U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Refractory anemia

MedGen UID:
286
Concept ID:
C0002893
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Anemia, Refractory; Anemias, Refractory; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemias
SNOMED CT: Refractory anemia (128845005)
 
HPO: HP:0005505

Definition

A myelodysplastic syndrome characterized mainly by dysplasia of the erythroid series. Refractory anemia is uncommon. It is primarily a disease of older adults. The median survival exceeds 5 years. (WHO, 2001) [from NCI]

Conditions with this feature

Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
344739
Concept ID:
C1856465
Congenital Abnormality
Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia (GHDD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by increased bone density with predominant diaphyseal involvement and aregenerative corticosteroid-sensitive anemia (summary by Genevieve et al., 2008).
DDX41-related hematologic malignancy predisposition syndrome
MedGen UID:
895780
Concept ID:
C4225174
Finding
DDX41-associated familial myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (MDS/AML) is characterized by an increased risk of myeloid neoplasms, lymphoid neoplasms, adult-onset single- or multiple-lineage cytopenias (including aplastic anemia), and red blood cell macrocytosis. The most common myeloid neoplasms include MDS, AML, and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and myeloproliferative neoplasms are less common. Lymphoid neoplasms include non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Peng M, Guo X, Yi F, Romeiro FG, Mancuso A, Qi X
Adv Ther 2021 Oct;38(10):5065-5077. Epub 2021 Sep 15 doi: 10.1007/s12325-021-01912-6. PMID: 34524644
Seidel MG
Blood 2014 Oct 9;124(15):2337-44. Epub 2014 Aug 27 doi: 10.1182/blood-2014-06-583260. PMID: 25163701Free PMC Article
Gisbert JP, Gomollón F
Am J Gastroenterol 2008 May;103(5):1299-307. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2008.01846.x. PMID: 18477354

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Peng M, Guo X, Yi F, Romeiro FG, Mancuso A, Qi X
Adv Ther 2021 Oct;38(10):5065-5077. Epub 2021 Sep 15 doi: 10.1007/s12325-021-01912-6. PMID: 34524644
Smith BN, Savona M, Komrokji RS
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 Jan;19(1):1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 23 doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2018.11.019. PMID: 30555034Free PMC Article
Szczepanek-Parulska E, Hernik A, Ruchała M
Pol Arch Intern Med 2017 May 31;127(5):352-360. Epub 2017 Mar 28 doi: 10.20452/pamw.3985. PMID: 28400547
Patnaik MM, Tefferi A
Am J Hematol 2015 Jun;90(6):549-59. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24038. PMID: 25899435
Sultan C, Imbert M, Jouault H, Scoazec JY
Acta Haematol 1987;78 Suppl 1:91-3. doi: 10.1159/000205910. PMID: 3124454

Diagnosis

Smith BN, Savona M, Komrokji RS
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2019 Jan;19(1):1-8. Epub 2018 Nov 23 doi: 10.1016/j.clml.2018.11.019. PMID: 30555034Free PMC Article
Szczepanek-Parulska E, Hernik A, Ruchała M
Pol Arch Intern Med 2017 May 31;127(5):352-360. Epub 2017 Mar 28 doi: 10.20452/pamw.3985. PMID: 28400547
Patnaik MM, Tefferi A
Am J Hematol 2015 Jun;90(6):549-59. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24038. PMID: 25899435
Cazzola M, Malcovati L, Invernizzi R
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2011;2011:264-72. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2011.1.264. PMID: 22160044
Sultan C, Imbert M, Jouault H, Scoazec JY
Acta Haematol 1987;78 Suppl 1:91-3. doi: 10.1159/000205910. PMID: 3124454

Therapy

Xuan L, Dai M, Jiang E, Wang Y, Huang F, Fan Z, Xu N, Nie D, Liang X, Chen H, Ye J, Shi P, Liu H, Jin H, Lin R, Yan C, Zhang Y, Sun J, Han M, Liu Q
Lancet Haematol 2023 Mar;10(3):e178-e190. Epub 2023 Jan 23 doi: 10.1016/S2352-3026(22)00375-1. PMID: 36702138
Chen BY, Song J, Hu CL, Chen SB, Zhang Q, Xu CH, Wu JC, Hou D, Sun M, Zhang YL, Liu N, Yu PC, Liu P, Zong LJ, Zhang JY, Dai RF, Lan F, Huang QH, Zhang SJ, Nimer SD, Chen Z, Chen SJ, Sun XJ, Wang L
Blood 2020 Jun 18;135(25):2271-2285. doi: 10.1182/blood.2019001963. PMID: 32202636Free PMC Article
Patnaik MM, Tefferi A
Am J Hematol 2015 Jun;90(6):549-59. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24038. PMID: 25899435
Finberg KE
Semin Hematol 2009 Oct;46(4):378-86. doi: 10.1053/j.seminhematol.2009.06.006. PMID: 19786206
Saba HI
Leuk Res 1996 Mar;20(3):203-19. doi: 10.1016/0145-2126(95)00131-x. PMID: 8637215

Prognosis

Chen BY, Song J, Hu CL, Chen SB, Zhang Q, Xu CH, Wu JC, Hou D, Sun M, Zhang YL, Liu N, Yu PC, Liu P, Zong LJ, Zhang JY, Dai RF, Lan F, Huang QH, Zhang SJ, Nimer SD, Chen Z, Chen SJ, Sun XJ, Wang L
Blood 2020 Jun 18;135(25):2271-2285. doi: 10.1182/blood.2019001963. PMID: 32202636Free PMC Article
Patnaik MM, Tefferi A
Am J Hematol 2017 Mar;92(3):297-310. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24637. PMID: 28188970Free PMC Article
Malcovati L, Cazzola M
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 2013 Dec;26(4):377-85. Epub 2013 Oct 1 doi: 10.1016/j.beha.2013.09.005. PMID: 24507814
Cazzola M, Malcovati L, Invernizzi R
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2011;2011:264-72. doi: 10.1182/asheducation-2011.1.264. PMID: 22160044
Nand S, Godwin JE
Cancer 1988 Sep 1;62(5):958-64. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19880901)62:5<958::aid-cncr2820620519>3.0.co;2-p. PMID: 3409176

Clinical prediction guides

Chen BY, Song J, Hu CL, Chen SB, Zhang Q, Xu CH, Wu JC, Hou D, Sun M, Zhang YL, Liu N, Yu PC, Liu P, Zong LJ, Zhang JY, Dai RF, Lan F, Huang QH, Zhang SJ, Nimer SD, Chen Z, Chen SJ, Sun XJ, Wang L
Blood 2020 Jun 18;135(25):2271-2285. doi: 10.1182/blood.2019001963. PMID: 32202636Free PMC Article
Yoshimi A, Abdel-Wahab O
Int J Hematol 2017 Jun;105(6):720-731. Epub 2017 May 2 doi: 10.1007/s12185-017-2242-0. PMID: 28466384
Patnaik MM, Tefferi A
Am J Hematol 2017 Mar;92(3):297-310. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24637. PMID: 28188970Free PMC Article
Patnaik MM, Tefferi A
Am J Hematol 2015 Jun;90(6):549-59. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24038. PMID: 25899435
Malcovati L, Della Porta MG, Pietra D, Boveri E, Pellagatti A, Gallì A, Travaglino E, Brisci A, Rumi E, Passamonti F, Invernizzi R, Cremonesi L, Boultwood J, Wainscoat JS, Hellström-Lindberg E, Cazzola M
Blood 2009 Oct 22;114(17):3538-45. Epub 2009 Aug 19 doi: 10.1182/blood-2009-05-222331. PMID: 19692701

Recent systematic reviews

Gu Y, Estcourt LJ, Doree C, Hopewell S, Vyas P
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 Oct 5;2015(10):CD011577. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011577.pub2. PMID: 26436602Free PMC Article
Kakaletsis N, Kaiafa G, Savopoulos C, Iliadis F, Perifanis V, Tzalokostas V, Grekou A, Giannouli A, Hatzitolios AI
Acta Haematol 2014;132(2):220-5. doi: 10.1159/000357933. PMID: 24714374
Moyo V, Lefebvre P, Duh MS, Yektashenas B, Mundle S
Ann Hematol 2008 Jul;87(7):527-36. Epub 2008 Mar 20 doi: 10.1007/s00277-008-0450-7. PMID: 18351340

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Consumer resources

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...