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Human African trypanosomiasis

MedGen UID:
21714
Concept ID:
C0041228
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: African Sleeping Sickness; African Sleeping Sicknesses; African Trypanosomiases; African Trypanosomiasis; Sickness, African Sleeping; Sicknesses, African Sleeping; Sleeping Sickness, African; Sleeping Sicknesses, African; Trypanosomiases, African; Trypanosomiasis, African
SNOMED CT: African trypanosomiasis (27031003); African sleeping sickness (27031003); Sleeping sickness (27031003)
Modes of inheritance:
Not genetically inherited
MedGen UID:
988794
Concept ID:
CN307044
Finding
Source: Orphanet
clinical entity without genetic inheritance.
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005459
Orphanet: ORPHA3385

Definition

A rare vector-borne parasitic disease caused by a protozoa of the <i>Trypanosoma</i> genus transmitted by the bite of a tsetse fly (genus <i>Glossina</i>), that is found under its chronic form (average duration of 3 years) in western and central Africa (in case of the <i>T. brucei gambiense</i> sub-species), and under its acute form (lasting from few weeks to 6 months) in eastern and southern Africa (in case of the <i>T. brucei rhodesiense</i> sub-species). HAT comprises an initial hemo-lymphatic stage characterized by fever, weakness, musculoskeletal pain, anemia, and lymphadenopathy, along with dermatologic, cardiac and endocrine complications or hepatosplenomegaly, followed by a meningo-encephalitic stage characterized by neurologic involvement (sleep disturbances, psychiatric disorders, seizures) that progresses, in the absence of treatment, towards a fatal meningoencephalitis. [from ORDO]

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Fairlamb AH
Drugs Today (Barc) 2019 Nov;55(11):705-712. doi: 10.1358/dot.2019.55.11.3068795. PMID: 31840685
Jones AJ, Avery VM
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2015;13(12):1429-32. Epub 2015 Sep 28 doi: 10.1586/14787210.2015.1094374. PMID: 26414688
Keating J, Yukich JO, Sutherland CS, Woods G, Tediosi F
Acta Trop 2015 Oct;150:4-13. Epub 2015 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.06.003. PMID: 26056739

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Carrillo AK, Kadayat TM, Hwang JY, Chen Y, Zhu F, Holbrook G, Gillingwater K, Connelly MC, Yang L, Kaiser M, Guy RK
J Med Chem 2024 Mar 14;67(5):3437-3447. Epub 2024 Feb 16 doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.3c01680. PMID: 38363074
Rao SPS, Gould MK, Noeske J, Saldivia M, Jumani RS, Ng PS, René O, Chen YL, Kaiser M, Ritchie R, Francisco AF, Johnson N, Patra D, Cheung H, Deniston C, Schenk AD, Cortopassi WA, Schmidt RS, Wiedemar N, Thomas B, Palkar R, Ghafar NA, Manoharan V, Luu C, Gable JE, Wan KF, Myburgh E, Mottram JC, Barnes W, Walker J, Wartchow C, Aziz N, Osborne C, Wagner J, Sarko C, Kelly JM, Manjunatha UH, Mäser P, Jiricek J, Lakshminarayana SB, Barrett MP, Diagana TT
Science 2023 Jun 30;380(6652):1349-1356. Epub 2023 Jun 29 doi: 10.1126/science.adh0614. PMID: 37384702
Fairlamb AH, Horn D
Trends Parasitol 2018 Jun;34(6):481-492. Epub 2018 Apr 25 doi: 10.1016/j.pt.2018.04.002. PMID: 29705579
Büscher P, Cecchi G, Jamonneau V, Priotto G
Lancet 2017 Nov 25;390(10110):2397-2409. Epub 2017 Jun 30 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31510-6. PMID: 28673422
Barrett MP, Burchmore RJ, Stich A, Lazzari JO, Frasch AC, Cazzulo JJ, Krishna S
Lancet 2003 Nov 1;362(9394):1469-80. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14694-6. PMID: 14602444

Diagnosis

Reis J, Spencer PS, Román GC, Buguet A
J Neurol Sci 2021 Feb 15;421:117287. Epub 2020 Dec 19 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2020.117287. PMID: 33445007
Ortiz HIA, Farina JM, Saldarriaga C, Mendoza I, Sosa Liprandi A, Wyss F, Burgos LM, Alexander B, Baranchuk A
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2020 Dec;18(12):859-865. Epub 2020 Oct 14 doi: 10.1080/14779072.2020.1828066. PMID: 32967478
Bottieau E, Clerinx J
Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):61-77. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.003. PMID: 30712768
Büscher P, Cecchi G, Jamonneau V, Priotto G
Lancet 2017 Nov 25;390(10110):2397-2409. Epub 2017 Jun 30 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31510-6. PMID: 28673422
Barrett MP, Burchmore RJ, Stich A, Lazzari JO, Frasch AC, Cazzulo JJ, Krishna S
Lancet 2003 Nov 1;362(9394):1469-80. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14694-6. PMID: 14602444

Therapy

Carrillo AK, Kadayat TM, Hwang JY, Chen Y, Zhu F, Holbrook G, Gillingwater K, Connelly MC, Yang L, Kaiser M, Guy RK
J Med Chem 2024 Mar 14;67(5):3437-3447. Epub 2024 Feb 16 doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.3c01680. PMID: 38363074
Rao SPS, Gould MK, Noeske J, Saldivia M, Jumani RS, Ng PS, René O, Chen YL, Kaiser M, Ritchie R, Francisco AF, Johnson N, Patra D, Cheung H, Deniston C, Schenk AD, Cortopassi WA, Schmidt RS, Wiedemar N, Thomas B, Palkar R, Ghafar NA, Manoharan V, Luu C, Gable JE, Wan KF, Myburgh E, Mottram JC, Barnes W, Walker J, Wartchow C, Aziz N, Osborne C, Wagner J, Sarko C, Kelly JM, Manjunatha UH, Mäser P, Jiricek J, Lakshminarayana SB, Barrett MP, Diagana TT
Science 2023 Jun 30;380(6652):1349-1356. Epub 2023 Jun 29 doi: 10.1126/science.adh0614. PMID: 37384702
Wiedemar N, Hauser DA, Mäser P
Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 Feb 21;64(3) doi: 10.1128/AAC.01168-19. PMID: 31844000Free PMC Article
Bottieau E, Clerinx J
Infect Dis Clin North Am 2019 Mar;33(1):61-77. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2018.10.003. PMID: 30712768
Kappagoda S, Singh U, Blackburn BG
Mayo Clin Proc 2011 Jun;86(6):561-83. doi: 10.4065/mcp.2011.0203. PMID: 21628620Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Franco JR, Cecchi G, Priotto G, Paone M, Kadima Ebeja A, Simarro PP, Diarra A, Sankara D, Zhao W, Dagne DA
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2022 Nov;16(11):e0010885. Epub 2022 Nov 7 doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0010885. PMID: 36342910Free PMC Article
Kennedy PGE, Rodgers J
Front Immunol 2019;10:39. Epub 2019 Jan 25 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00039. PMID: 30740102Free PMC Article
Schmidt RS, Macêdo JP, Steinmann ME, Salgado AG, Bütikofer P, Sigel E, Rentsch D, Mäser P
FEBS J 2018 Mar;285(6):1012-1023. Epub 2017 Nov 13 doi: 10.1111/febs.14302. PMID: 29063677
Büscher P, Cecchi G, Jamonneau V, Priotto G
Lancet 2017 Nov 25;390(10110):2397-2409. Epub 2017 Jun 30 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31510-6. PMID: 28673422
Brun R, Blum J, Chappuis F, Burri C
Lancet 2010 Jan 9;375(9709):148-59. Epub 2009 Oct 14 doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60829-1. PMID: 19833383

Clinical prediction guides

Mudji J, Künzli E, Molyneux D, Blum J
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2021 Aug 2;115(8):932-936. doi: 10.1093/trstmh/trab082. PMID: 34051702
Fairlamb AH
Drugs Today (Barc) 2019 Nov;55(11):705-712. doi: 10.1358/dot.2019.55.11.3068795. PMID: 31840685
Sabbagh A, Sonon P, Sadissou I, Mendes-Junior CT, Garcia A, Donadi EA, Courtin D
HLA 2018 Apr;91(4):255-270. Epub 2018 Jan 25 doi: 10.1111/tan.13196. PMID: 29368453
Schmidt RS, Macêdo JP, Steinmann ME, Salgado AG, Bütikofer P, Sigel E, Rentsch D, Mäser P
FEBS J 2018 Mar;285(6):1012-1023. Epub 2017 Nov 13 doi: 10.1111/febs.14302. PMID: 29063677
Rock KS, Stone CM, Hastings IM, Keeling MJ, Torr SJ, Chitnis N
Adv Parasitol 2015 Mar;87:53-133. Epub 2015 Feb 11 doi: 10.1016/bs.apar.2014.12.003. PMID: 25765194

Recent systematic reviews

Lutje V, Probyn K, Seixas J, Bergman H, Villanueva G
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Dec 9;12(12):CD015374. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD015374. PMID: 34882307Free PMC Article
Ortiz HIA, Farina JM, Saldarriaga C, Mendoza I, Sosa Liprandi A, Wyss F, Burgos LM, Alexander B, Baranchuk A
Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2020 Dec;18(12):859-865. Epub 2020 Oct 14 doi: 10.1080/14779072.2020.1828066. PMID: 32967478
Keating J, Yukich JO, Sutherland CS, Woods G, Tediosi F
Acta Trop 2015 Oct;150:4-13. Epub 2015 Jun 6 doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.06.003. PMID: 26056739
Lutje V, Seixas J, Kennedy A
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Jun 28;2013(6):CD006201. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006201.pub3. PMID: 23807762Free PMC Article
Mitashi P, Hasker E, Lejon V, Kande V, Muyembe JJ, Lutumba P, Boelaert M
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012;6(11):e1919. Epub 2012 Nov 29 doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001919. PMID: 23209860Free PMC Article

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