U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Learning disability

MedGen UID:
199623
Concept ID:
C0751265
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Synonyms: Disabilities, Learning; Disability, Learning; Learning Disabilities; Learning Disability
SNOMED CT: General learning disability (1855002); Learning disability (1855002)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0004681

Definition

A group of disorders that affect a person's ability to learn or process specific types of information which is in contrast to his/her apparent level of intellect. [from MONDO]

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Nickels K
FP Essent 2022 Dec;523:15-19. PMID: 36459664
Strydom A, Al-Janabi T, Houston M, Ridley J
Nurs Stand 2016 Oct 5;31(6):42-51. doi: 10.7748/ns.2016.e10524. PMID: 27823134
Au KS, Williams AT, Roach ES, Batchelor L, Sparagana SP, Delgado MR, Wheless JW, Baumgartner JE, Roa BB, Wilson CM, Smith-Knuppel TK, Cheung MY, Whittemore VH, King TM, Northrup H
Genet Med 2007 Feb;9(2):88-100. doi: 10.1097/gim.0b013e31803068c7. PMID: 17304050

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Northway R, Oloidi E, Phillips P, Rees S
Nurse Res 2024 Mar 13;32(1):19-26. Epub 2023 Nov 9 doi: 10.7748/nr.2023.e1888. PMID: 37941486
Fisher PW, Reyes-Portillo JA, Riddle MA, Litwin HD
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2022 Feb;61(2):159-186. Epub 2021 Apr 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2021.04.003. PMID: 33892110
San Martín A, Pagani MR
J Physiol Paris 2014 Sep-Dec;108(4-6):232-9. Epub 2014 May 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jphysparis.2014.05.003. PMID: 24859216Free PMC Article
Handler SM, Fierson WM, Section on Ophthalmology; Council on Children with Disabilities; American Academy of Ophthalmology; American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus; American Association of Certified Orthoptists
Pediatrics 2011 Mar;127(3):e818-56. Epub 2011 Feb 28 doi: 10.1542/peds.2010-3670. PMID: 21357342
Karande S, Kulkarni M
Indian J Pediatr 2005 Nov;72(11):961-7. doi: 10.1007/BF02731673. PMID: 16391452

Diagnosis

Fisher PW, Reyes-Portillo JA, Riddle MA, Litwin HD
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2022 Feb;61(2):159-186. Epub 2021 Apr 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2021.04.003. PMID: 33892110
Castaldi E, Piazza M, Iuculano T
Handb Clin Neurol 2020;174:61-75. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64148-9.00005-3. PMID: 32977896
McDowell M
J Paediatr Child Health 2018 Oct;54(10):1077-1083. doi: 10.1111/jpc.14168. PMID: 30294983
Vasudevan P, Suri M
Clin Med (Lond) 2017 Dec;17(6):558-561. doi: 10.7861/clinmedicine.17-6-558. PMID: 29196358Free PMC Article
Volden J
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:245-9. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00026-9. PMID: 23622171

Therapy

Straub L, Hernández-Díaz S, Bateman BT, Wisner KL, Gray KJ, Pennell PB, Lester B, McDougle CJ, Suarez EA, Zhu Y, Zakoul H, Mogun H, Huybrechts KF
JAMA Intern Med 2022 May 1;182(5):522-533. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.0375. PMID: 35343998Free PMC Article
Jameson E, Remmington T
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020 Jul 16;7(7):CD001304. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001304.pub3. PMID: 32672365Free PMC Article
Rugg-Gunn F, Miserocchi A, McEvoy A
Pract Neurol 2020 Feb;20(1):4-14. Epub 2019 Aug 16 doi: 10.1136/practneurol-2019-002192. PMID: 31420415
Moodliar S, Naguy A, AlKhadhari S
Am J Ther 2019 Oct 20;28(2):e258-e260. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000001082. PMID: 31651448
Kulkarni M
Indian J Pediatr 2015 Mar;82(3):267-71. Epub 2014 Sep 4 doi: 10.1007/s12098-014-1556-7. PMID: 25186567

Prognosis

Dawson G, Rieder AD, Johnson MH
Lancet Neurol 2023 Mar;22(3):244-254. Epub 2022 Nov 22 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00407-0. PMID: 36427512Free PMC Article
Santoro JD, Pagarkar D, Chu DT, Rosso M, Paulsen KC, Levitt P, Rafii MS
J Neurol 2021 Dec;268(12):4495-4509. Epub 2020 Sep 12 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10179-w. PMID: 32920658
Turner AM
J Paediatr Child Health 2014 Oct;50(10):E14-20. Epub 2011 Jul 19 doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1754.2010.01970.x. PMID: 21771153
Shalev RS
J Child Neurol 2004 Oct;19(10):765-71. doi: 10.1177/08830738040190100601. PMID: 15559892
Shalev RS, Gross-Tsur V
Pediatr Neurol 2001 May;24(5):337-42. doi: 10.1016/s0887-8994(00)00258-7. PMID: 11516606

Clinical prediction guides

Zapata MA, Worrell FC
J Learn Disabil 2024 Mar-Apr;57(2):79-90. Epub 2023 Jul 25 doi: 10.1177/00222194231186665. PMID: 37489284Free PMC Article
Perochon S, Di Martino JM, Carpenter KLH, Compton S, Davis N, Eichner B, Espinosa S, Franz L, Krishnappa Babu PR, Sapiro G, Dawson G
Nat Med 2023 Oct;29(10):2489-2497. Epub 2023 Oct 2 doi: 10.1038/s41591-023-02574-3. PMID: 37783967Free PMC Article
Putukian M, Riegler K, Amalfe S, Bruce J, Echemendia R
Clin J Sport Med 2021 Jan;31(1):15-22. doi: 10.1097/JSM.0000000000000705. PMID: 30540572
Hutaff-Lee C, Bennett E, Howell S, Tartaglia N
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2019 Mar;181(1):126-134. Epub 2019 Feb 14 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31687. PMID: 30767374Free PMC Article
Volden J
Handb Clin Neurol 2013;111:245-9. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52891-9.00026-9. PMID: 23622171

Recent systematic reviews

Jacobs P, Watchman K, Wilkinson H, Hoyle L, McGenily L
J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2023 Mar;36(2):241-258. Epub 2022 Dec 23 doi: 10.1111/jar.13063. PMID: 36562340Free PMC Article
O'Connor S, Yan Y, Thilo FJS, Felzmann H, Dowding D, Lee JJ
J Clin Nurs 2023 Jul;32(13-14):2951-2968. Epub 2022 Jul 31 doi: 10.1111/jocn.16478. PMID: 35908207
Fisher PW, Reyes-Portillo JA, Riddle MA, Litwin HD
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2022 Feb;61(2):159-186. Epub 2021 Apr 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2021.04.003. PMID: 33892110
Santoro JD, Pagarkar D, Chu DT, Rosso M, Paulsen KC, Levitt P, Rafii MS
J Neurol 2021 Dec;268(12):4495-4509. Epub 2020 Sep 12 doi: 10.1007/s00415-020-10179-w. PMID: 32920658
Simkiss DE, Blackburn CM, Mukoro FO, Read JM, Spencer NJ
BMC Pediatr 2011 Dec 21;11:119. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-119. PMID: 22188700Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...