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Lung carcinoma

MedGen UID:
195765
Concept ID:
C0684249
Neoplastic Process
Synonyms: Cancer of Lung; Cancer of the Lung; Carcinoma of Lung; carcinoma of lung; Carcinoma of the Lung; carcinoma of the lung; Lung Cancer; Lung Carcinoma; lung carcinoma
 
Gene (location): FASLG (1q24.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005138

Definition

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. and worldwide. The 2 major forms of lung cancer are nonsmall cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer (see 182280), which account for 85% and 15% of all lung cancers, respectively. Nonsmall cell lung cancer can be divided into 3 major histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell lung cancer. Cigarette smoking causes all types of lung cancer, but it is most strongly linked with small cell lung cancer and squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type in patients who have never smoked. Nonsmall cell lung cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a poor prognosis (summary by Herbst et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

Additional description

From MedlinePlus Genetics
Lung cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the lungs become abnormal and multiply uncontrollably to form a tumor. Lung cancer may not cause signs or symptoms in its early stages. Some people with lung cancer have chest pain, frequent coughing, blood in the mucus, breathing problems, trouble swallowing or speaking, loss of appetite and weight loss, fatigue, or swelling in the face or neck. Additional symptoms can develop if the cancer spreads (metastasizes) into other tissues. Lung cancer occurs most often in adults in their sixties or seventies. Most people who develop lung cancer have a history of long-term tobacco smoking; however, the condition can occur in people who have never smoked.

Lung cancer is generally divided into two types, small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer, based on the size of the affected cells when viewed under a microscope. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for 85 percent of lung cancer, while small cell lung cancer accounts for the remaining 15 percent.

Small cell lung cancer grows quickly and in more than half of cases the cancer has spread beyond the lung by the time the condition is diagnosed. Small cell lung cancer often metastasizes, most commonly to the liver, brain, bones, and adrenal glands (small hormone-producing glands located on top of each kidney). After diagnosis, most people with small cell lung cancer survive for about 1 year; less than seven percent survive 5 years.

Non-small cell lung cancer is divided into three main subtypes: adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and large cell lung carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma arises from the cells that line the small air sacs (alveoli) located throughout the lungs. Squamous cell carcinoma arises from squamous cells that line the passages leading from the windpipe (trachea) to the lungs (bronchi). Large cell carcinoma arises from epithelial cells that line the lungs. Large cell carcinoma encompasses non-small cell lung cancers that do not appear to be adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas. The 5-year survival rate for people with non-small cell lung cancer is usually between 11 and 17 percent; it can be lower or higher depending on the subtype and stage of the cancer.  https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/condition/lung-cancer

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Curated

UK NICE guideline NG122, Lung cancer: diagnosis and management, 2023

Technology Assessment on Genetic Testing or Molecular Pathology Testing of Cancers with Unknown Primary Site to Determine Origin (ARCHIVED)

Suggested Reading

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

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Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Curated

    • NICE, 2023
      UK NICE guideline NG122, Lung cancer: diagnosis and management, 2023
    • AHRQ, 2013
      Technology Assessment on Genetic Testing or Molecular Pathology Testing of Cancers with Unknown Primary Site to Determine Origin (ARCHIVED)

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