognathia with highly arched or cleft palate are seen in most patients, other manifestations are widely variable. They noted that etiologic heterogeneity has been observed in reported patients, with at least 20% of patients having chromosome anomalies, and that no good candidate genes have been identified by exome sequencing. The authors commented that this condition might not be a unitary diagnostic entity. They recommended chromosome microarray for any child suspected of having the condition, followed by standard of care by genetic testing.
Intellectual disability-brachydactyly-Pierre Robin syndrome
MedGen UID:
325196
Concept ID:
C1837564
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability-brachydactyly-Pierre Robin syndrome is a rare developmental defect during embryogenesis syndrome characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability and phsychomotor delay, Robin sequence (incl. severe micrognathia and soft palate cleft) and distinct dysmorphic facial features (e.g. synophris, short palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, small, low-set, and posteriorly angulated ears, bulbous nose, long/flat philtrum, and bow-shaped upper lip). Skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly, clinodactyly, small hands and feet, and oral manifestations (e.g. bifid, short tongue, oligodontia) are also associated. Additional features reported include microcephaly, capillary hemangiomas on face and scalp, ventricular septal defect, corneal clouding, nystagmus and profound sensorineural deafness.
Catel-Manzke syndrome
MedGen UID:
375536
Concept ID:
C1844887
Disease or Syndrome
Catel-Manzke syndrome is characterized by the Pierre Robin anomaly, which comprises cleft palate, glossoptosis, and micrognathia, and a unique form of bilateral hyperphalangy in which there is an accessory bone inserted between the second metacarpal and its corresponding proximal phalanx, resulting in radial deviation of the index finger (summary by Manzke et al., 2008).
Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
341234
Concept ID:
C1848488
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Richieri Costa-Pereira syndrome
MedGen UID:
336581
Concept ID:
C1849348
Disease or Syndrome
Patients with Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome display a pattern of anomalies consisting of microstomia, micrognathia, abnormal fusion of the mandible, cleft palate/Robin sequence, absence of lower central incisors, minor ear anomalies, hypoplastic first ray, abnormal tibiae, hypoplastic halluces, and clubfeet. Learning disability is also a common finding (summary by Favaro et al., 2011).
Stickler syndrome type 2
MedGen UID:
347615
Concept ID:
C1858084
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-whistling face syndrome
MedGen UID:
349231
Concept ID:
C1859711
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare type of arthrogryposis multiplex congenita with the combination of multiple joint contractures with movement limitation and microstomia with a whistling appearance of the mouth that may cause feeding, swallowing and speech difficulties, a distinctive expressionless facies, severe developmental delay, central and autonomous nervous system dysfunction, occasionally Pierre-Robin sequence and lethality generally occurring during the first months of life.
Ventricular extrasystoles with syncopal episodes-perodactyly-robin sequence syndrome
MedGen UID:
395493
Concept ID:
C1860471
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome is characterized by cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular extrasystoles manifesting as bigeminy or multifocal tachycardia with syncopal episodes), perodactyly (hypoplasia and/or agenesis of the distal phalanges of the toes) and Pierre-Robin sequence (see this term).
Pierre Robin sequence with pectus excavatum and rib and scapular anomalies
MedGen UID:
355549
Concept ID:
C1865783
Disease or Syndrome
Robin sequence-oligodactyly syndrome
MedGen UID:
358176
Concept ID:
C1868309
Disease or Syndrome
Robin sequence-oligodactyly syndrome is a rare, genetic, developmental defect during embryogenesis syndrome characterized by Robin sequence (i.e. severe micrognathia, retroglossia and U-shaped cleft of the posterior palate) associated with pre- and postaxial oligodactyly. Facial features can include a narrow face and narrow lower dental arch. Clinodactyly, absent phalanx, metacarpal fusions, and hypoplastic carpals have also been reported. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1986.
Stickler syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
810955
Concept ID:
C2020284
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Chromosome 2q32-q33 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
436765
Concept ID:
C2676739
Disease or Syndrome
SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental compromise with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. All individuals described to date have manifest developmental delay / intellectual disability, with severe speech delay. Affected individuals often have hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy. Behavioral issues may include autistic features, hyperactivity, and aggressiveness. Craniofacial anomalies may include palatal abnormalities (cleft palate, high-arched palate, and bifid uvula), micrognathia, and abnormal shape or size of the upper central incisors. Less common features include skeletal anomalies (osteopenia, pectus deformities, kyphosis/lordosis, and scoliosis), growth restriction, strabismus/refractive errors, congenital heart defects, genitourinary anomalies, and epilepsy. While dysmorphic features have been described in individuals with this condition, these features are not typically distinctive enough to allow for a clinical diagnosis of SAS.
Stevenson-Carey syndrome
MedGen UID:
383183
Concept ID:
C2677763
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
MedGen UID:
412530
Concept ID:
C2745959
Congenital Abnormality
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature (short trunk), abnormal epiphyses, and flattened vertebral bodies. Skeletal features are manifested at birth and evolve with time. Other features include myopia and/or retinal degeneration with retinal detachment and cleft palate (summary by Anderson et al., 1990).
PGM1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
414536
Concept ID:
C2752015
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type It (CDG1T) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical manifestations and severity. The most common features include cleft lip and bifid uvula, apparent at birth, followed by hepatopathy, intermittent hypoglycemia, short stature, and exercise intolerance, often accompanied by increased serum creatine kinase. Less common features include rhabdomyolysis, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (summary by Tegtmeyer et al., 2014). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
COG1 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443957
Concept ID:
C2931011
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the few cases reported to date, variable signs including microcephaly, growth retardation, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.
Pierre Robin syndrome-faciodigital anomaly syndrome
MedGen UID:
443969
Concept ID:
C2931064
Disease or Syndrome
The association of Pierre Robin sequence (retrognathia, cleft palate and glossoptosis), facial dysmorphism (high forehead with frontal bossing) and digital anomalies (tapering fingers, hyper convex nails, clinodactyly of the fifth fingers and short distal phalanges, finger-like thumbs and easily subluxated first metacarpophalangeal joints). Growth and mental development are normal. It has been described in two half brothers born to the same mother. Transmission appears to be X-linked recessive.
Chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
462208
Concept ID:
C3150858
Disease or Syndrome
The chromosome 16p12.2-p11.2 deletion syndrome is characterized phenotypically by dysmorphic facial features, feeding difficulties, recurrent ear infections, developmental delay, and cognitive impairment. Additional features, such as heart defects and short stature, are variable (Ballif et al., 2007; Battaglia et al., 2009). The pericentric region of chromosome 16, specifically involving 16p12-p11, is a structurally complex region enriched in repetitive sequence elements, rendering this region susceptible to deletion or rearrangement (Ballif et al., 2007). There are several phenotypes associated with variation in this region: see 611913 for a deletion or duplication at 16p11.2 associated with autism; see 136570 for discussion of a recurrent 520-kb deletion at 16p12.1 associated with developmental delay and craniofacial dysmorphism; and see 613444 for a 220-kb deletion at 16p11.2 associated with isolated severe early-onset obesity and obesity with developmental delay. Battaglia et al. (2009) emphasized that the region at chromosome 16p11.2 that confers susceptibility to autism (AUTS14; see 611913) is located more centromeric to and is distinct from the 16p12.2-p11.2 region involved in the multiple congenital anomalies and intellectual disability phenotype.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Stickler syndrome, type 5
MedGen UID:
481972
Concept ID:
C3280342
Disease or Syndrome
Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder that can include ocular findings of myopia, cataract, and retinal detachment; hearing loss that is both conductive and sensorineural; midfacial underdevelopment and cleft palate (either alone or as part of the Robin sequence); and mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia and/or precocious arthritis. Variable phenotypic expression of Stickler syndrome occurs both within and among families; interfamilial variability is in part explained by locus and allelic heterogeneity.
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7
MedGen UID:
934636
Concept ID:
C4310669
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-7 (PVNH7) is a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal neuronal migration during brain development resulting in delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability; some patients develop seizures. Other features include cleft palate and 2-3 toe syndactyly (summary by Broix et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular heterotopia, see 300049.
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
934664
Concept ID:
C4310697
Disease or Syndrome
Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD) is a progressive sclerosing skeletal dysplasia characterized by supraorbital hyperostosis, undermodeling of the small bones, and small and large joint contractures, as well as extraskeletal developmental abnormalities, primarily of the cardiorespiratory system and genitourinary tract. Patients with FMD2 appear to have a propensity for keloid formation (summary by Wade et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of frontometaphyseal dysplasia, see FMD1 (305620).
Gabriele de Vries syndrome
MedGen UID:
1375401
Concept ID:
C4479652
Disease or Syndrome
Gabriele-de Vries syndrome is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals and a wide spectrum of functional and morphologic abnormalities. Intrauterine growth restriction or low birth weight and feeding difficulties are common. Congenital brain, eye, heart, kidney, genital, and/or skeletal system anomalies have also been reported. About half of affected individuals have neurologic manifestations, including hypotonia and gait abnormalities. Behavioral issues can include attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, autism or autistic behavior, and schizoaffective disorder.
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis
MedGen UID:
1676818
Concept ID:
C5193055
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, amelogenesis imperfecta, and skeletal dysplasia with scoliosis (SSASKS)is characterized by disproportionate short stature, defective tooth enamel formation, and skeletal dysplasia with severe scoliosis in some patients. Variable features include facial dysmorphism, moderate hearing impairment, and mildly impaired intellectual development (Ashikov et al., 2018).
Facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth syndrome
MedGen UID:
1679105
Concept ID:
C5193066
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome characterized by variable intellectual disability and/or developmental delay, epilepsy, generalized hypertrichosis, severe gingival overgrowth and visual impairment in some patients. Common craniofacial features include bitemporal narrowing, bushy and straight eyebrows, long eyelashes, low-set ears, deep/short philtrum, everted upper lip, prominent upper and lower vermilion, wide mouth, micrognathia, and retrognathia.
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies 1
MedGen UID:
1778119
Concept ID:
C5542952
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies 2
MedGen UID:
1782253
Concept ID:
C5543057
Disease or Syndrome
Short stature, facial dysmorphism, and skeletal anomalies with or without cardiac anomalies-2 (SSFSC2) is characterized by thin and short long bones, distinctive facial dysmorphism, and dental and skeletal abnormalities, in the absence of developmental delay or intellectual disability. Cardiac anomalies have been reported in some patients (Lin et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SSFSC, see SSFSC1 (617877).
Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1790497
Concept ID:
C5551484
Disease or Syndrome
Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia (OSMED) is characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, enlarged epiphyses, disproportionate shortness of the limbs, abnormalities in vertebral bodies, and typical facial features (summary by Harel et al., 2005).
Chopra-Amiel-Gordon syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794185
Concept ID:
C5561975
Disease or Syndrome
Chopra-Amiel-Gordon syndrome (CAGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental delay and/or impaired intellectual development, speech delay, facial dysmorphism, and variable other features, including recurrent bacterial infections, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (Chopra et al., 2021).
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1804638
Concept ID:
C5676876
Disease or Syndrome
Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-1 (CFZS1) is a multisystem congenital disorder characterized by hypotonia, Moebius sequence (bilateral congenital facial palsy with impairment of ocular abduction), Pierre Robin complex (micrognathia, glossoptosis, and high-arched or cleft palate), delayed motor milestones, and failure to thrive. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, brain abnormalities, and intellectual disability. It has been postulated that many clinical features in CFZS1 may be secondary effects of muscle weakness during development or brainstem anomalies (summary by Pasetti et al., 2016). Di Gioia et al. (2017) determined that CFZS1 represents a slowly progressive congenital myopathy resulting from a defect in myoblast fusion. Genetic Heterogeneity of Carey-Fineman-Ziter Syndrome Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome-2 (CFZS2) is caused by mutation in the MYMX gene (619912) on chromosome 6p21.
Braddock-carey syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1823961
Concept ID:
C5774188
Disease or Syndrome
Braddock-Carey syndrome (BRDCS) is characterized by Pierre-Robin sequence, persistent congenital thrombocytopenia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe developmental delay, microcephaly, high forehead, sparse curly hair, downslanting palpebral fissures, telecanthus, inverted U-shaped upper vermilion, enamel hypoplasia, large posteriorly rotated ears, clinodactyly, and camptodactyly (Braddock et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Braddock-Carey Syndrome BRDCS2 (619981) is caused by mutation in the KIF15 gene (617569) on chromosome 3p21.
Braddock-carey syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1823962
Concept ID:
C5774189
Disease or Syndrome
Braddock-Carey syndrome-2 (BRDCS2) is characterized by congenital thrombocytopenia, microcephaly, and facial dysmorphisms including Pierre-Robin sequence (Sleiman et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Braddock-Carey syndrom, see BRCDS1 (619980).
Microcephaly 30, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1824053
Concept ID:
C5774280
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-30 (MCPH30) is characterized by small head circumference, poor overall growth, and global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals have been reported to have variable additional congenital anomalies, including atrial septal defect, dysmorphic facial features, tracheal stenosis, and anomalies of the skin and teeth (Carvalhal et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 26, with chondrodysplasia
MedGen UID:
1840948
Concept ID:
C5830312
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-26 with chondrodysplasia (HLD26) is characterized by severe psychomotor delay, predominantly involving motor and expressive language development, with cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and corpus callosum hypoplasia. In addition, patients show pre- and postnatal growth retardation, early-onset scoliosis, and dislocations of large joints (Guasto et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see HLD1 (312080).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Siqueira GLC, Tonello C, Peixoto AP, Daskalogiannakis J, Garib DG, Marques IL, Ceide RZ, Alonso N, Ozawa TO
J Craniofac Surg 2024 Jan-Feb 01;35(1):163-167. Epub 2023 Nov 6 doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000009749. PMID: 37934950
Breugem CC, Evans KN, Poets CF, Suri S, Picard A, Filip C, Paes EC, Mehendale FV, Saal HM, Basart H, Murthy J, Joosten KF, Speleman L, Collares MV, van den Boogaard MJ, Muradin M, Andersson ME, Kogo M, Farlie PG, Don Griot P, Mossey PA, Slator R, Abadie V, Hong P
JAMA Pediatr 2016 Sep 1;170(9):894-902. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2016.0796. PMID: 27429161
Rathé M, Rayyan M, Schoenaers J, Dormaar JT, Breuls M, Verdonck A, Devriendt K, Poorten VV, Hens G
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Aug;79(8):1206-12. Epub 2015 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.05.012. PMID: 26092549

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Naros A, Bartel S, Bacher M, Koos B, Blumenstock G, Wiechers C, Poets CF, Reinert S, Krimmel M
Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 Feb 1;149(2):443-452. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000008730. PMID: 34898524
Kocaaslan FND, Sendur S, Koçak I, Çelebiler Ö
J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jan/Feb;31(1):226-229. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005961. PMID: 31725501
Rathé M, Rayyan M, Schoenaers J, Dormaar JT, Breuls M, Verdonck A, Devriendt K, Poorten VV, Hens G
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Aug;79(8):1206-12. Epub 2015 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.05.012. PMID: 26092549
Godbout A, Leclerc JE, Arteau-Gauthier I, Leclerc LD
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2014 Jul;51(4):406-11. Epub 2013 Jun 26 doi: 10.1597/12-261. PMID: 23802694
Aypar E, Sert A, Gokmen Z, Aslan E, Odabas D
Pediatr Cardiol 2013 Feb;34(2):452-4. Epub 2012 Mar 25 doi: 10.1007/s00246-012-0294-8. PMID: 22447382

Diagnosis

Zaballa K, Singh J, Waters K
Paediatr Respir Rev 2023 Mar;45:11-15. Epub 2022 Jul 9 doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2022.07.001. PMID: 35987882
Fleurance A, Poets C, Chalouhi C, Thouvenin B, Abadie V
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Dec;26(6):101286. Epub 2021 Sep 20 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2021.101286. PMID: 34561179
Giudice A, Barone S, Belhous K, Morice A, Soupre V, Bennardo F, Boddaert N, Vazquez MP, Abadie V, Picard A
J Stomatol Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 Nov;119(5):419-428. Epub 2018 May 17 doi: 10.1016/j.jormas.2018.05.002. PMID: 29777780
Logjes RJH, Breugem CC, Van Haaften G, Paes EC, Sperber GH, van den Boogaard MH, Farlie PG
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Jun;176(6):1349-1368. Epub 2018 Apr 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38718. PMID: 29696787
Nunes da Costa J, Matias J
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2014 Nov;67(11):e259-65. Epub 2014 Aug 27 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2014.08.045. PMID: 25227330

Therapy

Merza AM, Salih HM
J Craniofac Surg 2023 May 1;34(3):e228-e230. Epub 2022 Nov 2 doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000009116. PMID: 36319614
Naros A, Steiner-Wilke I, Kaiser N, Bacher M, Koos B, Blumenstock G, Wiechers C, Poets CF, Reinert S, Krimmel M
Clin Oral Investig 2022 Jul;26(7):4817-4823. Epub 2022 Mar 19 doi: 10.1007/s00784-022-04448-3. PMID: 35306608Free PMC Article
Langa O, Cappitelli AT, Ganske IM
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2022 Apr;59(4):497-504. Epub 2021 Apr 28 doi: 10.1177/10556656211011896. PMID: 33906463
Pfaff MJ, De Leon F, Le L, Haveles C, Liu C, Berthiaume E, Ayeroff JR, Wilson LF, Lee JC
Plast Reconstr Surg 2020 Nov;146(5):599e-606e. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000007246. PMID: 33136957
Poets CF, Koos B, Reinert S, Wiechers C
J Craniomaxillofac Surg 2019 Nov;47(11):1699-1705. Epub 2019 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2019.08.002. PMID: 31477439

Prognosis

Chocron Y, Alabdulkarim A, Czuzoj-Shulman N, Abenhaim HA, Gilardino MS
J Craniofac Surg 2024 Jan-Feb 01;35(1):6-9. Epub 2023 Aug 25 doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000009649. PMID: 37622565
Kocaaslan FND, Sendur S, Koçak I, Çelebiler Ö
J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jan/Feb;31(1):226-229. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000005961. PMID: 31725501
Logjes RJH, Breugem CC, Van Haaften G, Paes EC, Sperber GH, van den Boogaard MH, Farlie PG
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Jun;176(6):1349-1368. Epub 2018 Apr 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38718. PMID: 29696787
Aypar E, Sert A, Gokmen Z, Aslan E, Odabas D
Pediatr Cardiol 2013 Feb;34(2):452-4. Epub 2012 Mar 25 doi: 10.1007/s00246-012-0294-8. PMID: 22447382
van den Elzen AP, Semmekrot BA, Bongers EM, Huygen PL, Marres HA
Eur J Pediatr 2001 Jan;160(1):47-53. doi: 10.1007/s004310000646. PMID: 11195018

Clinical prediction guides

Naros A, Bartel S, Bacher M, Koos B, Blumenstock G, Wiechers C, Poets CF, Reinert S, Krimmel M
Plast Reconstr Surg 2022 Feb 1;149(2):443-452. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000008730. PMID: 34898524
Skirko JR, Pollard SH, Slager S, Hung M, Weir C
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2020 Jun;57(6):736-745. Epub 2020 Mar 16 doi: 10.1177/1055665620910331. PMID: 32174155Free PMC Article
Rathé M, Rayyan M, Schoenaers J, Dormaar JT, Breuls M, Verdonck A, Devriendt K, Poorten VV, Hens G
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Aug;79(8):1206-12. Epub 2015 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2015.05.012. PMID: 26092549
van den Elzen AP, Semmekrot BA, Bongers EM, Huygen PL, Marres HA
Eur J Pediatr 2001 Jan;160(1):47-53. doi: 10.1007/s004310000646. PMID: 11195018
Plötz FB, van Essen AJ, Bosschaart AN, Bos AP
Am J Med Genet 1996 Mar 29;62(3):286-92. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960329)62:3<286::AID-AJMG16>3.0.CO;2-G. PMID: 8882789

Recent systematic reviews

Purnell CA, Janes LE, Klosowiak JL, Gosain AK
Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2019 Feb;56(2):168-176. Epub 2018 May 4 doi: 10.1177/1055665618774025. PMID: 29727222
Camacho M, Noller MW, Zaghi S, Reckley LK, Fernandez-Salvador C, Ho E, Dunn B, Chan DK
J Laryngol Otol 2017 May;131(5):378-383. Epub 2017 Feb 14 doi: 10.1017/S0022215117000056. PMID: 28193305
Paes EC, de Vries IAC, Penris WM, Hanny KH, Lavrijsen SW, van Leerdam EK, Rademaker MM, Veldhoen ES, Eijkemans RMJC, Kon M, Breugem CC
Clin Oral Investig 2017 Jul;21(6):2063-2076. Epub 2016 Nov 21 doi: 10.1007/s00784-016-1996-8. PMID: 27868158Free PMC Article
Wan T, Chen Y, Wang G
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2015 Aug;68(8):1095-9. Epub 2015 Apr 29 doi: 10.1016/j.bjps.2015.04.015. PMID: 26187812
Izumi K, Konczal LL, Mitchell AL, Jones MC
J Pediatr 2012 Apr;160(4):645-650.e2. Epub 2011 Nov 1 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.09.021. PMID: 22048048

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...