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Hypsarrhythmia

MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Synonym: Hypsarrhythmias
SNOMED CT: Hypsarrhythmia (28055006)
 
HPO: HP:0002521

Definition

Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG). [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Menkes kinky-hair syndrome
MedGen UID:
44030
Concept ID:
C0022716
Disease or Syndrome
Menkes disease (MNK) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by generalized copper deficiency. The clinical features result from the dysfunction of several copper-dependent enzymes.
Neurofibromatosis, type 1
MedGen UID:
18013
Concept ID:
C0027831
Neoplastic Process
Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a multisystem disorder characterized by multiple café au lait macules, intertriginous freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and learning disability or behavior problems. About half of people with NF1 have plexiform neurofibromas, but most are internal and not suspected clinically. Plexiform neurofibromas can cause pain, neurologic deficits, and abnormalities of involved or adjacent structures. Less common but potentially more serious manifestations include optic nerve and other central nervous system gliomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, scoliosis, tibial dysplasia, vasculopathy, and gastrointestinal, endocrine, or pulmonary disease.
Spongy degeneration of central nervous system
MedGen UID:
61565
Concept ID:
C0206307
Disease or Syndrome
Most individuals with Canavan disease have the neonatal/infantile form. Although such infants appear normal early in life, by age three to five months, hypotonia, head lag, macrocephaly, and developmental delays become apparent. With age, children with neonatal/infantile-onset Canavan disease often become irritable and experience sleep disturbance, seizures, and feeding difficulties. Swallowing deteriorates, and some children require nasogastric feeding or permanent feeding gastrostomies. Joint stiffness increases, so that these children resemble individuals with cerebral palsy. Children with mild/juvenile Canavan disease may have normal or mildly delayed speech or motor development early in life without regression. In spite of developmental delay most of these children can be educated in typical classroom settings and may benefit from speech therapy or tutoring as needed. Most children with mild forms of Canavan disease have normal head size, although macrocephaly, retinitis pigmentosa, and seizures have been reported in a few individuals.
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome
MedGen UID:
120517
Concept ID:
C0265227
Disease or Syndrome
Schinzel-Giedion syndrome is a highly recognizable syndrome characterized by severe mental retardation, distinctive facial features, and multiple congenital malformations including skeletal abnormalities, genitourinary and renal malformations, and cardiac defects, as well as a higher-than-normal prevalence of tumors, notably neuroepithelial neoplasia (summary by Hoischen et al., 2010).
D-Glyceric aciduria
MedGen UID:
452447
Concept ID:
C0342765
Disease or Syndrome
D-glyceric aciduria is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some patients have an encephalopathic presentation, with severe mental retardation, seizures, microcephaly, and sometimes early death, whereas others have a mild phenotype with only mild speech delay or even normal development (summary by Sass et al., 2010).
Amelocerebrohypohidrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
98036
Concept ID:
C0406740
Disease or Syndrome
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, spasticity, and amelogenesis imperfecta affecting both primary and secondary teeth and causing yellow or brown discoloration of the teeth. Although the phenotype is consistent, there is variability. Impaired intellectual development is related to the severity of seizures, and the disorder can thus be considered an epileptic encephalopathy. Some infants show normal development until seizure onset, whereas others are delayed from birth. The most severely affected individuals have profound mental retardation, never acquire speech, and become bedridden early in life (summary by Schossig et al., 2012 and Mory et al., 2012). See also Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like (KTZSL; 619229), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SATB1 gene (602075) on chromosome 3p23.
Methylmalonic acidemia with homocystinuria, type cblX
MedGen UID:
167111
Concept ID:
C0796208
Disease or Syndrome
Disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism have a variable phenotype and age of onset that are influenced by the severity and location within the pathway of the defect. The prototype and best understood phenotype is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range: In utero with fetal presentation of nonimmune hydrops, cardiomyopathy, and intrauterine growth restriction. Newborns, who can have microcephaly, poor feeding, and encephalopathy. Infants, who can have poor feeding and slow growth, neurologic abnormality, and, rarely, hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Toddlers, who can have poor growth, progressive microcephaly, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures. Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, thromboembolic complications, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Deficiency of beta-ureidopropionase
MedGen UID:
226944
Concept ID:
C1291512
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-ureidopropionase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to a defect in pyrimidine degradation. Less than 10 patients have been reported, and the phenotype can range from severe neurologic involvement with mental retardation and seizures to normal neurologic development (Yaplito-Lee et al., 2008).
ALG3-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
322026
Concept ID:
C1832736
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are a genetically heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by enzymatic defects in the synthesis and processing of asparagine (N)-linked glycans or oligosaccharides on glycoproteins. Type I CDGs comprise defects in the assembly of the dolichol lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) chain and its transfer to the nascent protein. These disorders can be identified by a characteristic abnormal isoelectric focusing profile of plasma transferrin (Leroy, 2006). CDG1D is a type I CDG that generally presents with severe neurologic involvement associated with dysmorphism and visual impairment. Liver involvement is sometimes present (summary by Marques-da-Silva et al., 2017). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
DK1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
332072
Concept ID:
C1835849
Disease or Syndrome
DOLK-congenital disorder of glycosylation (DOLK-CDG, formerly known as congenital disorder of glycosylation type Im) is an inherited condition that often affects the heart but can also involve other body systems. The pattern and severity of this disorder's signs and symptoms vary among affected individuals.\n\nIndividuals with DOLK-CDG typically develop signs and symptoms of the condition during infancy or early childhood. Nearly all individuals with DOLK-CDG develop a weakened and enlarged heart (dilated cardiomyopathy). Other frequent signs and symptoms include recurrent seizures; developmental delay; poor muscle tone (hypotonia); and dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis). Less commonly, affected individuals can have distinctive facial features, kidney disease, hormonal abnormalities, or eye problems.\n\nIndividuals with DOLK-CDG typically do not survive into adulthood, often because of complications related to dilated cardiomyopathy, and some do not survive past infancy.
MPDU1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
322968
Concept ID:
C1836669
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) are metabolic deficiencies in glycoprotein biosynthesis that usually cause severe mental and psychomotor retardation. Different forms of CDGs can be recognized by altered isoelectric focusing (IEF) patterns of serum transferrin. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG Ia (212065) and CDG Ib (602579).
Periventricular heterotopia with microcephaly, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
334110
Concept ID:
C1842563
Disease or Syndrome
ALG2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
334618
Concept ID:
C1842836
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ii (CDG1I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurologic involvement, including a convulsive syndrome of unknown origin, axial hypotonia, and mental and motor regression (summary by Papazoglu et al., 2021). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Chromosome 1p36 deletion syndrome
MedGen UID:
334629
Concept ID:
C1842870
Disease or Syndrome
The constitutional deletion of chromosome 1p36 results in a syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and mental retardation (Shapira et al., 1997). Monosomy 1p36 is the most common terminal deletion syndrome in humans, occurring in 1 in 5,000 births (Shaffer and Lupski, 2000; Heilstedt et al., 2003). See also neurodevelopmental disorder with or without anomalies of the brain, eye, or heart (NEDBEH; 616975), which shows overlapping features and is caused by heterozygous mutation in the RERE gene (605226) on proximal chromosome 1p36. See also Radio-Tartaglia syndrome (RATARS; 619312), caused by mutation in the SPEN gene (613484) on chromosome 1p36, which shows overlapping features.
PEHO syndrome
MedGen UID:
342404
Concept ID:
C1850055
Disease or Syndrome
PEHO is a severe autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by extreme cerebellar atrophy due to almost total loss of granule neurons. Affected individuals present in early infancy with hypotonia, profoundly delayed psychomotor development, optic atrophy, progressive atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem, and dysmyelination. Most patients also develop infantile seizures that are often associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, and many have peripheral edema (summary by Anttonen et al., 2017).
PEHO-like syndrome
MedGen UID:
337956
Concept ID:
C1850056
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disease characterized by progressive encephalopathy, early-onset seizures with a hypsarrhythmic pattern, facial and limb edema, severe hypotonia, early arrest of psychomotor development and craniofacial dysmorphism (evolving microcephaly, narrow forehead, short nose, prominent auricles, open mouth, micrognathia), in the absence of neuro-ophthalmic or neuroradiologic findings. Poor visual responsiveness, growth failure and tapering fingers are also associated. There is evidence the disease is caused by homozygous mutation in the CCDC88A gene on chromosome 2p16.
PHGDH deficiency
MedGen UID:
400935
Concept ID:
C1866174
Disease or Syndrome
Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency (PHGDHD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of L-serine biosynthesis that is characterized by congenital microcephaly, psychomotor retardation, and seizures (summary by Jaeken et al., 1996).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 4
MedGen UID:
436917
Concept ID:
C2677326
Disease or Syndrome
STXBP1 encephalopathy with epilepsy is characterized by early-onset encephalopathy with epilepsy (i.e., moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, refractory seizures, and ongoing epileptiform activity). The median age of onset of seizures is six weeks (range 1 day to 13 years). Seizure types can include infantile spasms; generalized tonic-clonic, clonic, or tonic seizures; and myoclonic, focal, atonic, and absence seizures. Epilepsy syndromes can include Ohtahara syndrome, West syndrome, Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome, and Dravet syndrome (not SCN1A-related), classic Rett syndrome (not MECP2-related), and atypical Rett syndrome (not CDKL5-related). The EEG is characterized by focal epileptic activity, burst suppression, hypsarrhythmia, or generalized spike-and-slow waves. Other findings can include abnormal tone, movement disorders (especially ataxia and dystonia), and behavior disorders (including autism spectrum disorder). Feeding difficulties are common.
DPAGT1-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
419694
Concept ID:
C2931004
Disease or Syndrome
Like all CDGs, which are caused by a shortage of precursor monosaccharide phosphate or deficiencies in the glycosyltransferases required for lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursor (LLO) synthesis, CDG Ij is caused by a defect in the formation of DPAGT1, the first dolichyl-linked intermediate of the protein N-glycosylation pathway. For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 5
MedGen UID:
462081
Concept ID:
C3150731
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-5 (DEE5) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and the onset of tonic seizures or infantile spasms in the first months of life. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, and EEG shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development with lack of visual attention, poor head control, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, and spastic quadriplegia. Brain imaging may show cerebral atrophy and hypomyelination (summary by Saitsu et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Infantile cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with postnatal progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
462271
Concept ID:
C3150921
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile cerebral and cerebellar atrophy with postnatal progressive microcephaly is a rare, central nervous system malformation syndrome characterized by progressive microcephaly with profound motor delay and intellectual disability, associated with hypertonia, spasticity, clonus, and seizures, with brain imaging revealing severe cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, and poor myelination.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 12
MedGen UID:
462338
Concept ID:
C3150988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-12 (DEE12) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first year of life. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show severe developmental regression and stagnation. Seizure types vary: focal seizures, infantile spasms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures may occur, even within the same patient. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with West syndrome, or a pattern consistent with 'malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy' (MMPSI). Patients have little or no developmental progress: there is absent speech, hypotonia, poor motor skills, peripheral spasticity, and impaired visual fixation (summary by Kurian et al., 2010 and Poduri et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria 1
MedGen UID:
463405
Concept ID:
C3152055
Disease or Syndrome
D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a neurometabolic disorder first described by Chalmers et al. (1980). Clinical symptoms include developmental delay, epilepsy, hypotonia, and dysmorphic features. Mild and severe phenotypes were characterized (van der Knaap et al., 1999). The severe phenotype is homogeneous and is characterized by early infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy and, often, cardiomyopathy. The mild phenotype has a more variable clinical presentation. Genetic Heterogeneity of D-2-Hydroxyglutaric Aciduria D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria-2 (D2HGA2; 613657) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the mitochondrial isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 gene (IDH2; 147650) on chromosome 15q26.
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
477139
Concept ID:
C3275508
Disease or Syndrome
Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-2 (MCAHS2) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, neonatal hypotonia, early-onset myoclonic seizures, and variable congenital anomalies involving the central nervous, cardiac, and urinary systems. Some affected individuals die in infancy (summary by Johnston et al., 2012). The phenotype shows clinical variability with regard to severity and extraneurologic features. However, most patients present in infancy with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy associated with developmental arrest and subsequent severe neurologic disability; these features are consistent with a form of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (summary by Belet et al., 2014, Kato et al., 2014). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MCAHS, see MCAHS1 (614080). For a discussion of nomenclature and genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome
MedGen UID:
481870
Concept ID:
C3280240
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly-epilepsy-permanent neonatal diabetes syndrome is a rare, genetic, neurologic disease characterized by congenital microcephaly, severe, early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (manifesting as intractable, myoclonic and/or tonic-clonic seizures), permanent, neonatal, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and severe global developmental delay. Muscular hypotonia, skeletal abnormalities, feeding difficulties, and dysmorphic facial features (including narrow forehead, anteverted nares, small mouth with deep philtrum, tented upper lip vermilion) are frequently associated. Brain MRI reveals cerebral atrophy with cortical gyral simplification and aplasia/hypoplasia of the corpus callosum.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 1
MedGen UID:
483052
Concept ID:
C3463992
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-1 (DEE1) is a severe form of epilepsy characterized by frequent tonic seizures or spasms beginning in infancy with a specific EEG finding of suppression-burst patterns, characterized by high-voltage bursts alternating with almost flat suppression phases. Approximately 75% of DEE1 patients progress to tonic spasms with clustering, arrest of psychomotor development, and hypsarrhythmia on EEG (Kato et al., 2007). DEE1 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation. Although males with ARX mutations are often more severely affected, female mutation carriers may also be affected (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). Reviews Deprez et al. (2009) reviewed the genetics of epilepsy syndromes starting in the first year of life and included a diagnostic algorithm. Genetic Heterogeneity of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy Also see DEE2 (300672), caused by mutation in the CDKL5 gene (300203); DEE3 (609304), caused by mutation in the SLC25A22 gene (609302); DEE4 (612164), caused by mutation in the STXBP1 gene (602926); DEE5 (613477), caused by mutation in the SPTAN1 gene (182810); DEE6A (607208), also known as Dravet syndrome, caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene (182389); DEE6B (619317), also caused by mutation in the SCN1A gene; DEE7 (613720), caused by mutation in the KCNQ2 gene (602235); DEE8 (300607), caused by mutation in the ARHGEF9 gene (300429); DEE9 (300088), caused by mutation in the PCDH19 gene (300460); DEE10 (613402), caused by mutation in the PNKP gene (605610); DEE11 (613721), caused by mutation in the SCN2A gene (182390); DEE12 (613722), caused by mutation in the PLCB1 gene (607120); DEE13 (614558), caused by mutation in the SCN8A gene (600702); DEE14 (614959), caused by mutation in the KCNT1 gene (608167); DEE15 (615006), caused by mutation in the ST3GAL3 gene (606494); DEE16 (615338), caused by mutation in the TBC1D24 gene (613577); DEE17 (615473), caused by mutation in the GNAO1 gene (139311); DEE18 (615476), caused by mutation in the SZT2 gene (615463); DEE19 (615744), caused by mutation in the GABRA1 gene (137160); DEE20 (300868), caused by mutation in the PIGA gene (311770); DEE21 (615833), caused by mutation in the NECAP1 gene (611623); DEE22 (300896), caused by mutation in the SLC35A2 gene (314375); DEE23 (615859), caused by mutation in the DOCK7 gene (615730); DEE24 (615871), caused by mutation in the HCN1 gene (602780); DEE25 (615905), caused by mutation in the SLC13A5 gene (608305); DEE26 (616056), caused by mutation in the KCNB1 gene (600397); DEE27 (616139), caused by mutation in the GRIN2B gene (138252); DEE28 (616211), caused by mutation in the WWOX gene (605131); DEE29 (616339), caused by mutation in the AARS gene (601065); DEE30 (616341), caused by mutation in the SIK1 gene (605705); DEE31A (616346) and DEE31B (620352), caused by mutation in the DNM1 gene (602377); DEE32 (616366), caused by mutation in the KCNA2 gene (176262); DEE33 (616409), caused by mutation in the EEF1A2 gene (602959); DEE34 (616645), caused by mutation in the SLC12A5 gene (606726); DEE35 (616647), caused by mutation in the ITPA gene (147520); DEE36 (300884), caused by mutation in the ALG13 gene (300776); DEE37 (616981), caused by mutation in the FRRS1L gene (604574); DEE38 (617020), caused by mutation in the ARV1 gene (611647); DEE39 (612949), caused by mutation in the SLC25A12 gene (603667); DEE40 (617065), caused by mutation in the GUF1 gene (617064); DEE41 (617105), caused by mutation in the SLC1A2 gene (600300); DEE42 (617106), caused by mutation in the CACNA1A gene (601011); DEE43 (617113), caused by mutation in the GABRB3 gene (137192); DEE44 (617132), caused by mutation in the UBA5 gene (610552); DEE45 (617153), caused by mutation in the GABRB1 gene (137190); DEE46 (617162), caused by mutation in the GRIN2D gene (602717); DEE47 (617166), caused by mutation in the FGF12 gene (601513); DEE48 (617276), caused by mutation in the AP3B2 gene (602166); DEE49 (617281), caused by mutation in the DENND5A gene (617278); DEE50 (616457) caused by mutation in the CAD gene (114010); DEE51 (617339), caused by mutation in the MDH2 gene (154100); DEE52 (617350), caused by mutation in the SCN1B gene (600235); DEE53 (617389), caused by mutation in the SYNJ1 gene (604297); DEE54 (617391), caused by mutation in the HNRNPU gene (602869); DEE55 (617599), caused by mutation in the PIGP gene (605938); DEE56 (617665), caused by mutation in the YWHAG gene (605356); DEE57 (617771), caused by mutation in the KCNT2 gene (610044); DEE58 (617830), caused by mutation in the NTRK2 gene (600456); DEE59 (617904), caused by mutation in the GABBR2 gene (607340); DEE60 (617929), caused by mutation in the CNPY3 gene (610774); DEE61 (617933), caused by mutation in the ADAM22 gene (603709); DEE62 (617938), caused by mutation in the SCN3A gene (182391); DEE63 (617976), caused by mutation in the CPLX1 gene (605032); DEE64 (618004), caused by mutation in the RHOBTB2 gene (607352); DEE65 (618008), caused by mutation in the CYFIP2 gene (606323); DEE66 (618067), caused by mutation in the PACS2 gene (610423); DEE67 (618141), caused by mutation in the CUX2 gene (610648); DEE68 (618201), caused by mutation in the TRAK1 gene (608112); DEE69 (618285), caused by mutation in the CACNA1E gene (601013); DEE70 (618298) caused by mutation in the PHACTR1 gene (608723); DEE71 (618328), caused by mutation in the GLS gene (138280); DEE72 (618374), caused by mutation in the NEUROD2 gene (601725); DEE73 (618379), caused by mutation in the RNF13 gene (609247); DEE74 (618396), caused by mutation in the GABRG2 gene (137164); DEE75 (618437), caused by mutation in the PARS2 gene (612036); DEE76 (618468), caused by mutation in the ACTL6B gene (612458); DEE77 (618548), caused by mutation in the PIGQ gene (605754); DEE78 (618557), caused by mutation in the GABRA2 gene (137140); DEE79 (618559), caused by mutation in the GABRA5 gene (137142); DEE80 (618580), caused by mutation in the PIGB gene (604122); DEE81 (618663), caused by mutation in the DMXL2 gene (612186); DEE82 (618721), caused by mutation in the GOT2 gene (138150); DEE83 (618744), caused by mutation in the UGP2 gene (191760); DEE84 (618792), caused by mutation in the UGDH gene (603370); DEE85 (301044), caused by mutation in the SMC1A gene (300040); DEE86 (618910), caused by mutation in the DALRD3 gene (618904); DEE87 (618916), caused by mutation in the CDK19 gene (614720); DEE88 (618959), caused by mutation in the MDH1 gene (152400); DEE89 (619124), caused by mutation in the GAD1 gene (605363); DEE90 (301058), caused by mutation in the FGF13 gene (300070); DEE91 (617711), caused by mutation in the PPP3CA gene (114105); DEE92 (617829), caused by mutation in the GABRB2 gene (600232); DEE93 (618012), caused by mutation in the ATP6V1A gene (607027); DEE94 (615369), caused by mutation in the CHD2 gene (602119); DEE95 (618143), caused by mutation in the PIGS gene (610271); DEE96 (619340), caused by mutation in the NSF gene (601633); DEE97 (619561), caused by mutation in the iCELF2 gene (602538); DEE98 (619605), caused by mutation in the ATP1A2 gene (182340); DEE99 (619606), caused by mutation in the ATP1A3 gene (182350); DEE100 (619777), caused by mutation in the FBXO28 gene (609100); DEE101 (619814), caused by mutation in the GRIN1 gene (138249); DEE102 (619881), caused by mutation in the SLC38A3 gene (604437); DEE103 (619913), caused by mutation in the KCNC2 gene (176256); DEE104 (619970), caused by mutation in the ATP6V0A1 gene (192130); DEE105 (619983), caused by mutation in the HID1 gene (605752); DEE106 (620028), caused by mutation in the UFSP2 gene (611482); DEE107 (620033), caused by mutation in the NAPB gene (
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 15
MedGen UID:
767230
Concept ID:
C3554316
Disease or Syndrome
SLC35A2-congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
813018
Concept ID:
C3806688
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIm, or developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-22 (DEE22), is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by infantile-onset seizures, hypsarrhythmia on EEG, hypotonia, and developmental delay associated with severe intellectual disability and lack of speech. These features are consistent with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). Brain malformations usually include cerebral and cerebellar atrophy. Additionally, some patients may have dysmorphic features or coarse facies (Ng et al., 2013; Kodera et al., 2013). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
X-linked intellectual disability, Cantagrel type
MedGen UID:
813060
Concept ID:
C3806730
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-98 (XLID98) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, poor speech, behavioral abnormalities, poor overall growth, dysmorphic facial features, and often early-onset seizures. Some carrier females are unaffected, whereas other females with mutations are affected; males tend to be more severely affected than females. It is believed that the phenotypic variability and disease manifestations in female carriers results from skewed X-inactivation or cellular mosaicism (summary by de Lange et al., 2016).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 17
MedGen UID:
815936
Concept ID:
C3809606
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-17 (DEE17) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in the first weeks or months of life. EEG often shows a burst-suppression pattern consistent with a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome. Affected infants have very poor psychomotor development and may have brain abnormalities, such as cerebral atrophy or thin corpus callosum. Some patients may show involuntary movements (summary by Nakamura et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 6
MedGen UID:
816202
Concept ID:
C3809872
Disease or Syndrome
Any periventricular nodular heterotopia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ERMARD gene.
Congenital microcephaly - severe encephalopathy - progressive cerebral atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
816301
Concept ID:
C3809971
Disease or Syndrome
Asparagine synthetase deficiency (ASD) mainly presents as a triad of congenital microcephaly, severe developmental delay, and axial hypotonia followed by spastic quadriplegia. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) asparagine level can help the clinician in differentiating this disorder from others. In most cases age of onset of apnea, excessive irritability, and seizures is soon after birth. Affected individuals typically do not acquire any developmental milestones. Spastic quadriplegia can lead to severe contractures of the limbs and neurogenic scoliosis. Feeding difficulties (gastroesophageal reflux disease, frequent vomiting, swallowing dysfunction, and gastroesophageal incoordination) are a significant problem in most affected individuals. A majority have cortical blindness. MRI findings are nonspecific but may include generalized atrophy and simplified gyral pattern.
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 5
MedGen UID:
816737
Concept ID:
C3810407
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant condition caused by mutation(s) in the TUBB2A gene, encoding tubulin beta-2A chain. It is characterized by cortical dysplasia and is associated with impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, global developmental delay, cortical dysplasia, and dysmorphic corpus callosum.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 23
MedGen UID:
862929
Concept ID:
C4014492
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-23 (DEE23) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of intractable seizures in the first months of life (range, 2-6 months). Affected individuals have severely impaired psychomotor development with poor or absent speech, cortical blindness, and dysmorphic facial features (summary by Perrault et al., 2014).
Cataract-growth hormone deficiency-sensory neuropathy-sensorineural hearing loss-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
863379
Concept ID:
C4014942
Disease or Syndrome
CAGSSS, which comprises cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with a highly variable phenotypic spectrum. Not all of these features are always present, and almost all the features may present at different times and/or become more apparent with age. The skeletal features are consistent with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) (summary by Vona et al., 2018). One family had a distinctive presentation with infantile-onset intractable seizures and cortical abnormalities reminiscent of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). The correlation between genotype and phenotype remains unclear, but since the IARS2 gene is involved in mitochondrial function, heterogeneous manifestations can be expected (Takezawa et al., 2018).
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
863395
Concept ID:
C4014958
Disease or Syndrome
GPIBD11 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, lack of psychomotor development, and variable seizures. Some patients may have dysmorphic features or increased serum alkaline phosphatase. The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis (summary by Hogrebe et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 26
MedGen UID:
863556
Concept ID:
C4015119
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-26 (DEE26) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of variable types of seizures late in infancy or in the first years of life. Affected children show developmental delay with intellectual disability, poor speech, and behavioral abnormalities. EEG shows multifocal epileptic discharges, and may show hypsarrhythmia (summary by Torkamani et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 27
MedGen UID:
863753
Concept ID:
C4015316
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by mild to profound developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID) in all affected individuals. Muscle tone abnormalities (spasticity and/or hypotonia, occasionally associated with feeding difficulties), as well as epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) / behavioral issues, are common. Other infantile- or childhood-onset findings include microcephaly; dystonic, dyskinetic, or choreiform movement disorder; and/or cortical visual impairment. Brain MRI reveals a malformation of cortical development in a minority of affected individuals. To date, fewer than 100 individuals with GRIN2B-related neurodevelopmental disorder have been reported.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 33
MedGen UID:
897930
Concept ID:
C4225337
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-33 (DEE33) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first months of life. Affected individuals show severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech (summary by de Ligt et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 31
MedGen UID:
894942
Concept ID:
C4225357
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-31A (DEE31A) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by the global developmental delay apparent in early infancy. Most individuals have onset of various types of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life, which exacerbates the psychomotor deficits. Patients have hypotonia and profound intellectual disability with absent speech and inability to walk or ataxic gait. Some patients may have additional features, including dysmorphic features or cortical visual impairment (summary by the EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium et al., 2014 and Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 30
MedGen UID:
898954
Concept ID:
C4225360
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-30 (DEE30) is a severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures soon after birth or in the first months of life. Seizure types include early myoclonic encephalopathy (EME), Ohtahara syndrome, and infantile spasms; most are refractory to treatment. Patients with earlier seizure onset make essentially no developmental progress and may die in infancy. Those with later onset show profoundly impaired global development with absent speech, poor eye contact, inability to walk, behavioral abnormalities, and feeding difficulties that may require a feeding tube (summary by Hansen et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 48
MedGen UID:
934604
Concept ID:
C4310637
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-48 (DEE48) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with intellectual disability and absent speech; poor, if any, motor development; and onset of seizures usually in the first year of life, although later onset has been reported. Affected individuals have poor eye contact and may develop microcephaly and abnormal movements (summary by Assoum et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7
MedGen UID:
934636
Concept ID:
C4310669
Disease or Syndrome
Periventricular nodular heterotopia-7 (PVNH7) is a neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal neuronal migration during brain development resulting in delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability; some patients develop seizures. Other features include cleft palate and 2-3 toe syndactyly (summary by Broix et al., 2016). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of periventricular heterotopia, see 300049.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 47
MedGen UID:
934652
Concept ID:
C4310685
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-47 (DEE47) is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in the first days or weeks of life. EEG shows background slowing and multifocal epileptic spikes, and may show hypsarrhythmia. Most patients have developmental regression after seizure onset and show persistent intellectual disability and neurologic impairment, although the severity is variable. Treatment with phenytoin, a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, may be beneficial (summary by Guella et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 46
MedGen UID:
934654
Concept ID:
C4310687
Disease or Syndrome
GRIN2D-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (GRIN2D-related DEE) is characterized by mild-to-profound developmental delay or intellectual disability, epilepsy, abnormal muscle tone (hypotonia and spasticity), movement disorders (dystonia, dyskinesia, chorea), autism spectrum disorder, and cortical visual impairment. Additional findings can include sleep disorders and feeding difficulties. To date 22 individuals with GRIN2D-related DEE have been reported.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 45
MedGen UID:
934658
Concept ID:
C4310691
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-45 (DEE45) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy or early childhood and onset of seizures within the first 12 months of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and other persistent neurologic deficits (summary by Burgess et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 43
MedGen UID:
934679
Concept ID:
C4310712
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-43 (DEE43) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures usually in the first year of life. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from the neonatal period to about 12 months of age. Later onset may rarely occur. Seizure types include febrile, infantile spasms, focal, tonic-clonic, and myoclonic; they tend to be refractory to treatment. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with mild to moderate intellectual disability, although some may have normal early development before the onset of seizures. EEG shows focal, multifocal, or generalized sharp waves associated with seizures, sometimes with hypsarrhythmia. Additional more variable features include tube feeding, hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia, ataxia, dyskinesia, and behavioral difficulties, including aggression, ADHD, stereotypic, and impulsive behavior (summary by the Epi4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 41
MedGen UID:
934684
Concept ID:
C4310717
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-41 (DEE41) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Affected infants show severely impaired psychomotor development with hypotonia, spasticity, lack of speech, poor visual fixation, feeding difficulties sometimes necessitating tube feeding, poor overall growth and microcephaly, and contractures. Brain imaging may show delayed myelination, thin corpus callosum, and cerebral atrophy (summary by the EPI4K Consortium, 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission 2
MedGen UID:
934693
Concept ID:
C4310726
Disease or Syndrome
Encephalopathy due to defective mitochondrial and peroxisomal fission-2 (EMPF2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, severe hypotonia with inability to walk, microcephaly, and abnormal signals in the basal ganglia. More variable features include early-onset seizures, optic atrophy, and peripheral neuropathy (summary by Koch et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EMPF, see EMPF1 (614388).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 40
MedGen UID:
934704
Concept ID:
C4310737
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-40 (DEE40) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of refractory infantile spasms within the first 6 months of life. Affected infants may have normal or mildly delayed development before the onset of seizures, but thereafter show developmental stagnation and severe neurologic impairment. EEG typically shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Additional features include poor feeding, axial hypotonia with peripheral spasticity, limited eye contact, profoundly impaired intellectual development with absent language, and poor fine motor skills (summary by Alfaiz et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 38
MedGen UID:
934729
Concept ID:
C4310762
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-38 (DEE38) is an autosomal recessive neurologic and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset of various type of seizures usually between about 4 and 7 months of age. Prior to the onset of seizures, most infants show severely impaired global development, hypotonia with poor head control, and visual inattention with roving eye movements and nystagmus. Seizures are usually refractory to treatment and associated with status epilepticus. Patients have little or no development with inability to walk or speak, spasticity or abnormal movements, and often cortical blindness. There is failure to thrive, and many require tube-feeding. Death in early childhood due to aspiration or intractable epilepsy may occur. The disorder is associated with a defect in GPI-anchoring of membrane-bound proteins (summary by Palmer et al., 2016; Davids et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 41
MedGen UID:
934751
Concept ID:
C4310784
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TBL1XR1 gene.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 36
MedGen UID:
1382656
Concept ID:
C4317295
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-36 (DEE36) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of seizures at a mean age of 6.5 months. Most patients present with infantile spasms associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment, although some patients may respond to benzodiazepines or a ketogenic diet. Affected individuals have severely delayed psychomotor development with poor motor function, severe intellectual disability, poor or absent speech, and limited eye contact. More variable features include feeding difficulties sometimes requiring tube feeding, ocular defects including cortical visual impairment, dysmorphic facial features, and scoliosis or osteopenia. The vast majority of patients reported have been females, although rare affected males with a similar phenotype have been described. Most patients show normal N-glycosylation on transferrin isoelectric focusing, but some show abnormal N-glycosylation consistent with CDG type I (summary by Ng et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 53
MedGen UID:
1374886
Concept ID:
C4479313
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-53 (DEE53) is a severe autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of intractable seizures in infancy. Affected individuals show hypotonia and very poor or absent global development, resulting in severe intellectual disability and spastic quadriplegia. Some patients may die in childhood (summary by Hardies et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1615973
Concept ID:
C4538630
Disease or Syndrome
Diencephalic-mesencephalic junction dysplasia syndrome-1 (DMJDS1) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by progressive microcephaly, severely delayed or even absent psychomotor development with profound intellectual disability, and spasticity or dystonia. Some patients may have seizures and/or visual impairment. Brain imaging shows a characteristic developmental malformation of the midbrain; subtle intracranial calcifications may also be present (summary by Aran et al., 2016 and Guemez-Gamboa et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of Diencephalic-Mesencephalic Junction Dysplasia Syndrome See also DMJDS2 (618646), caused by mutation in the GSX2 gene (616253) on chromosome 4q12.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 55
MedGen UID:
1622363
Concept ID:
C4539843
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-55 (DEE55) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have an extremely poor outcome, with profoundly impaired intellectual development, absent speech, spastic quadriplegia, and dyskinetic movements. Most have cortical visual impairment and require a feeding tube. Brain imaging shows nonspecific abnormalities, including cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and abnormal signals in the white matter. Death in childhood may occur. Biochemically, the disorder is associated with impaired synthesis of GPI-anchored proteins (summary by Vetro et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 9
MedGen UID:
1622927
Concept ID:
C4540171
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IX (MGCA9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset seizures, severely delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Patients have hypotonia or spasticity, and laboratory investigations show increased serum lactate and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, suggestive of a mitochondrial defect (summary by Shahrour et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 1
MedGen UID:
1626137
Concept ID:
C4540199
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-91 (DEE91) is characterized by delayed psychomotor development apparent in infancy and resulting in severely to profoundly impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Most patients never achieve independent walking. Patients typically have onset of refractory multifocal seizures between the first weeks and years of life, and some may show developmental regression. Additional features, such as hypotonia and cortical visual impairment, are more variable (summary by Myers et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 57
MedGen UID:
1621769
Concept ID:
C4540411
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-57 (DEE57) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, variably impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent language. Affected individuals have onset of refractory multifocal seizures in the first days or months of life, and may show developmental regression. EEG patterns include hypsarrhythmia, suggesting a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome, background slowing, and epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). Some patients may have mild dysmorphic features (summary by Ambrosino et al., 2018 and Mao et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 61
MedGen UID:
1622296
Concept ID:
C4540424
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRT61 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and variable dysmorphic facial features. More severely affected patients may develop refractory seizures and have brain abnormalities, including hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by Alwadei et al., 2016).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 58
MedGen UID:
1646861
Concept ID:
C4693367
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-58 (DEE58) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms and refractory seizures in the first days or months of life. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, usually with absent speech and inability to walk. Additional features include optic atrophy with poor or absent visual fixation, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and spasticity (summary by Hamdan et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 59
MedGen UID:
1633749
Concept ID:
C4693550
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-59 (DEE59) is characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent in infancy with onset of various types of seizures in the first months of life (range 3 to 11 months). The seizures are usually refractory and are often associated with hypsarrhythmia on EEG, although brain imaging is usually normal. More severely affected individuals may be unable to speak or walk, have poor interaction, and require a feeding tube (summary by the EuroEPINOMICS-RES Consortium et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 60
MedGen UID:
1638894
Concept ID:
C4693663
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-60 (DEE60) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms, seizures, or myoclonus in the first months of life. EEG typically shows hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals have severe global developmental delay with inability to sit, walk, or speak. Brain imaging may show brain atrophy and hippocampal malrotation (summary by Mutoh et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 62
MedGen UID:
1631233
Concept ID:
C4693699
Disease or Syndrome
SCN3A-related neurodevelopmental disorder (SCN3A-ND) encompasses a spectrum of clinical severity associated with epilepsy and/or brain malformation. Affected individuals may have (a) developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE) (i.e., intractable seizures with developmental delays associated with ongoing epileptiform EEG activity) with or without malformations of cortical development; or (b) malformations of cortical development with or without mild focal epilepsy. Some degree of early childhood developmental delay is seen in all affected individuals; the severity varies widely, ranging from isolated speech delay to severe developmental delay. Infantile hypotonia is common but may be mild or absent in those without DEE. In those with DEE, seizure onset is typically in the first six to 12 months of life. A variety of seizure types have been described. Seizures remain intractable to multiple anti-seizure medications in approximately 50% of individuals with DEE without malformations of cortical development (MCD) and in 90% of individuals with DEE and MCD. Seizures may be absent or infrequent in those without DEE. Brain MRI findings range from normal to showing thinning or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, to various malformations of cortical development. Autonomic dysregulation, oromotor dysfunction leading to the need for gastrostomy tube placement, progressive microcephaly, hyperkinetic movement disorder, and cortical visual impairment can also be seen in those with DEE.
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 17
MedGen UID:
1644557
Concept ID:
C4693912
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-17 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by poor, if any, development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals never learn to walk or speak, and have early-onset multifocal seizures, spasticity, poor overall growth, and microcephaly (up to -10 SD). Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, thin corpus callosum, abnormal signals in the basal ganglia, and features suggesting hypo- or demyelination. Some patients may die in childhood (summary by Shukla et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 65
MedGen UID:
1634676
Concept ID:
C4693925
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-65 (DEE65) is characterized by onset of intractable seizures of various types usually within the first months or years of life, severe to profound psychomotor developmental delay, and mild facial dysmorphism (summary by Nakashima et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Hyperekplexia 4
MedGen UID:
1642659
Concept ID:
C4693933
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperekplexia-4 is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder apparent at birth. Affected infants have extreme hypertonia and appear stiff and rigid. They have little if any development, poor or absent visual contact, and no spontaneous movement, consistent with an encephalopathy. Some patients have early-onset refractory seizures, and many have inguinal or umbilical hernia. Most patients die in the first months of life due to respiratory failure or other complications (summary by Piard et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyperekplexia, see HKPX1 (149400).
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 3
MedGen UID:
1642888
Concept ID:
C4693934
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE93) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, and impaired intellectual development. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: some patients may be nonverbal and nonambulatory with spastic quadriparesis and poor eye contact, whereas others have moderate intellectual disability (summary by Fassio et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth
MedGen UID:
1648309
Concept ID:
C4748081
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth (NEDSG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe early-onset encephalopathy with progressive microcephaly (Nahorski et al., 2018).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 67
MedGen UID:
1648285
Concept ID:
C4748341
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-67 (DEE67) is characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first months of life, although later onset may occur in milder cases. The seizures tend to be resistant to treatment. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with impaired motor and intellectual development, poor or absent speech, movement disorders, and stereotypic or autistic behavior (summary by Chatron et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 9
MedGen UID:
1648399
Concept ID:
C4748540
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-9 is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profoundly impaired motor and cognitive development apparent from early infancy. Affected individuals develop intractable seizures and are unable to speak or ambulate. Brain imaging shows pachygyria as well as hypogenesis of the corpus callosum and other variable brain abnormalities. The phenotype results from impaired cortical neuronal migration (summary by Schaffer et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Inflammatory bowel disease, immunodeficiency, and encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
1648434
Concept ID:
C4748708
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic disease characterized by infantile onset of severe inflammatory bowel disease manifesting with bloody diarrhea and failure to thrive, and central nervous system disease with global developmental delay and regression, impaired speech, hypotonia, hyperreflexia, and epilepsy. Brain imaging shows global cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, delayed myelination, and posterior leukoencephalopathy. Cases with recurrent infections and impaired T-cell responses to stimulation, as well as decreased T-cell subsets, have been reported.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 69
MedGen UID:
1648381
Concept ID:
C4748988
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-69 (DEE69) is an autosomal dominant severe neurodevelopmental encephalopathic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory seizures, hypotonia, and profoundly impaired development often associated with macrocephaly, hyperkinetic movements, and contractures. The disorder can sometimes result in early death. Some patients may have a favorable seizure response to topiramate medication (summary by Helbig et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 70
MedGen UID:
1648407
Concept ID:
C4749023
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-70 (DEE70) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of epileptic spasms or seizures in the first months of life. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills; intellectual impairment ranges from moderate to severe (summary by Hamada et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 2
MedGen UID:
1663579
Concept ID:
C4750718
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-2 (DEE2) is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first months of life and severe global developmental delay resulting in impaired intellectual development and poor motor control. Other features include lack of speech development, subtle dysmorphic facial features, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, and stereotypic hand movements. There is some phenotypic overlap with Rett syndrome (312750), but DEE2 is considered to be a distinct entity (summary by Fehr et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
NAD(P)HX dehydratase deficiency
MedGen UID:
1681210
Concept ID:
C5193026
Disease or Syndrome
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy with brain edema and/or leukoencephalopathy-2 (PEBEL2) is an autosomal recessive severe neurometabolic disorder characterized by rapidly progressive neurologic deterioration that is usually associated with a febrile illness. Affected infants tend to show normal early development followed by acute psychomotor regression with ataxia, hypotonia, and sometimes seizures, resulting in death in the first years of life. Brain imaging shows multiple abnormalities, including brain edema and signal abnormalities in the cortical and subcortical regions (summary by Van Bergen et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PEBEL, see PEBEL1 (617186).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 72
MedGen UID:
1681879
Concept ID:
C5193063
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-72 (DEE72) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms around 5 months of age. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills. Additional more variable features include hyperkinetic movements and cortical visual impairment (summary by Sega et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 39
MedGen UID:
1683958
Concept ID:
C5193075
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-39 (COXPD39) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder resulting from a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism. Affected individuals show global developmental delay, sometimes with regression after normal early development, axial hypotonia with limb spasticity or abnormal involuntary movements, and impaired intellectual development with poor speech. More variable features may include hypotonia, seizures, and features of Leigh syndrome (256000) on brain imaging. There are variable deficiencies of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme complexes in patient tissues (summary by Glasgow et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 75
MedGen UID:
1684253
Concept ID:
C5193099
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-75 (DEE75) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first months of life. Patients often have global developmental delay before the onset of seizures, and thereafter achieve few milestones. EEG usually shows multifocal spikes and hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. They have severely impaired intellectual development with inability to walk, absent speech, and hypotonia with axial hyperreflexia. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral atrophy, frontal lobe atrophy, white matter abnormalities, and delayed myelination. Since the disorder is due to mitochondrial dysfunction, some patients may develop other organ involvement, including cardiomyopathy or liver and renal dysfunction. Death may occur in childhood (summary by Yin et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Congenital hypotonia, epilepsy, developmental delay, and digital anomalies
MedGen UID:
1674629
Concept ID:
C5193125
Disease or Syndrome
ATN1-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ATN1-NDD) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability. Other neurologic findings can include infantile hypotonia, brain malformations, epilepsy, cortical visual impairment, and hearing loss. Feeding difficulties, present in some individuals, may require gastrostomy support when severe; similarly, respiratory issues, present in some, may require respiratory support after the neonatal period. Distinctive facial features and hand and foot differences are common. Other variable findings can include cardiac malformations and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). To date, 18 individuals with ATN1-NDD have been identified.
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 10
MedGen UID:
1684859
Concept ID:
C5231458
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-10 (CDCBM10) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely impaired global development associated with abnormalities on brain imaging, including lissencephaly, cortical dysplasia, subcortical heterotopia, and paucity of white matter. The disorder results from defective neuronal migration during brain development. Affected individuals often develop seizures, are unable to walk, and do not acquire language (summary by Lee et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects
MedGen UID:
1708832
Concept ID:
C5393312
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-85 with or without midline brain defects (DEE85) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, and dysmorphic facial features. The seizures tend to show a cyclic pattern with clustering. Many patients have midline brain defects on brain imaging, including thin corpus callosum and/or variable forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE). The severity and clinical manifestations are variable. Almost all reported patients are females with de novo mutations predicted to result in a loss of function (LOF). However, some patients may show skewed X inactivation, and the pathogenic mechanism may be due to a dominant-negative effect. The SMC1A protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; DEE85 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Symonds et al., 2017 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 34
MedGen UID:
1720533
Concept ID:
C5394053
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 84
MedGen UID:
1720141
Concept ID:
C5394081
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-84 (DEE84) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first months or years of life. Affected individuals have severely impaired global development with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, and inability to walk. Other features include axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, feeding difficulties that sometimes necessitate tube feeding, and mild dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging may show nonspecific findings such as cerebral/cerebellar atrophy and/or hypomyelination. The severity of the disorder is variable (summary by Hengel et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Diabetes mellitus, permanent neonatal 2
MedGen UID:
1713823
Concept ID:
C5394296
Disease or Syndrome
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus-2 (PNDM2) is characterized by onset of insulin-requiring hyperglycemia within the first months of life that requires insulin therapy throughout life. Some patients additionally have marked developmental delay, muscle weakness, and epilepsy (Gloyn et al., 2004). The triad of developmental delay, epilepsy, and neonatal diabetes is known as DEND (Shimomura et al., 2007). Proks et al. (2006) stated that heterozygous activating mutations in KCNJ11 are the most common cause of PNDM and account for 26 to 64% of cases, and that neurologic features are found in 20% of patients with KCNJ11 mutations. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus, see PNDM1 (606176).
Neurodevelopmental disorder and structural brain anomalies with or without seizures and spasticity
MedGen UID:
1711516
Concept ID:
C5394423
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder and structural brain anomalies with or without seizures and spasticity (NEDBASS) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early infancy, poor overall growth often with microcephaly, impaired intellectual development with delayed or absent speech, axial hypotonia, and peripheral spasticity. Additional common but variable features include early-onset seizures, optic atrophy with poor visual fixation, and dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, poor or absent myelination with loss of white matter volume, and often hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and/or cerebellum. Early death may occur (summary by Bend et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 87
MedGen UID:
1719688
Concept ID:
C5394501
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-87 (DEE87) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, hypotonia, and onset of frequent refractory seizures or infantile spasms between 6 and 15 months of age. Affected individuals have severely impaired motor and cognitive development with little or absent speech and poor visual tracking. More variable features include facial dysmorphisms, joint laxity, and nonspecific brain imaging findings (summary by Chung et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 88
MedGen UID:
1712195
Concept ID:
C5394553
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-88 (DEE88) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset epilepsy, and progressive microcephaly. Brain MRI findings may include corpus callosum abnormalities, prominent ventricles, and mild hypoplasia of the inferior vermis and pons (Broeks et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350.
Myopathy, epilepsy, and progressive cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
1759100
Concept ID:
C5436652
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, epilepsy, and progressive cerebral atrophy (MEPCA) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder with onset in utero or at birth. Affected individuals have hypotonia with respiratory or feeding difficulties apparent from birth and often associated with contractures of the large joints. There is little spontaneous movement: skeletal muscle biopsy and electrophysiologic studies are consistent with a myopathy or myasthenic disorder. Patients also develop refractory seizures with burst-suppression pattern or hypsarrhythmia on EEG. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral atrophy and myelination defects. All patients reported to date died within the first year of life (summary by Schorling et al., 2017).
Mitochondrial complex 4 deficiency, nuclear type 16
MedGen UID:
1762514
Concept ID:
C5436714
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 16 (MC4DN16) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with highly variable manifestations. Common features include failure to thrive with poor overall growth, short stature, and microcephaly. Some patients additionally have neurologic involvement, including developmental regression with severe hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and seizures. Brain imaging in the more severely affected patients shows cerebral and cerebellar atrophy and abnormal lesions in the basal ganglia. In all cases, patient tissues show variably decreased levels and activity of mitochondrial respiratory complex IV (summary by Pillai et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1755716
Concept ID:
C5436747
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, seizures, and brain atrophy (NEDMISB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, developmental regression with loss of milestones, severe microcephaly, and brain abnormalities, primarily cerebral atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals develop seizures in the first year of life; eventually they are unable to sit, feed, or communicate, and may be unresponsive to stimuli. Other features include muscle weakness, spasticity with hyperreflexia, irritability, and contractures (Coulter et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 89
MedGen UID:
1761611
Concept ID:
C5436853
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-89 (DEE89) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by profound global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, absent speech, inability to sit or walk due to axial hypotonia and spastic quadriparesis, and onset of seizures in the first days or months of life. EEG shows suppression-burst pattern or hypsarrhythmia, consistent with DEE or a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. More variable features include joint contractures with foot deformities, dysmorphic facial features with cleft palate, and omphalocele. Affected individuals have poor motor skills, poor eye contact, and lack of language development; some die in infancy or early childhood. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific abnormalities (summary by Chatron et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 90
MedGen UID:
1786502
Concept ID:
C5542345
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-90 (DEE90) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first days or months of life. Although most patients have focal seizures associated with oromotor automatisms and apnea, various seizure types may occur, including epileptic spasms, generalized tonic-clonic, and absence. EEG shows multifocal discharges; hypsarrhythmia, intermittent burst suppression, and slow spike-wave background resembling Lennox-Gastaut syndrome may also be observed. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with variable severity, but it is usually profound or severe. Some are unable to walk or speak, whereas others may achieve some milestones and show autistic features (summary by Fry et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like
MedGen UID:
1781649
Concept ID:
C5543202
Disease or Syndrome
Den Hoed-de Boer-Voisin syndrome (DHDBV) is characterized by global developmental delay with moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor skills. Although the severity of the disorder varies, many patients are nonverbal and have hypotonia with inability to sit or walk. Early-onset epilepsy is common and may be refractory to treatment, leading to epileptic encephalopathy and further interruption of developmental progress. Most patients have feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features, as well as significant dental anomalies resembling amelogenesis imperfecta. The phenotype is reminiscent of Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS; 226750). More variable features of DHDBV include visual defects, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific involvement of other organ systems (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without autism or seizures
MedGen UID:
1784023
Concept ID:
C5543225
Disease or Syndrome
CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder is a condition that affects neurological and physical development. Children with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder may have intellectual disability or specific learning disorders. They may also experience delayed development of speech and motor skills, such as sitting and walking. Some individuals with this condition may have autism spectrum disorder, a developmental condition that affects communication and social skills. \n\nMovement abnormalities can also occur in people with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Affected individuals may have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in childhood. In adulthood, they may develop involuntary muscle tensing (dystonia), rhythmic shaking (tremor), or other uncontrolled movements (spasms). \n\nPeople with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder can have distinctive facial features, including a long, triangular-shaped face; a large forehead; a large, rounded nose; small ears; deep-set eyes; or a pointed chin. Some affected individuals have a larger than normal head (macrocephaly). \n\nMany people with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder have hand and foot abnormalities. Hand abnormalities can include small pinky (fifth) fingers that curve inward (clinodactyly), narrow thumbs, underdevelopment of the muscle at the base of the thumb (thenar hypoplasia), or a single crease across the palm of the hand. Foot abnormalities can include high arches of the feet (pes cavus); bunions; fusion of the skin between some toes (cutaneous syndactyly); or joint deformities (contractures) in the ankles, feet, or toes. A few individuals with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder have an abnormally curved lower back (lordosis) or a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis). \n\nSome affected infants have a backflow of stomach acids into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD), which tends to go away after childhood. Rarely, recurrent seizures (epilepsy), congenital heart abnormalities, or genitourinary abnormalities occur in people with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder. 
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794148
Concept ID:
C5561938
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome (FSGSNEDS) is characterized by global developmental delay and renal dysfunction manifest as proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome apparent from infancy or early childhood. Some patients present with renal disease, whereas others present with developmental delay and develop renal disease later in childhood. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but the course of the disease is variable: some patients have transient proteinuria and others require renal transplant. Neurodevelopmental features are also variable, with some patients having only mildly impaired intellectual development, and others having a severe developmental disorder associated with early-onset refractory seizures or epileptic encephalopathy. Additional features, including feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, are commonly observed (summary by Assoum et al., 2018 and Weng et al., 2021).
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794167
Concept ID:
C5561957
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (DDISBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. Intellectual disability can range from mild to severe. Additional variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, seizures, hypotonia, motor abnormalities such as Tourette syndrome or dystonia, and hearing loss (summary by Cousin et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 97
MedGen UID:
1794209
Concept ID:
C5561999
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-97 (DEE97) is characterized by developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and impaired intellectual development. Other clinical features may include autistic features and hypotonia. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Yoon-Bellen neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794276
Concept ID:
C5562066
Disease or Syndrome
Yoon-Bellen neurodevelopmental syndrome (YOBELN) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized mainly by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. The manifestations and severity of the phenotype are highly variable. Additional neurologic features may include hypotonia, spasticity, ataxia, hearing loss, visual problems, seizures, and nonspecific anomalies on brain imaging (summary by Yap et al., 2021).
Early-onset progressive encephalopathy-hearing loss-pons hypoplasia-brain atrophy syndrome
MedGen UID:
1798652
Concept ID:
C5567229
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic neurological disorder with characteristics of early-onset severe global developmental delay with regression, congenital or acquired microcephaly, hearing loss, truncal hypotonia, appendicular spasticity, and dystonia and/or myoclonus. Additional reported manifestations include seizures, optic atrophy, cortical visual impairment, scoliosis, and dysphagia. Brain imaging shows pontine hypoplasia, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and diffuse cerebral atrophy with relative sparing of the cerebellum.
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1811329
Concept ID:
C5575272
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities, with or without seizures (DEDISB) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by variably impaired skill acquisition apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have predominant language delay with mild fine and gross motor deficits, although they usually are ambulatory by around 3 years of age. Most patients have mild to moderately impaired intellectual development and behavioral abnormalities, including aggression, hyperactivity, and autism spectrum disorder. About half of individuals develop various types of seizures that may be refractory in some. More variable features include dysmorphic facial features, mild ocular anomalies, and nonspecific findings on brain imaging (Thomas et al., 2021).
Dentici-Novelli neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1810366
Concept ID:
C5676987
Disease or Syndrome
Dentici-Novelli neurodevelopmental syndrome (DENNED) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: more severely affected individuals have axial hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, microcephaly, early-onset seizures, brain imaging abnormalities, and are unable to walk or speak. Those with a less severe phenotype may achieve some developmental goals and show less severe intellectual disability (Dentici et al., 2022).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 103
MedGen UID:
1809962
Concept ID:
C5677002
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-103 (DEE103) is characterized by onset of various types of seizures in the first year of life, most of which are refractory to treatment. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development ranging from mild to severe. Additional features may include hypotonia, ataxia, and behavioral abnormalities, including autism and hyperactivity (Schwarz et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 104
MedGen UID:
1823956
Concept ID:
C5774183
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-104 (DEE104) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental delay in the first few months of life and drug-resistant focal and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (summary by Bott et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 105 with hypopituitarism
MedGen UID:
1823963
Concept ID:
C5774190
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-105 with hypopituitarism (DEE105) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the onset of seizures and pituitary insufficiency in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have profoundly impaired development with almost no acquisition of skills. They are hypotonic, unable to sit or speak, and have poor or absent visual fixation. Endocrine workup shows central pituitary dysfunction with low hormone levels. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, thin corpus callosum, and small pituitary gland (Schanzer et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1823982
Concept ID:
C5774209
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures, microcephaly, and brain abnormalities (NEDSMBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a core phenotype of moderate to profound developmental delay, progressive microcephaly, epilepsy, and periventricular calcifications (summary by Rosenhahn et al., 2022).
Developmental delay with hypotonia, myopathy, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1840906
Concept ID:
C5830270
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with hypotonia, myopathy, and brain abnormalities (DEDHMB) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and muscle weakness apparent in infancy. Affected individuals show severe motor delay and may not achieve independent walking due to central hypotonia and skeletal muscle myopathy. Some have poor overall growth with microcephaly, subtle dysmorphic features, and delayed language acquisition. Brain imaging shows cerebral atrophy, thinning of the corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (Shamseldin et al., 2016; Kotecha et al., 2021).
Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 12
MedGen UID:
1841043
Concept ID:
C5830407
Disease or Syndrome
Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-12 (CDCBM12) is an autosomal recessive disorder of developmental neuronal migration characterized by severe to profound neurodevelopmental delay with absent speech, central hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, cortical visual impairment, and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Affected individuals usually have feeding difficulties and show minimal developmental progress of motor or cognitive skills. Most have microcephaly and develop early-onset refractory seizures. Brain imaging shows cortical abnormalities, such as lissencephaly and pachygyria, as well as other brain malformations, including thin or absent corpus callosum, dysplastic basal ganglia, and mild cerebellar hypoplasia. Due to the function of CAMSAP1 in microtubule stability and maintenance, this disorder can be classified as a 'tubulinopathy' (Khalaf-Nazzal et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 31B
MedGen UID:
1841095
Concept ID:
C5830459
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-31B (DEE31B) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with early-onset epilepsy, generalized muscular hypotonia, visual impairment, and severe neurodevelopmental delay (Yigit et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Olson HE, Demarest S, Pestana-Knight E, Moosa AN, Zhang X, Pérez-Pérez JR, Weisenberg J, O'Connor Prange E, Marsh ED, Rajaraman RR, Suter B, Katyayan A, Haviland I, Daniels C, Zhang B, Greene C, DeLeo M, Swanson L, Love-Nichols J, Benke T, Harini C, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2023 Jul;64(7):1821-1832. Epub 2023 May 15 doi: 10.1111/epi.17630. PMID: 37114835Free PMC Article
Jain P, Sahu JK, Horn PS, Chau V, Go C, Mahood Q, Arya R
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Nov;64(11):1330-1343. Epub 2022 Jun 29 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15330. PMID: 35765990
Hancock EC, Osborne JP, Edwards SW
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Jun 5;(6):CD001770. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001770.pub3. PMID: 23740534

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Paprocka J, Jezela-Stanek A, Śmigiel R, Walczak A, Mierzewska H, Kutkowska-Kaźmierczak A, Płoski R, Emich-Widera E, Steinborn B
Genes (Basel) 2023 Apr 25;14(5) doi: 10.3390/genes14050972. PMID: 37239332Free PMC Article
Olson HE, Demarest S, Pestana-Knight E, Moosa AN, Zhang X, Pérez-Pérez JR, Weisenberg J, O'Connor Prange E, Marsh ED, Rajaraman RR, Suter B, Katyayan A, Haviland I, Daniels C, Zhang B, Greene C, DeLeo M, Swanson L, Love-Nichols J, Benke T, Harini C, Poduri A
Epilepsia 2023 Jul;64(7):1821-1832. Epub 2023 May 15 doi: 10.1111/epi.17630. PMID: 37114835Free PMC Article
Mytinger JR, Vidaurre J, Moore-Clingenpeel M, Stanek JR, Albert DVF
Epilepsy Res 2021 Jul;173:106631. Epub 2021 Apr 2 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106631. PMID: 33839516
Sabaie H, Ahangar NK, Ghafouri-Fard S, Taheri M, Rezazadeh M
Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Nov;131:110793. Epub 2020 Sep 29 doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110793. PMID: 33152950
Riikonen R
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Jul;108:54-64. Epub 2020 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.01.015. PMID: 32305143

Diagnosis

Lachhwani D
J Clin Neurophysiol 2022 Nov 1;39(7):538-543. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1097/WNP.0000000000000899. PMID: 35323149
Mytinger JR, Vidaurre J, Moore-Clingenpeel M, Stanek JR, Albert DVF
Epilepsy Res 2021 Jul;173:106631. Epub 2021 Apr 2 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106631. PMID: 33839516
Pavone P, Polizzi A, Marino SD, Corsello G, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Ruggieri M
Neurol Sci 2020 Dec;41(12):3547-3562. Epub 2020 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s10072-020-04600-5. PMID: 32827285Free PMC Article
Riikonen R
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Jul;108:54-64. Epub 2020 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.01.015. PMID: 32305143
Kelley SA, Knupp KG
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 Apr 19;18(5):27. doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0832-8. PMID: 29671077

Therapy

Jain P, Sahu JK, Horn PS, Chau V, Go C, Mahood Q, Arya R
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Nov;64(11):1330-1343. Epub 2022 Jun 29 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15330. PMID: 35765990
Pestana Knight EM, Mani J
J Clin Neurophysiol 2022 Nov 1;39(7):521-528. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1097/WNP.0000000000000908. PMID: 35323128
Messer R, Knupp KG
Semin Neurol 2020 Apr;40(2):236-245. Epub 2020 Mar 6 doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1705121. PMID: 32143232
Kelley SA, Knupp KG
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 Apr 19;18(5):27. doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0832-8. PMID: 29671077
Wong M, Trevathan E
Pediatr Neurol 2001 Feb;24(2):89-98. doi: 10.1016/s0887-8994(00)00238-1. PMID: 11275456

Prognosis

Pavone P, Polizzi A, Marino SD, Corsello G, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Ruggieri M
Neurol Sci 2020 Dec;41(12):3547-3562. Epub 2020 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s10072-020-04600-5. PMID: 32827285Free PMC Article
Riikonen R
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Jul;108:54-64. Epub 2020 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.01.015. PMID: 32305143
Kelley SA, Knupp KG
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 Apr 19;18(5):27. doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0832-8. PMID: 29671077
Kossoff EH
Neurologist 2010 Mar;16(2):69-75. doi: 10.1097/NRL.0b013e3181d1416c. PMID: 20220440
Wong M, Trevathan E
Pediatr Neurol 2001 Feb;24(2):89-98. doi: 10.1016/s0887-8994(00)00238-1. PMID: 11275456

Clinical prediction guides

Lachhwani D
J Clin Neurophysiol 2022 Nov 1;39(7):538-543. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1097/WNP.0000000000000899. PMID: 35323149
Mytinger JR, Vidaurre J, Moore-Clingenpeel M, Stanek JR, Albert DVF
Epilepsy Res 2021 Jul;173:106631. Epub 2021 Apr 2 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2021.106631. PMID: 33839516
Riikonen R
Pediatr Neurol 2020 Jul;108:54-64. Epub 2020 Feb 4 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.01.015. PMID: 32305143
Kelley SA, Knupp KG
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2018 Apr 19;18(5):27. doi: 10.1007/s11910-018-0832-8. PMID: 29671077
Schmitt B
Neuropediatrics 2015 Jun;46(3):171-80. Epub 2015 May 12 doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1551574. PMID: 25965811

Recent systematic reviews

Jain P, Sahu JK, Horn PS, Chau V, Go C, Mahood Q, Arya R
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Nov;64(11):1330-1343. Epub 2022 Jun 29 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15330. PMID: 35765990
Hancock EC, Osborne JP, Edwards SW
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Jun 5;(6):CD001770. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001770.pub3. PMID: 23740534
Hancock EC, Osborne JP, Edwards SW
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD001770. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001770.pub2. PMID: 18843624
Hancock E, Osborne J, Milner P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003;(3):CD001770. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001770. PMID: 12917912
Hancock E, Osborne JP, Milner P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(2):CD001770. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001770. PMID: 12076419

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