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Carcinoid tumor

MedGen UID:
2838
Concept ID:
C0007095
Neoplastic Process
Synonym: Carcinoid tumor (disease)
SNOMED CT: Carcinoid tumor (443492008); Carcinoid tumor (189607006); Carcinoid tumor - morphology (189607006)
 
HPO: HP:0100570
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005369

Definition

A tumor formed from the endocrine (argentaffin) cells of the mucosal lining of a variety of organs including the stomach and intestine. These cells are from neuroectodermal origin. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVCarcinoid tumor

Conditions with this feature

Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1
MedGen UID:
9957
Concept ID:
C0025267
Neoplastic Process
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) includes varying combinations of more than 20 endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Endocrine tumors become evident either by overproduction of hormones by the tumor or by growth of the tumor itself. Parathyroid tumors are the most common MEN1-associated endocrinopathy; onset in 90% of individuals is between ages 20 and 25 years with hypercalcemia evident by age 50 years; hypercalcemia causes lethargy, depression, confusion, anorexia, constipation, nausea, vomiting, diuresis, dehydration, hypercalciuria, kidney stones, increased bone resorption/fracture risk, hypertension, and shortened QT interval. Pituitary tumors include prolactinoma (the most common), which manifests as oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and galactorrhea in females and sexual dysfunction in males. Well-differentiated endocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract can manifest as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma); hypoglycemia (insulinoma); hyperglycemia, anorexia, glossitis, anemia, diarrhea, venous thrombosis, and skin rash (glucagonoma); and watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria syndrome (vasoactive intestinal peptide [VIP]-secreting tumor). Carcinoid tumors are non-hormone-secreting and can manifest as a large mass after age 50 years. Adrenocortical tumors can be associated with primary hypercortisolism or hyperaldosteronism. Non-endocrine tumors include facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, lipomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, and leiomyomas.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4
MedGen UID:
373469
Concept ID:
C1970712
Neoplastic Process
Multiple endocrine neoplasia is a group of disorders that affect the body's network of hormone-producing glands called the endocrine system. Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream and regulate the function of cells and tissues throughout the body. Multiple endocrine neoplasia typically involves tumors (neoplasia) in at least two endocrine glands; tumors can also develop in other organs and tissues. These growths can be noncancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant). If the tumors become cancerous, the condition can be life-threatening.\n\nMultiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 appears to have signs and symptoms similar to those of type 1, although it is caused by mutations in a different gene. Hyperparathyroidism is the most common feature, followed by tumors of the pituitary gland, additional endocrine glands, and other organs.\n\nThe major forms of multiple endocrine neoplasia are called type 1, type 2, and type 4. These types are distinguished by the genes involved, the types of hormones made, and the characteristic signs and symptoms.\n\nMany different types of tumors are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia. Type 1 frequently involves tumors of the parathyroid glands, the pituitary gland, and the pancreas. Tumors in these glands can lead to the overproduction of hormones. The most common sign of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 is overactivity of the parathyroid glands (hyperparathyroidism). Hyperparathyroidism disrupts the normal balance of calcium in the blood, which can lead to kidney stones, thinning of bones, nausea and vomiting, high blood pressure (hypertension), weakness, and fatigue.\n\nThe most common sign of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is a form of thyroid cancer called medullary thyroid carcinoma. Some people with this disorder also develop a pheochromocytoma, which is an adrenal gland tumor that can cause dangerously high blood pressure. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 is divided into three subtypes: type 2A, type 2B (formerly called type 3), and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). These subtypes differ in their characteristic signs and symptoms and risk of specific tumors; for example, hyperparathyroidism occurs only in type 2A, and medullary thyroid carcinoma is the only feature of FMTC. The signs and symptoms of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 are relatively consistent within any one family.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

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Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Collins ML, Okusanya O
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Diagnosis

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Therapy

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Prognosis

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Clinical prediction guides

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Recent systematic reviews

Villaescusa M, Andres MP, Amaral AC, Barbosa RN, Abrão MS
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