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Intellectual disability, X-linked, with or without seizures, arx-related(XLID29)

MedGen UID:
208681
Concept ID:
C0796244
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER, X-LINKED 29; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 29; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 32; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 33; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 38; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 43; Mental retardation, X-linked 52; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 76; MENTAL RETARDATION, X-LINKED 87; XLID29
 
Gene (location): ARX (Xp21.3)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0010317
OMIM®: 300419

Definition

Intellectual developmental disorder-29 (XLID29) is a nonspecific form of XLID. It is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to Partington syndrome (309510) (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Urinary incontinence
MedGen UID:
22579
Concept ID:
C0042024
Finding
Loss of the ability to control the urinary bladder leading to involuntary urination.
Testicular dysgenesis
MedGen UID:
86232
Concept ID:
C0302885
Finding
Pes planus
MedGen UID:
42034
Concept ID:
C0016202
Anatomical Abnormality
A foot where the longitudinal arch of the foot is in contact with the ground or floor when the individual is standing; or, in a patient lying supine, a foot where the arch is in contact with the surface of a flat board pressed against the sole of the foot by the examiner with a pressure similar to that expected from weight bearing; or, the height of the arch is reduced.
Sensorineural hearing impairment
MedGen UID:
9164
Concept ID:
C0018784
Disease or Syndrome
A type of hearing impairment in one or both ears related to an abnormal functionality of the cochlear nerve.
Babinski sign
MedGen UID:
19708
Concept ID:
C0034935
Finding
Upturning of the big toe (and sometimes fanning of the other toes) in response to stimulation of the sole of the foot. If the Babinski sign is present it can indicate damage to the corticospinal tract.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterized by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Intellectual disability, severe
MedGen UID:
48638
Concept ID:
C0036857
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Severe mental retardation is defined as an intelligence quotient (IQ) in the range of 20-34.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Drooling
MedGen UID:
8484
Concept ID:
C0013132
Finding
Habitual flow of saliva out of the mouth.
Long palpebral fissure
MedGen UID:
340300
Concept ID:
C1849340
Finding
Distance between medial and lateral canthi is more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (objective); or, apparently increased length of the palpebral fissures.
Periorbital fullness
MedGen UID:
1710990
Concept ID:
C4760994
Finding
Increase in periorbital soft tissue.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Gujral J, Sethuram S
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2023 Feb 1;30(1):44-51. Epub 2022 Nov 14 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000782. PMID: 36373727
Turk BR, Theda C, Fatemi A, Moser AB
Int J Dev Neurosci 2020 Feb;80(1):52-72. Epub 2020 Jan 26 doi: 10.1002/jdn.10003. PMID: 31909500Free PMC Article
Engelen M, Kemp S, Poll-The BT
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2014 Oct;14(10):486. doi: 10.1007/s11910-014-0486-0. PMID: 25115486

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Cappa M, Todisco T, Bizzarri C
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2023;14:1309053. Epub 2023 Nov 16 doi: 10.3389/fendo.2023.1309053. PMID: 38034003Free PMC Article
Gupta AO, Raymond G, Pierpont EI, Kemp S, McIvor RS, Rayannavar A, Miller B, Lund TC, Orchard PJ
Expert Opin Biol Ther 2022 Sep;22(9):1151-1162. Epub 2022 Sep 19 doi: 10.1080/14712598.2022.2124857. PMID: 36107226
Zanni G, Bertini E
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;155:175-189. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-64189-2.00011-1. PMID: 29891057
Hu H, Haas SA, Chelly J, Van Esch H, Raynaud M, de Brouwer AP, Weinert S, Froyen G, Frints SG, Laumonnier F, Zemojtel T, Love MI, Richard H, Emde AK, Bienek M, Jensen C, Hambrock M, Fischer U, Langnick C, Feldkamp M, Wissink-Lindhout W, Lebrun N, Castelnau L, Rucci J, Montjean R, Dorseuil O, Billuart P, Stuhlmann T, Shaw M, Corbett MA, Gardner A, Willis-Owen S, Tan C, Friend KL, Belet S, van Roozendaal KE, Jimenez-Pocquet M, Moizard MP, Ronce N, Sun R, O'Keeffe S, Chenna R, van Bömmel A, Göke J, Hackett A, Field M, Christie L, Boyle J, Haan E, Nelson J, Turner G, Baynam G, Gillessen-Kaesbach G, Müller U, Steinberger D, Budny B, Badura-Stronka M, Latos-Bieleńska A, Ousager LB, Wieacker P, Rodríguez Criado G, Bondeson ML, Annerén G, Dufke A, Cohen M, Van Maldergem L, Vincent-Delorme C, Echenne B, Simon-Bouy B, Kleefstra T, Willemsen M, Fryns JP, Devriendt K, Ullmann R, Vingron M, Wrogemann K, Wienker TF, Tzschach A, van Bokhoven H, Gecz J, Jentsch TJ, Chen W, Ropers HH, Kalscheuer VM
Mol Psychiatry 2016 Jan;21(1):133-48. Epub 2015 Feb 3 doi: 10.1038/mp.2014.193. PMID: 25644381Free PMC Article
Grozeva D, Carss K, Spasic-Boskovic O, Tejada MI, Gecz J, Shaw M, Corbett M, Haan E, Thompson E, Friend K, Hussain Z, Hackett A, Field M, Renieri A, Stevenson R, Schwartz C, Floyd JA, Bentham J, Cosgrove C, Keavney B, Bhattacharya S; Italian X-linked Mental Retardation Project; UK10K Consortium; GOLD Consortium, Hurles M, Raymond FL
Hum Mutat 2015 Dec;36(12):1197-204. Epub 2015 Sep 30 doi: 10.1002/humu.22901. PMID: 26350204Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

D'Avanzo F, Rigon L, Zanetti A, Tomanin R
Int J Mol Sci 2020 Feb 13;21(4) doi: 10.3390/ijms21041258. PMID: 32070051Free PMC Article
Wu Y, Lyon GJ
Exp Mol Med 2018 Jul 27;50(7):1-10. doi: 10.1038/s12276-018-0098-x. PMID: 30054457Free PMC Article
Neri G, Schwartz CE, Lubs HA, Stevenson RE
Am J Med Genet A 2018 Jun;176(6):1375-1388. Epub 2018 Apr 25 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38710. PMID: 29696803Free PMC Article
Grozeva D, Carss K, Spasic-Boskovic O, Tejada MI, Gecz J, Shaw M, Corbett M, Haan E, Thompson E, Friend K, Hussain Z, Hackett A, Field M, Renieri A, Stevenson R, Schwartz C, Floyd JA, Bentham J, Cosgrove C, Keavney B, Bhattacharya S; Italian X-linked Mental Retardation Project; UK10K Consortium; GOLD Consortium, Hurles M, Raymond FL
Hum Mutat 2015 Dec;36(12):1197-204. Epub 2015 Sep 30 doi: 10.1002/humu.22901. PMID: 26350204Free PMC Article
de Ligt J, Willemsen MH, van Bon BW, Kleefstra T, Yntema HG, Kroes T, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Koolen DA, de Vries P, Gilissen C, del Rosario M, Hoischen A, Scheffer H, de Vries BB, Brunner HG, Veltman JA, Vissers LE
N Engl J Med 2012 Nov 15;367(20):1921-9. Epub 2012 Oct 3 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1206524. PMID: 23033978

Therapy

Qian J, Guan X, Xie B, Xu C, Niu J, Tang X, Li CH, Colecraft HM, Jaenisch R, Liu XS
Sci Transl Med 2023 Jan 18;15(679):eadd4666. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.add4666. PMID: 36652535
Pereira G, Dória S
J Genet 2021;100 PMID: 34553695
Zhu J, Eichler F, Biffi A, Duncan CN, Williams DA, Majzoub JA
Endocr Rev 2020 Aug 1;41(4):577-93. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa013. PMID: 32364223Free PMC Article
Kyle SM, Vashi N, Justice MJ
Open Biol 2018 Feb;8(2) doi: 10.1098/rsob.170216. PMID: 29445033Free PMC Article
Eichler F, Duncan C, Musolino PL, Orchard PJ, De Oliveira S, Thrasher AJ, Armant M, Dansereau C, Lund TC, Miller WP, Raymond GV, Sankar R, Shah AJ, Sevin C, Gaspar HB, Gissen P, Amartino H, Bratkovic D, Smith NJC, Paker AM, Shamir E, O'Meara T, Davidson D, Aubourg P, Williams DA
N Engl J Med 2017 Oct 26;377(17):1630-1638. Epub 2017 Oct 4 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1700554. PMID: 28976817Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Hiatt SM, Trajkova S, Sebastiano MR, Partridge EC, Abidi FE, Anderson A, Ansar M, Antonarakis SE, Azadi A, Bachmann-Gagescu R, Bartuli A, Benech C, Berkowitz JL, Betti MJ, Brusco A, Cannon A, Caron G, Chen Y, Cochran ME, Coleman TF, Crenshaw MM, Cuisset L, Curry CJ, Darvish H, Demirdas S, Descartes M, Douglas J, Dyment DA, Elloumi HZ, Ermondi G, Faoucher M, Farrow EG, Felker SA, Fisher H, Hurst ACE, Joset P, Kelly MA, Kmoch S, Leadem BR, Lyons MJ, Macchiaiolo M, Magner M, Mandrile G, Mattioli F, McEown M, Meadows SK, Medne L, Meeks NJL, Montgomery S, Napier MP, Natowicz M, Newberry KM, Niceta M, Noskova L, Nowak CB, Noyes AG, Osmond M, Prijoles EJ, Pugh J, Pullano V, Quélin C, Rahimi-Aliabadi S, Rauch A, Redon S, Reymond A, Schwager CR, Sellars EA, Scheuerle AE, Shukarova-Angelovska E, Skraban C, Stolerman E, Sullivan BR, Tartaglia M, Thiffault I, Uguen K, Umaña LA, van Bever Y, van der Crabben SN, van Slegtenhorst MA, Waisfisz Q, Washington C, Rodan LH, Myers RM, Cooper GM
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Feb 2;110(2):215-227. Epub 2022 Dec 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.12.007. PMID: 36586412Free PMC Article
Gujral J, Sethuram S
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2023 Feb 1;30(1):44-51. Epub 2022 Nov 14 doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000782. PMID: 36373727
Zhu J, Eichler F, Biffi A, Duncan CN, Williams DA, Majzoub JA
Endocr Rev 2020 Aug 1;41(4):577-93. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnaa013. PMID: 32364223Free PMC Article
de Ligt J, Willemsen MH, van Bon BW, Kleefstra T, Yntema HG, Kroes T, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Koolen DA, de Vries P, Gilissen C, del Rosario M, Hoischen A, Scheffer H, de Vries BB, Brunner HG, Veltman JA, Vissers LE
N Engl J Med 2012 Nov 15;367(20):1921-9. Epub 2012 Oct 3 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1206524. PMID: 23033978
Engelen M, Kemp S, de Visser M, van Geel BM, Wanders RJ, Aubourg P, Poll-The BT
Orphanet J Rare Dis 2012 Aug 13;7:51. doi: 10.1186/1750-1172-7-51. PMID: 22889154Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Vilvarajan S, McDonald M, Douglas L, Newham J, Kirkland R, Tzannes G, Tay D, Christodoulou J, Thompson S, Ellaway C
Genes (Basel) 2023 Aug 11;14(8) doi: 10.3390/genes14081607. PMID: 37628658Free PMC Article
Hiatt SM, Trajkova S, Sebastiano MR, Partridge EC, Abidi FE, Anderson A, Ansar M, Antonarakis SE, Azadi A, Bachmann-Gagescu R, Bartuli A, Benech C, Berkowitz JL, Betti MJ, Brusco A, Cannon A, Caron G, Chen Y, Cochran ME, Coleman TF, Crenshaw MM, Cuisset L, Curry CJ, Darvish H, Demirdas S, Descartes M, Douglas J, Dyment DA, Elloumi HZ, Ermondi G, Faoucher M, Farrow EG, Felker SA, Fisher H, Hurst ACE, Joset P, Kelly MA, Kmoch S, Leadem BR, Lyons MJ, Macchiaiolo M, Magner M, Mandrile G, Mattioli F, McEown M, Meadows SK, Medne L, Meeks NJL, Montgomery S, Napier MP, Natowicz M, Newberry KM, Niceta M, Noskova L, Nowak CB, Noyes AG, Osmond M, Prijoles EJ, Pugh J, Pullano V, Quélin C, Rahimi-Aliabadi S, Rauch A, Redon S, Reymond A, Schwager CR, Sellars EA, Scheuerle AE, Shukarova-Angelovska E, Skraban C, Stolerman E, Sullivan BR, Tartaglia M, Thiffault I, Uguen K, Umaña LA, van Bever Y, van der Crabben SN, van Slegtenhorst MA, Waisfisz Q, Washington C, Rodan LH, Myers RM, Cooper GM
Am J Hum Genet 2023 Feb 2;110(2):215-227. Epub 2022 Dec 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2022.12.007. PMID: 36586412Free PMC Article
Sandweiss AJ, Brandt VL, Zoghbi HY
Lancet Neurol 2020 Aug;19(8):689-698. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(20)30217-9. PMID: 32702338
Moortgat S, Berland S, Aukrust I, Maystadt I, Baker L, Benoit V, Caro-Llopis A, Cooper NS, Debray FG, Faivre L, Gardeitchik T, Haukanes BI, Houge G, Kivuva E, Martinez F, Mehta SG, Nassogne MC, Powell-Hamilton N, Pfundt R, Rosello M, Prescott T, Vasudevan P, van Loon B, Verellen-Dumoulin C, Verloes A, Lippe CV, Wakeling E, Wilkie AOM, Wilson L, Yuen A, Study D, Low KJ, Newbury-Ecob RA
Eur J Hum Genet 2018 Jan;26(1):64-74. Epub 2017 Nov 27 doi: 10.1038/s41431-017-0038-6. PMID: 29180823Free PMC Article
de Ligt J, Willemsen MH, van Bon BW, Kleefstra T, Yntema HG, Kroes T, Vulto-van Silfhout AT, Koolen DA, de Vries P, Gilissen C, del Rosario M, Hoischen A, Scheffer H, de Vries BB, Brunner HG, Veltman JA, Vissers LE
N Engl J Med 2012 Nov 15;367(20):1921-9. Epub 2012 Oct 3 doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1206524. PMID: 23033978

Recent systematic reviews

De Feyter S, Beyens A, Callewaert B
J Inherit Metab Dis 2023 Mar;46(2):163-173. Epub 2023 Feb 3 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12590. PMID: 36692329
Inuzuka LM, Guerra-Peixe M, Macedo-Souza LI, Pedreira CC, Gurgel-Giannetti J, Monteiro FP, Ramos L, Costa LA, Crippa ACS, Lourenco CM, Pachito DV, Sukys-Claudino L, Gaspar LS, Antoniuk SA, Dutra LPS, Diniz SSL, Pires RB, Garzon E, Kok F
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2021 Sep;34:7-13. Epub 2021 Jun 21 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2021.05.013. PMID: 34271245
Mahdi SS, Jafri HA, Allana R, Amenta F, Khawaja M, Qasim SSB
Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jan 28;18(3) doi: 10.3390/ijerph18031162. PMID: 33525609Free PMC Article
Vairo FPE, Chwal BC, Perini S, Ferreira MAP, de Freitas Lopes AC, Saute JAM
Mol Genet Metab 2019 Jan;126(1):6-13. Epub 2018 Dec 11 doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2018.12.005. PMID: 30594472
Rejeb I, Ben Jemaa L, Chaabouni H
Tunis Med 2009 May;87(5):311-8. PMID: 19927760

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