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MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Arterioscleroses
SNOMED CT: Arteriosclerotic vascular disease (72092001); Vascular sclerosis (107671003); Arteriosclerosis (28960008)
HPO: HP:0002634


Sclerosis (hardening) of the arteries with increased thickness of the wall of arteries as well as increased stiffness and a loss of elasticity. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Congenital Abnormality
Schimke immunoosseous dysplasia (SIOD) is characterized by spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) resulting in short stature, nephropathy, and T-cell deficiency. Radiographic manifestations of SED include ovoid and mildly flattened vertebral bodies, small ilia with shallow dysplastic acetabular fossae, and small deformed capital femoral epiphyses. Nearly all affected individuals have progressive steroid-resistant nephropathy, usually developing within five years of the diagnosis of growth failure and terminating with end-stage renal disease. The majority of tested individuals have T-cell deficiency and an associated risk for opportunistic infection, a common cause of death. SIOD involves a spectrum that ranges from an infantile or severe early-onset form with a greater risk of death during childhood to a juvenile or milder later-onset form with likely survival into adulthood if renal disease is appropriately treated.
Arteriosclerosis, severe juvenile
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, forme fruste
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a systemic disorder that affects the elastic tissue of the skin, the eye, and vascular system. Individuals most commonly present with angioid streaks of the retina found on routine eye examination or associated with retinal hemorrhage and/or characteristic papules in the skin. The most frequent cause of morbidity and disability in PXE is reduced vision due to complications of subretinal neovascularizations and macular atrophy. Other manifestations include premature gastrointestinal angina and/or bleeding, intermittent claudication of arm and leg muscles, stroke, renovascular hypertension, and cardiovascular complications (angina/myocardial infarction). Most affected individuals live a normal life span.

Professional guidelines


Xiong J, Hu H, Guo R, Wang H, Jiang H
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021;12:646233. Epub 2021 Apr 29 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2021.646233. PMID: 33995278Free PMC Article
Tamura Y, Omura T, Toyoshima K, Araki A
Nutrients 2020 Nov 1;12(11) doi: 10.3390/nu12113367. PMID: 33139628Free PMC Article
Hofmann E, Behr R, Neumann-Haefelin T, Schwager K
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2013 Jun;110(26):451-8. Epub 2013 Jun 28 doi: 10.3238/arztebl.2013.0451. PMID: 23885280Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies


Wu Z, Wang J, Zhang H, Pan H, Li Z, Liu Y, Miao X, Han Z, Kang X, Li X, Guo X, Tao L, Wang W
BMC Med 2023 Feb 6;21(1):42. doi: 10.1186/s12916-023-02733-w. PMID: 36747220Free PMC Article
Mitchell GF, Powell JT
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 May;40(5):1025-1027. Epub 2020 Apr 22 doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314208. PMID: 32320295Free PMC Article
Libby P
Nature 2002 Dec 19-26;420(6917):868-74. doi: 10.1038/nature01323. PMID: 12490960
Lusis AJ
Nature 2000 Sep 14;407(6801):233-41. doi: 10.1038/35025203. PMID: 11001066Free PMC Article
Schettlerballot G
Eur J Med Res 1997 Jun 16;2(6):233-5. PMID: 9182650


Cai N, Li C, Gu X, Zeng W, Liu J, Zeng G, Zhong J, Zhu J, Hong H
BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2023 Jun 24;23(1):319. doi: 10.1186/s12872-023-03354-0. PMID: 37355582Free PMC Article
Liu H, Huang W, Liu J, Zhao N, Wang H
J Vasc Res 2022;59(3):189-198. Epub 2022 Mar 24 doi: 10.1159/000520744. PMID: 35325892
Fishbein MC, Fishbein GA
Cardiovasc Pathol 2015 Nov-Dec;24(6):335-42. Epub 2015 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2015.07.007. PMID: 26365806
Lusis AJ
Nature 2000 Sep 14;407(6801):233-41. doi: 10.1038/35025203. PMID: 11001066Free PMC Article
Circulation 1964 Oct;30:611-8. doi: 10.1161/01.cir.30.4.611. PMID: 14211824


Turan TN, Psychogios MN
Stroke 2023 Jan;54(1):286-289. Epub 2022 Nov 11 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.122.041096. PMID: 36367102
Dahal S, Budoff MJ
J Invasive Cardiol 2020 Apr;32(4):E83-E85. Epub 2020 Mar 31 PMID: 32234969
Kallmes DF, Do HM
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2007 Jun-Jul;28(6):997-8. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A0614. PMID: 17569943Free PMC Article
Ziouzenkova O, Perrey S, Marx N, Bacqueville D, Plutzky J
Curr Atheroscler Rep 2002 Jan;4(1):59-64. doi: 10.1007/s11883-002-0063-x. PMID: 11772424
Sullivan DR
J Cardiovasc Risk 1994 Oct;1(3):212-6. doi: 10.1177/174182679400100305. PMID: 7621300


Reimers CD, Knapp G, Reimers AK
Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009 Oct;106(44):715-21. Epub 2009 Oct 30 doi: 10.3238/arztbl.2009.0715. PMID: 19997550Free PMC Article
Elhadd TA, Abdu TA, Clayton R
Ann Med 2001 Oct;33(7):477-85. doi: 10.3109/07853890109002097. PMID: 11680796
Gaines PA
Vasc Med 1996;1(2):121-4. doi: 10.1177/1358863X9600100206. PMID: 9546925
Marrie TJ
Thorax 1993 Jan;48(1):1-4. doi: 10.1136/thx.48.1.1. PMID: 8434345Free PMC Article
Lääperi T, Pohjolainen T, Alaranta H, Kärkkäinen M
Ann Chir Gynaecol 1993;82(3):183-7. PMID: 8285573

Clinical prediction guides

Nishimiya K, Matsumoto Y, Shimokawa H
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 Dec;40(12):e313-e321. Epub 2020 Oct 15 doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.313609. PMID: 33054393
Chrysant SG
Hosp Pract (1995) 2020 Aug;48(3):113-118. Epub 2020 Apr 21 doi: 10.1080/21548331.2020.1752506. PMID: 32252568
Fishbein MC, Fishbein GA
Cardiovasc Pathol 2015 Nov-Dec;24(6):335-42. Epub 2015 Aug 5 doi: 10.1016/j.carpath.2015.07.007. PMID: 26365806
Laurent S, Cockcroft J, Van Bortel L, Boutouyrie P, Giannattasio C, Hayoz D, Pannier B, Vlachopoulos C, Wilkinson I, Struijker-Boudier H; European Network for Non-invasive Investigation of Large Arteries
Eur Heart J 2006 Nov;27(21):2588-605. Epub 2006 Sep 25 doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehl254. PMID: 17000623
Homma Y
J Atheroscler Thromb 2004;11(5):265-70. doi: 10.5551/jat.11.265. PMID: 15557708

Recent systematic reviews

Avvisato R, Jankauskas SS, Varzideh F, Kansakar U, Mone P, Santulli G
Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2023 Mar 1;32(2):134-140. Epub 2022 Dec 23 doi: 10.1097/MNH.0000000000000866. PMID: 36683537Free PMC Article
Kolmos M, Christoffersen L, Kruuse C
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Aug;30(8):105935. Epub 2021 Jun 18 doi: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105935. PMID: 34153594
Song JW, Pavlou A, Xiao J, Kasner SE, Fan Z, Messé SR
Stroke 2021 Jan;52(1):193-202. Epub 2020 Dec 2 doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031480. PMID: 33370193Free PMC Article
Carson JAS, Lichtenstein AH, Anderson CAM, Appel LJ, Kris-Etherton PM, Meyer KA, Petersen K, Polonsky T, Van Horn L; American Heart Association Nutrition Committee of the Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease; and Stroke Council
Circulation 2020 Jan 21;141(3):e39-e53. Epub 2019 Dec 16 doi: 10.1161/CIR.0000000000000743. PMID: 31838890
Wang CC, Cheng PN, Kao JH
Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 Jan;51(2):216-230. Epub 2019 Nov 20 doi: 10.1111/apt.15575. PMID: 31746482

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